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AUG17 197Z 



BR 60 .L52 V.30 
Augustine , 

Expositions on the Book of 
Psalms 



A 



^X 



/'/ 



AUGli ;. 



LIBRARY OF FATHERS 



HOLY CATHOLIC CHURCH 



ANTERIOR TO THE DIVISION OF THE EAST AND WEST 



TRANSLATED BY MEMBERS OF THE ENGLISH CHURCH. 




YKT SHALL NOT THY TEACHERS BE RKMO\'ED INTO A CORNER ANY .MORE, HC I 
THINE EYES SHALL SEE THY TEACHERS. /lafaA XXX 20. 



OXFORD, 

JOHN HENRY PARKER ; 

F. AND J. mVlNGTON, LONDON. 

MDCCCXLLX. 



TO THE MEMORY 

OF THE 

MOST REVEREND FATHER IN GOD 

WILLIAM 

LORD ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY, 

PRIMATE OF ALL ENGLAND, 
FORMERLY REGIUS PROFESSOR OF DIVLXITY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORP, 

THIS LIBRARY 

OF 

ANCIKNT BISHOPS, FATHERS, DOCTORS, MARTYRS, CONFESSORS, 

OF Christ's holy catholic church, 

UNDERTAKEN AMID HIS ENCOURAGEMENT, 

AND 

CARRIED ON FOR TWELVE YEARS UNDER HIS SANCTION, 

UNTIL HIS DEPARTURE HENCE IN PEACE, 

IS 

GRATEFULLY AND REVERENTLY 

INSCRIBED. 



EXPOSITIONS 



THE BOOK OF PSALMS, 



S. AUGUSTINE, 

BISHOP OF HIPPO, 



TRANSLATED, 



WITH NOTES AND INDICES. 



IN SIX VOLUMES. 



VOL. III. 

PSALM LIU.— L XXV. 



OXFORD, 

JOHN HENRY PARKER ; 

F. AND J. RIVINGTON, LONDON. 

1849. 



BAXTER, PMNTEK, OXFOED. 



The present Volume carries the Work down to the end of 
Ps. LXXV, completing half the number of the Psalms. The 
whole of it, as well as a few Psalms at the end of the former 
and the beginning of the following volume, is translated by 
T. ScRATTON, Esq. M.A. of Ch. Ch. Oxford. A considerable 
portion of the Discourses on the remaining Psalms has been 
already translated, and it is hoped that the whole may be 
brought out at intervals not much exceeding half a year for 
each volume. 

C. M. 

Eve of St. John Baptist, 




ST. AUGUSTINE 



ON 



THE PSALMS. 



PSALM LIU. 



Lat. 
LII. 



EXPOSITION^'. 



Of tliis Psalm we undertake to treat with you, as far as 
the Lord supplieth us. A brother biddeth us"" that we may 
have the will, and prayeth that we may have the power. If 
any thing in haste perchance I shall have passed over, lie 
will supply it in you, that even to us deigneth to give what 
we shall be enabled to say. The title of it is : At the 
end, for Maeleth, understanding to David himself. For 
Maelelh, as we find in interpretations of Hebrew names, 
seemeth to say, For one travailing, or in pain. But who 
there is in this world that travaileth and is in pain, the 
faithful acknowledge, because thereof they are. Christ here 
travaileth, Christ here is in pain : the Head is above, the 
members below. For one not travailing nor in pain would 
not say, Saul, Saul, tvhy persecutest thou Me? Him, with Acts 9 
whom when persecuting He was travailing, being converted,^* 
He made to travail. For he also was himself afterwards 

■ Sermon preaclieil to the people at '' al. ' Bid us, brethren.. pray for 

the request of some one, perhaps of a us.' 
Bisliop. Ben. 

VOL. III. B 



2 The Body of Clirist in travail among sinners. 

Psalm enli<r]ilcncd, and 'nafted on those members which he used to 

Q— J— T^ jKMsecute ; being [ircgnant with the same love, lie said, My 

19. liltlo cJiildrcn, of whom agaiu I travail, until Christ he 
formed in you. For the members therefore of Christ, for 

Col. 1, His Body which is the Church, for that same One Man, 
that is, for that very unity, whereof the Head is above, this 
Psalm is snug. But this man groancth and travailcth and is 
in pain. Wherefore, or amid whom, except that he hath 

Mat.24,i.eceived and learned from His Head, Who saith, Iniquity 
shall abound, and the love of many shall /ra.r cold? But if 
iniquity shall abound, and the love of many shall wax cold, 

ib. 13. who shall remain to travail ? It followeth, He that shall 
hare persevered t/nto the end, the same shall be snred. How 
would it be a great thing to persevere, unless amid molestations, 
and temptatioiis, and distractions, and scandals, men had to 
persevere ? For no one is bid to endure good things. But 
forasmuch as for such an one it is said, and forasmuch as for 
such an one it is simg, let us see what it is. For his sake 
are rebuked here the men, amid whom he groaneth, amid 
whom he is in pain, and the consolation of one in pain and 
travail at the end of the Psalm is drawn forth and expressed. 
Who are they, then, amid whom we travail and groan, if in 
the Body of Christ we are, if under Him, the Head, we live, 
if amongst His members we are counted ? Who they ai"e, 
hear ye, 

2, Ver. 1. The unuise man hath said in his heart, There 
is no God, Such sort is it of men, amid whom is pained and 
groaneth the Body of Christ. If such is this sort of men, of 
not many do we travail ; as far as seemeth to occur to our 
thoughts, very few there are ; and a difficult thing it is to 

Ps. 14,1. meet with a man that saith in his heart. There is no God; 
nevertheless, so few there are, that, fearing amid the many to 
say this, in their heart they say it, for that with mouth to say 
it they dare not. Not much then is that which we are bid 
to endure, hardly is it found : unconnnou is that sort of men 
that say in their heart. There is no God. But, if it be 
examined in another sense, is not that found to be in more 
men, which we supposed to be in men lew and uncommon, 
and almost in none ? Let them come forth into the midst 
tint li\ evil lives, let us look into the doings of profligate, 



They deny God, nho think evil pleases Him. 3 

daring, and wicked men, of wlioin there is a great multitude ; Ver. 

who foster day by day their sins, who, their acts having been '- — 

changed into habit, have even lost sense of shame : this is 
so great a multitude of men, that the Body of Christ, set 
amid them, scarce dareth to censure that which it is not 
constrained to commit, and deemeth it a great matter for 
itself that the integrity of innocence be preserved in not 
doing that which now, by habit, either it doth not dare to 
blame, or if it" shall have dared, more readily there breaketh 
out the censure and recrimination of them that live evil 
lives, than the free voice of them that live good lives. And 
those men are such as say in their heart. There is no God. 
Such men I am confuting. Whence confuting? That their 
doings please God, they judge. He doth not therefore 
affirm, ' Some say,' but, ' The unwise man hath said in his 
heart. There is no God.'' Which men do so far believe there 
is a God, that the same God they judge with what they do 
to be pleased. But if thou being wise dost perceive, how 
the unwise man hath said in his heart, Tliei-e is no God, if 
thou give heed, if thou understand, if thou examine ; he that 
thinketh that evil doings please God, Him he doth not think 
to be God. For if God is, just He is; if just He is, in- 
justice displeaseth Him, iniquity displeaseth. But thou, 
when thou thinkest that iniquity pleaseth Him, dost deny 
God. For if God is one Whom iniquity displeaseth, but to 
thee God seemeth not to be one Whom iniquity displeaseth, 
and there is no God but one Whom iniquity displeaseth, 
when thou sayest in thy heart, God doth countenance my 
iniquities, nothing else thou sayest than, There is no God. 

3. Let us advert also to that sense, which concerning 
Christ our Lord Himself, our Head Himself, doth present 
itself. For when Himself in form of a servant appeared on Phil. 2, 
earth, they that crucified Him said. He is not God. Because ' 
Son of God He was, truly God He was. But they that are 
corrupted and have become abominable said what ? He is not Wisd.2, 
God : let us slay Him, He is not God. Thou hast the voice •^— ^o- 
of these very men in the hook of Wisdom. For after there 
had gone before the verse. The luiwise man Jiath said in his 
heart, There is no God ; as if reasons were required why the 
<^ So Oxf. Mss, (ausum), Ben. ' aiisus,' ' one." 
B 2 



4 Seij-iiididt/encc ouls in violence tujainst good. 

PsiLM unwise man could say this, he liatb subjoined, (ver. 2.) Cor- 

—- — '- rtipted they are, and abominable have become in their iniqui- 

V^'isd. 2, ties. Hear ye those corrupted men. For they have said nith 

^' themselves^ not rigidly thinking : corruption bcginnelh with 

evil belief, thence it proceedeth to depraved morals, thence 

to the most flagrant iniquities, these are the grades. But 

b. 2. what with themselves said they, thinking not rightly? A 

small thing and with tediousness is our life. From this evil 

belief followcth that which also the Apostle hath spoken of, 

) Cor. Let ns eat and drink, for to-morrow we shall die. But in 

lo, 32, ^^ former passage more diffusely luxury itself is described : 

■W'isd.2, Ze/ ;/.9 crown us uith roses, before they be withered; in 

every place let vs leave the tokens of our gladness. After 

the more diffuse description of that luxury, what followeth ? 

Wisd.2, Let us slay the poor just man : this is therefore saying. He 

is not Cod. Soft words they seemed but now to say : Let 

us crown us tcith roses, before they be withered. What 

more delicate, what more soft ? Wouldcst thou expect, out 

of this softness, Crosses, swords ? Wonder not, soft are 

even the roots of brambles ; if any one handle them, he is 

not pricked : but that wherewith thou shall be pricked from 

thence hath birth. Corrupted, therefore, are those men, 

and ahominable have become in their iniquities. TIte unwise 

MRt.27, man hath said in his heart. He is not God. " If Son of God 
40. . 

He is, let Him come down from the Cross.''' Behold them 

openly saying, He is not God. 

4, But in what manner amid them groaneth the Body of 

Christ ? There have groaned amid them Apostles that then 

were, and disciples of Christ: to us in what respect do they 

belong? In what manner amid them do we travail.'' Still 

there arc that say, Christ is not God. This say the heathens 

that have remained ; this very thing say the Jews themselves, 

who for the testimony of their confusion ever}' where have, been 

diffused: this say also many heretics. For even the Arians 

They have said, He is not God: lilunomians have said. Lie is not 

^aid, Q^^ ^^1^1 J.Q j^j^jg brethren, that even they of whom a little 

' not ' ' •' 

True before I have spoken, who live evil lives, do nothing else say 
than. He is not God. For when we say to them, that Christ 
is to come a Judge to the Judgment, which thing say the 
Scriptures that deceive not; yet they rather lending an ear 



Satan persuades men that God icill not judge. 5 

to the Serpent suggesting, Thou shall not die the death, Ver. 
wliich he had said in Paradise, contrary to the truth of God ^r^— „— 
determining and saying, Than shall die the deaUi ; so do 4. 
evil things, that they say to themselves, Christ shall come, ^-^"•^' 
and shall give indulgence to all. So then lying is He that 
hath said, He shall sever unrighteous men to the left hand, 
shall sever just men to the right hand : to just men shall say. 
Come, ye blessed of My Father, reeeive the kingdom which ^^t-^o, 
hath been prepared for you from the foundation of ttie 
world: to ungodly men shall say, Go ye intojire everlasting, Mat. 25, 
which hath been prepared for the deril and his angels. ' 
How then to all shall He give indulgence ? How shall He 
no one condemn? Therefore He lieth. This is to say. He 
is not God. See then that thou perchance lie not. For 
thou art a man, He God: for God is true, but every man Ps. 116, 
a liar. But what say I of these men, O Body of Christ ? ^'^^ 3 
Sever thyself from them meanwhile in heart and life, neither 'I- 
imitate, nor keep company, nor assent, nor approve them : 
but more, even rebuke them. For why dost thou give heed 
to them that say these words } Corrupted tJiey are, and 
abominable have become in their iniquities : there is not one 
that doelh good. 

5. Ver. 3. TJte Lord from Heaven hath looked forth upon 
the sons of men^ that He might see if there is one understand- 
ing and seeking after God. What is this ? Corrupted they 
are, and abominable have become, all these that say. There is 
no God? And what.'' Did it escape God, that they were 
become such ? Or indeed to us would their inward thought 
be opened, exce])t by Him it were told ? If then He under- 
stood, if then He knew, what is this which hath been said, 
that, From Heaven He hath looked forth 7ipoj/ the sons of 
men, that He might see if there is one understanding and 
seeking after God. For of one inquiring the words are, of 
one not knowing. God from Heaven hath looked forth 
upon the sons of men, thai He might see if there is one 
understanding or seeking after God. And as though He 
had found what He sought by looking upon, and by looking 
down from Heaven, He giveth sentence: (ver. 4.) All men have 
gone aside, together useless they have become: there is not 
one that doeth good, not so much as one. Two questions arise 



6 God enquires, as making His people enquire. 

Psalm somewhat difRcult: for if God looteth out from Heaven, in 

— ^ — '- order that He may see if there is one understanding or 
seeking after God ; there stealelli upon an unwise man the 
thouglit, that God knoueth not all things. This is one 
question : what is the other? If there is not one that doeth 
good, is not so much as one; who is he that travaileth amid 
bad men ? The former question then is solved as followeth ; 
ofttimes the Scriptui'e speaketh in such manner, that what 
by the gift of God a creature doth, God is said to do: so 
that for instance, when thou hast pity upon a poor man, 
because by the gift of God thou art acting, God hath pity : 
when thon acknowledgest who thou art, because by aid of 
Him giving light thou art acting, if thou art such an one as 

Ps. 18, to say, Thou shall light my lamp, O Lord, my God, Thou 
shalt Vigliien my darkness; that which by aid of Him giving 
and doing thou hast acknowledged. He doth acknowledge. 

Deut. For whence is. The Lord your God proveth you^ that He 
' ■ may know if ye love Hint ? What is, That He may know? 
That by His gift He may make you know. So then here 
also, God from heaven hath looked forth upon the sons of 
men, that He might see if there is one understanding or 
seeking after God. Be He present Himself, and grant us 
that what He hath made our heart to conceive, He may also 

iCor. 2, make it to bring forth. The Apostle saith, But we not the 

12 .... . • . 

spirit of this world have received, hut the Spirit which is of 
God, that we may know what things by God have been given 
tons. By this Spirit then whereby we understand ivliat things 
by God have been given to us, we distinguish between ourselves 
and them to whom these things have not been given, and from 
ourselves we understand them. For if we perceive that we 
could not have had any good thing except by the giving and 
bestowing of Him from Whom are all good things, at the 
same lime we see that no such thing can they have to whom 
God hath not given. This distinguishing in us is of the 
Spirit of God ; and by the means whereby we sec this, God 
seelh ; because this thing God doeth, that we should sec. 

1 Cor. For hence has been said the following also, For the Spirit 

2 10 

' ■ searcheth all things, even the depth of God; not because He 
searcheth That knowcth all things, but because to thee hath 
been given the Spirit, which niaketh thee also to search : and 



Man made partaker of Divinity in the Son of God. 7 

that which by His own gift thou doest, He is said to do ; Vbr. 

because without Him thou wouldest not do it : therefore God ' — 

is said to do, when thou doest. By the gift of the Spirit of 
sons, they to whom hath been given the Spirit of God look 
out upon the sons of men, that they may see if there is one 
understanding or seeking after God : but because that by the 
gift of God and by the Spirit of God they do it, this God is 
said to do ; as it were to look forth and see. But wherefore 
From heaven, if this is done by men ? Because saith the Apostle, 
But our conversation is in the lieavens. For whence doest Philip.s, 
thou this that thou mayest see, whence lookest forth that"*^* 
thou mayest perceive ? Is it not in heart ? If in heart thou 
doest this, Christian, see whether it is above thou hast thy 
heart. If above thou hast thy heart, from heaven upon 
earth thou art looking forth. And because this by the gift 
of God thou doest, God from heaven is looking forth upon 
the sons of men. The former question then, according to 
our measure, thus hath been solved. 

(J. What is that which looking forth we acknowledge ? 
What is that which looking forth God acknowledgeth ? What 
(because here He giveth it) doth He acknowledge ? Hear 
what it is ; that All have gone aside, together useless they 
have become : there is not one that doeth good, there is not 
so much as one. What then is that other question, but the 
same whereof a little before I have made mention ? If, 
There is not one that doeth good, is not so much as one, no 
one remaineth to groan amid evil men. Stay, saith the 
Lord, do not hastily give judgment. I have given to men to 
do well; but of Me, He saith, not of themselves: for of them- 
selves evil they are : sons of men they ai'e, when they do 
evil ; when well, My sons. For this thing God doth, out of 
sons of men He maketh sons of God : because out of Son 
of God He hath made Son of Man. See what this partici- 
pation is : there hath been promised to us a participation of 
Divinity: He lieth that hath promised, if He is not first 
made partaker of mortality. For the Son of God hath been 
made partaker of mortality, in order that mortal man may be 
made partaker of divinity. He that hath promised that His 
good is to be shared with thee, first with thee hath shared 
thy evil : He that to thee hath promised divinity, sheweth in 



8 Tlie Wicked prey upon God's People on earth. 

PsAi.M thee love. Therefore take away that men are sons of God, 

_±lll':_ tliere rcniaineth that they are sons of men : There is none 
that doeih good, is not so mnch as one. 

7. Ver, 4, &haU not all know thai ivork iniquity, that 
devour Mi/ people for the food of bread? Shall they not 
know ? Shall it not to tlicm be shewn ? Say, menace, speak 
by the voice of one travailing and grieving. For Thy people 
is devoured /or the food of bread. There is therefore here a 
])eople of God that is being devoured. Nay, There is not 
one that doelh good, there is not so much as one. We reply 
by the rule above. But this people that is devoured, this 
pco])le that suffereth evil men, this that groaneth and travaileth 
amid evil men, now out of sons of men have been made sons 

Ps.14,6. of God: therefore are they devoured. For, The counsel of 
the need// man thou hast confounded, because the Lord is his 
hope. For ofttimes, in order that the people of God may be 
devoured, this ver}' thing in it is despised, that it is the 
people of God. I will pillage, he saith, and despoil; if he 
is a Christian, what will he do to me ? There speaketh for 
him He that speaketh for one travailing, and lie doth menace 
them that are devouring, saying, Sliall not all know, that 
iiork iniquity? For even he that was seeing a thief and was 
consenting with him, and with the adulterers was setting his 
portion, sitting against his brother w as detracting, and against 
his mother's son was setting a stumbling-block, hath said in 
his heart, Tliere is no God. Therefore this to him is said, 

Ps. 50, These tliinns thou hast done, and I kept silence: thou hast 

20. 

imagined iniquity, that I shall be like thee: that is, I 
shall not be God, if I shall be like thee. But what followeth ? 
I trill convince thee, and tcill set thee before thy face. So 
here also, / will convince thee, and set thee before thy face. 
Thou wilt not now know so as thou shouldcst be displeasing 
to thyself, thou shalt know so as thou mayest mourn. For 
God cannot but shew to the unrighteous their iniquity. If 
•Wisd.s, He is not to shew, who will they be that are to say, What 
hath profited u.s pride, and nhal hath boasting of riches 
bestowed upon us? For then shall they know, that now will 
not know. Shall not all know, that work iniquity, that 
detour My people for the food if bread ? Why hath He 
added, /''/■ (lie fiod of briad? As it were as bread, they eat 



They call 7iot on God, who seek not His Presence. 9 

My people. For all other things which we eat, we can eat Veu. 

now these, now those; not always this vegetable, not always '— 

this flesh, not always these apples : but always bread. What 
is then, Devour My peo'ple for the food of bread? Without 
intermission, without cessation they devour, Tliat devour 
3Iy people for the food of bread. 

8. On Qod they have not called. He is comforting the 
man that groaneth, and chiefly by an admonition, lest by 
imitating evil men, who ofttimes prosper, they delight in evil 
doing. There is kept for thee that which to thee hath been 
promised : their hope is present, thine is future, but theirs is 
transient, thine sure ; theirs false, thine true. For they. 
Upon, God have not called. Do not daily such men ask of 
God ? They do not ask of God. Give heed, if I am able 
to say this by the aid of God Himself. God gratuitously 
will have Himself to be worshipped, gratuitously will have 
Himself to be loved, that is chastely to be loved ; not Him- 
self to be loved for the reason that He giveth any thing 
besides Himself, but because He giveth Himself. He then 
that calleth upon God in order that He may be made rich, 
on God doth not call : for upon that He calleth which to 
himself he willeth to come. For what is to " call upon" but 
to call unto himself? Unto himself therefore to call, is the 
meaning of to call upon. For when thou sayest, O God, give 
me riches: thou wilt not that God Himself should come to 
thee, but wilt that riches should come to thee. What thou 
wilt to thee should come, ujDon the same thou callest. But 
if upon God thou wast calling, to thee He would Himself 
come. Himself would be thy riches. But now thou wouldest 
have coffer full, and conscience void : God filleth not coffer 
but breast. What do outward riches profit thee, if inward 
need presseth thee ? Therefore those men that for the sake 
of worldly comforts, that for the sake of earthly good things, 
that for the sake of present life and earthly felicitj^, call upon 
God, do not call upon God. 

9. For this reason what followeth concerning them ? 
(Ver. 5.) There have they feared with fear, where there teas 
no fear. For is there fear, if a man lose riches ? There is 
no fear there, and yet in that case men are afraid. But if 
man lose wisdom, truly there is fear, and in that case he is 



10 Men lose what they think to keep by doing wrong. 

Psalm not afraid. Hear, distinguish, understand such men : there 

^-is entrusted to some one or other a bag, he will not give it 

back, for his own he counteth it, he thinketh not that it can 
be demanded back, aheady for his own he will keep it, he 
refuseth to give it back. Let him observe what he feareth 
to lose, and what he will not have : into jeopard}- come 
money and fidelity ; whichever is the more valuable, therein 
the heavier loss is to be feared. But thou, that thou mayest 
keep gold, dost lose fidelity : with heavier loss thou art 
stricken, and thou of ihy gain hast rejoiced: in that case 
thou hast feared with fear, where was no fear: give back 
the money : too little I say, ' give back ;' lose the money, lest 
thou lose fidelity. Thou hast feared to give back money, and 
hast willed to lose fidelity. The Martyrs took not away 
property of other persons, but even their own they despised 
that they might not lose fidelity: and it was too little to lose 
money, when they were proscribed ; they took also their life 
Mat. 10, when they suffered : they lost life, in order that unto ever- 
lasting life they might find it. Therefore there they feared, 
where they ought to have been afraid. But they that of 
Christ have said, He is not God, have there feared where 
.lohniijWas no fear. For they said, If ice shall have let Him go^ 
'*" there will come the Romans, and zcill take away from us 
both place and kingdom. O folly and imprudence saying 
in its heart, He is not God ! Thou hast feared to lose earth, 
thou hast lost Heaven : thou hast feared lest there should 
come the Romans, and take away from thee place and 
kingdom ! Could they take away from thee God ? What then 
remaineth ? what but that thou confess, that thou hast willed 
to keep, and by keeping ill hast lost? For thou hast lost 
both place and nation by slaying Christ. For ye did will 
rather to slay Christ, than to lose place ; and ye have lost 
place, and nation, and Christ. In fearing, they have slain 
Christ: but wherefore this? For God hath scattered the 
' E. V. bones of them that please men^. Willing to please men, they 
encamp beared to lose their place. But Christ Himself, of Whom 
ngaiiist they said, He is not God, willed rather to displease such 
men, as they were: sons of men, not sons of God, He willed 
rather to displease. Thence were scattered their bones. His 
bones no one hath broken. They were confounded, for 



He IVhom the Jeios criccijied, the Saviour of Israel. 1 1 

Ood hath despised them. In very deed, brethren, as far as Ver. 

regardeth them, great conl'usioa hath come to them. In : — 

the place where they crucified the Lord, Whom for this 
cause they crucified, that they might not lose both place 
and nation, the Jews are not. God, therefore, hath despised 
them: and yet in despising He wai'ned them to be converted. 
Let them now confess Christ, and say, He is God, of Whom 
they said, ' He is not God.' Let them return to the inherit- 
ance of their fathers, to the inheritance of Abraham, of Isaac, 
and of Jacob, let them possess with these very persons life 
eternal: though they have lost life temporal. Wherefore 
this ? Because out of sons of men have been made sons of 
God. For so long as they remain, and will not, there is not 
one that doeth good, there is not so much as one. They were 
confounded, Jbr God hath despised them. And as though 
to these very persons He were turned, He saith, (ver. 6.) 
Who shall give out of Siou salvation to Israel ? O ye fools, 
ye revile, insult, buffet, besmear with spittings, with thoi'ns 
ye crown, upon the Cross ye lift up; whom? Who shall 
give out of Sion salvation to Israel f Shall not That Same 
of Whom ye have said, ' He is not God ?' In God's turning 
away the captivity of His people. For there turneth away 
the captivity of His people, no one but He that hath willed 
to be a captive in your own hands. But what men shall 
understand this thing? Jacob shall exult, and Israel shall 
rejoice. Israel; the true Jacob, and the true Israel, that 
vounger, to whom the elder was servant, shall himself exult, Gen. 25, 

. 23. 

for he shall himself understand. 



PSALM LIV. jLat- 



EXPOSITION!. '!^ermon 

to the 
people. 

L The title of this Fsalra hath fruit in the prolixity 
thereof, if it be understood : and because the Psalm is short, 
let us make up by tarrying over the title, our not having to 
tarry over the Psalm. For upon this dependeth every verse 



12 * Ziphites,'^ they that Jloitrish in this world. 

PsAiM which is sunj;. If any one, therefore, observe that which on 
~ — ^ the front of the house is fixed, secure he will enter; and. 



when he shall have entered, he will not err. For this on 

the post itself is prominently marked, namely, in what 

manner within he may not be in error. The title thereof 

standcth thus : At ihe end, in Jnjinna, tinderslanding to 

David himself, when there came the Ziphiles, and said to 

Saul, Behold, is not David, hidden icith usY That Saul was 

persecutor of the holy man David, very well we know: that 

Saul was bearing the figure of a temporal kingdom, not to 

life but to death belonging, this also to your Love we 

remember to have imparted. And also that David himself 

See Ex- was bearing the figure of Christ, or of the Body of Christ, 

upoV°" y® ought both to know and to call to mind, ye that have 

Ps. 52. already learned. What then of the Ziphiles.'' There was a 
§.1.2. . . . ' 

certain vdlage, Ziph, whereof the inhabitants were Ziphites, 

in whose country David had hidden himself, when Saul 

would find and slay him. These Ziphites then, when they 

had learned this, betrayed him to the king his persecutor, 

saying, Behold, is not David hidden with ns? Of no good 

to them indeed was their betrayal, and to David himself of 

no harm. For their evil disposition was shewn : but Saul 

not even after their betrayal could seize David; but rather 

1 Sam. in a certain cave in that very country, when into his hands 

' ■ Saul had been given to slay, David spared him, and that 

wliich he had in his power he did not. But the other was 

seeking to do that which he had not in his power. Let 

them that have been Ziphites take heed : let us see those 

whom to us the Psalm presenteth to be understood by the 

occasion of those same men. 

2. If we inquire then by what word is translated Ziphites, 

we find, Men Jloiirishing. Flourishing then were certain 

enemies to holy David, fiourishing before him hiding. We 

may find them in mankind, if we are willing to understand 

the Psalm. Let us find here at first David hiding, and we 

shall find his adversaries flourishing. Observe David hiding: 

Coloss. For ye are dead, saith the Ajiostle to the members of Christ, 

' ■ (unl your life is hid with Christ in God. These men, 
therefore, that are hiding, when shall they be flourishing? 

'•'• ^' JVhcn Christ, he saith, your life, shall hare appeared, then 



Children nf this world know not the true Riches. 13 

ye also iclth Him shall appear in glory. When these men Title. 



shall be flourishing, then shall be those Ziphitcs withering. 
For observe to what flower their glory is compared: ^//ls.4o,6. 
Jlesh is grass, and the honour of Jlesh as tlie flower of grass. 
What is the end ? The grass hath withered, and the flower 
hath fallen off. Where then shall be David ? See what 
followeth : But the Word of the Lord abideth for ever. 
These therefore are two sorts of men, which ye ought both 
to distinguish and to choose one of them. For what doth it 
profit thee to know, if thou ait slow to choose ? And indeed 
now the power of choosing lieth near thee : there shall 
come a time when thou shalt no more have the power of 
choosing, when no longer God shall defer the' sentence of ' See 
judgment. For who are these flourishing Ziphites, except jj^^jj^^^^f" 
that body of Doeg the Edomite ; of whom already we have Ps. 52. 
spoken to your Love a few days since : of whom it was 
said, Behold a man that hath not set God for his helper ,Y%.q'2.,T . 
but hath trusted in the midtitude of his riches, and hath 
jirevailed in his vanity. These are the flourishing sons of 
the world, of whom but now ye have heard from the Gospel, 
that In their own generation they are more crafty than the Lukeie, 
children of light. For they too seem to look forward unto^" 
the future, whereto they know not whether they may come. 
Ye have heard what that steward did to his master, making 
for himself a store out of his master's property, and bestowing 
it upon his debtors, in order that when he should be re- 
moved from his stewardship, he might be received by them. 
And though he defrauded his master, yet his master praised 
his wit^, not heeding his own loss, but his ingenuity. How ^ lit. 'his 
much more ought we. Himself our Lord Jesus Christ ad- ^^'^** 
monishing, to make to ourselves friends of the Mammon of ib. 9. 
iniquity } For Mammon is interpreted riches. But our 
riches are in that place, where is our house eternal in the 2 Cor. 
heavens. Again, money temporal they call riches, who'' 
except for a time cannot flourish, nor for everlasting from 
these do will to make to themselves friends, because true 
riches they know not. These riches then to be riches 
iniquity alone doth count, flourishing as it does for a time 
like grass. These are the Ziphites, enemies of David, 
flourishing in the world. 



14 Good men hidden liere, while the wicked Jlouriah. 

Psalm 3, These men sometimes are observed of tlie weak sons of 

flight, and their feet tottor, when they have seen evil men in 

felicity to flourish, and they say to themselves, ' Of what profit 
to me is innocence ? What doth it advantage me that I 
serve God, that I keep His commandments, that I oppress 
no one, from no one plunder any tiling, hurt no one, that 
what I can I bestow ? behold, all these things I do, and they 
flourish, I toil.' But why ! Wouldest thou also wish to be 
a Ziphite ? They flourish in the world, wither in judgment, 
and after withering, into fire everlasting shall be cast : 
woiddest thou also choose this ? Art thou ignorant of what 
He hath promised thee, Who to thee hath come, what in 
Himself here He displayed ? If the flower of the Ziphites 
were to be desired, would not Himself thy Lord also in this 
world have flourished ? Or indeed was there wanting to Him 
the power to flourish ? Nay but here He chose rather amid 
the Ziphites to hide, and to say to Pontius Pilate, as if to 
one being himself also a flower of the Ziphites, and in suspi- 

JohnlS, cion about His kingdom, 3Iy kingdom is not of this world. 
Therefore here He was hidden : and all good men are hidden 
here, because their good is within, it is concealed, in the 
heart it is, where is faith, where charity, where hope, where 
their treasure is. Do these good things appear in the world? 
Both these good things are hidden, and the reward of these 
good things is hidden. But truly the dignity of the world is 
white, in what manner ? It is bright for a time ; will it alway 
be bright ? It is grass in the winter, until the summer it is 
green. Let not that thing therefore be done in the mind, 
which in another Psalm we light on. For there a certain 
one confesseth that he almost fell himself, and that his steps 
slipped walking in the way of God, while he was beholding 
the flower, as it were, and felicity of the ungodly: and after 
that he understood what God was reserving for the wicked 
at the last, and what He that cannot deceive was promising 
to the just toiling, returning thanks for this understanding, 

Ps. 7.3, lie sailh, Hoio qood is the God of Israel to the right in 
heart! Wherefore dost thou say this } But my ownfect^ he 
saith, uere almost moved. For what reason ? Because 
I was jealous toward sinners, beholding the peace of 
sinners. But his steps were strengthened after that he 



The truth made manifest in the Sanctuary. 15 

understood at llie last. For that which in the same Psahn a Title. 
little after he saith, On this account labour is before we, ib, 16. 
is this ; a great question to me hath arisen in my heart, 
wherefore men do evil, and in the world flourish, but many 
men do well, and in this world do labour. While this great 
question was before my eyes, and laborious to be investigated ; 
there is labour, he saith, before mc : until 1 enter into the 
Sanctuary of God, and understand at the last things. What 
are these last things .? What but those things which we 
know already in the Gospel to have been foretold? Fo?-Mat.25, 
when the Son of Man shall be come, there shall be gathered 
before Him all nations, and He shall separate them, as a 
shepherd divideth the sheep from the goats ; the sheep He 
shall set on the right hand, the goats on the left. Behold 
then shall these Ziphites be separated : flame followeth 
separation. Where is the flower of them that now on the 
left hand shall stand ? Shall they not then groan } shall 
they not then be racked with a too late penitence, and say, 
Of ivhat profit io us hath been pride, and what hath boasting y^isd. 5, 
of riches bestoued upon us? All these things have passed^* 
away like a shadow, O ye Ziphites, on the left hand standing, 
too late it repeuteth you in the shadow to have flourished. 
Wherefore did ye not acknowledge David, whose hiding 
among you ye betrayed ? For then if ye had been amended, 
that sorrow would not have been without fruit. For there is 
a sorrow with fruit, there is one without fruit : a sorrow with 
fruit is now when thyself thou accusest, when in thyself thou 
censurest thy evil customs, when them censured thou dost 
persecute, persecuted thou shuttest them out, and, after these 
have been shut out, thou art changed, putting off" from thyself 
the old man, and putting on the new, choosing rather the 
reproach of Christ than the flower of the Ziphites. Moreover, 
if while holding thy good in secret, and hiding amid Ziphites, 
holding in secret also the promise of thy reward, there 
shall have chanced to thee any high place of the world, be 
not lifted up : for if lifted up thou shalt have been, thou wilt 
fall unto the flower of the Ziphites. For so it was with a 
certain holy woman, Esther, amid the then people of the 
Jews : though she was the wife of a foreign king, she so 
shared the danger of her countrymen, that she interceded 



1 G Some perplexed hy evil tnen\s prosperitij. 

Psalm with the lung ibr her cDiintivinen : she began lu pray, aiul 
— — '- in the very iiravcr she eouiessed that all those royal deckinirs 
16. were to her but as the cloth ol" a nienstruous woman. If 
these things women can do, cannot men ? And if these 
things a Jewish woman could do, shall not the Christian 
Church be able ? This therefore I would say to your Love. 
Ps. C2, If riches Jlow in, set not your heart upon them. Though 
they abound, and there follow thee the prosperity of the 
world, trust not ihou in the sea, though it smile on thee. If 
riches flow in, if they abound, trample them, and depend 
upon thy God. For when them beneath thee thou shalt 
have put, and on Him shalt have depended, when they shall 
have been taken away thou wilt not fall. Let not perchance 
by tliy thought evil and unchristian, that be done in thee 
which is spoken of in another Psahn, when there had been 
Ps. 92, made mention of the flower of these Ziphites. ^ Too deep, 
f' p he saith, have become Thy thoughts. I say% it is said. Too 
ceeding deep hate become Thy thoughts: a man unwise shall not 
know, and a fool shall not understand, these things. Shall 
not understand what? lVhe?i there shall rise up sinners like 
grass, and all they that work iniquity shall hare beheld, that 
they perish for ever and ever. They have been delighted 
with the flower of evil men : they have said Avith themselves, 
Behold evil men flourish, I suj)pose evil men God doth love; 
and being delighted with the temporal flower of iniquity, 
they turned themselves to iniquity, so that they perished. 
Not for a time, as they flourish, but for ever and ever. 
P(^. 92, Whence this .' Because a man unwise shall not know, and 
a fool shall not understand, these things ; not entering into 
Ps. 73, the Sanctuary of God, in order to 'understand at the last 
'* things.' And btcause somewhat difficult is this under- 
standing, from thence beginneth this Psalm, namely, how 
David was hiding among the Ziphites, and was not delighted 
with the flower of the Ziphites ; but chose rather amid them 
humility, in order that he might have with God hidden 
glory. What then to him is there being ascribed in this 
title ? At the end, in hymns : that is, in praises. In what 
Job 1, ]iraises ? The Lord hath given, the Tord hath taken away : 
as it hath jileased the Lord, so hath been done : be the name 
» Oxf. Mss. ' To God it is said.' 



21. 



Body of Christ hidden, amid jiourishing wickedness. 17 

of the Lord blessed. Withered in a manner did he seem, in Ver. 

the loss of all his substance ? God forbid ! Leaves had '■ — 

fallen; the root v/as living. Therefore, At the end in hymns. 
What is " Understanding to David himself^'''' Understanding 
against this, ^'A man unwise shall not know, and a fool shallPs.92,6. 
not understand these things.^' Understanding to David 
himself, when there came the Ziphites, and said to Saul, 
Behold, is not David hidden with ns? And be he hidden 
with you, so long as ho flourish not like you. Hear, there- 
fore, the voice of him. 

4. Ver. 1. O God, in Thy name make me safe, and in 
Thy virtue judge me. Let the Church say this, hiding 
amid the Ziphites. Let the body Christian say this, keeping 
secret the good of its morals, expecting in secret the reward 
of its merits, let it say this : O God, in Thy name make me 
safe, and in Thy virtue judge me. Thou hast come, O 
Christ, humble Thou hast appeared, despised Thou hast 
been, scourged hast been, crucified hast been, slain hast 
been ; but, on the third day hast risen, on the fortieth day 
into Heaven hast ascended: Thou sittest at the right hand of 
the Father, and no one seeth : Thy Spirit thence Thou hast 
sent. Which men that were worthy have received; fulfilled 
with Thy love, the praise of that very humility of Thine 
throughout the world and nations they have preached •. Thy 
name I see to excel among mankind, but nevertheless as 
weak to us hast Thou been preached. For not even did 
that Teacher of the Gentiles say, that among us he knew 
any thing. Save Christ Jesus, and Him crucified ; in orderi Cor. 
that of Him we might choose the reproach, rather than the ^' ^' 
glory of the flourishing Ziphites. Neverthelei-s, of Him he 
saith what ? Although He died of iveakncss, yet He liveth 
of the power ^ of God. He came then that He might die ofiyirtute 
weakness. He is to come that He may judge in the power of 
God : but through the weakness of the Cross His name hath 
been illustrious. Whosoever shall not have believed upon 
the name made illustrious through weakness, shall stand in 
awe at the Judge, when He shall have come in power. But, 
lest He that once was weak, when He shall have come strong, 
with that fan send us to the left hand ; may He " save us in 
His name, and judge us in His virtue." For who so rash as 

VOL. III. c 



18 Saved through Qod's Name, we can hear judgment. 

Psalm to have desired this, as to say to God, for instance, Judge 
^^^' me? Is it not wont to be said to men for a curse, "God 
judge thee ?" So evidently it is a curse, if He judge thee in 
His virtue; and shall not have saved thee in His name: 
but when in name precedent He shall have saved thee, to 
thy health in virtue consequent He shall judge. Be thou 
without care : that judgment shall not to thee be punishment, 
P9.43,i.but dividing. For in a certain Psalm thus is said: Judge 
me, God, and divide my cause from the nation unholy. 
What is, Judge me ? Divide me from the Ziphites, amid 
whom 1 lie hid ; I have endured their flower, may there now 
come also my flowering. And their flower indeed hath been 
temporary, and the grass withering, it hath fallen off": but 
Ps. 92, my flower shall be what? They that are ]ilanted in 
^^' the House of the Lord, in the courts of the House of 
our God shall flourish. There remaineth therefore to us 
also flower, but that which falleth not, like the leaf of that 
Ps. 1,3. tree planted beside waters, whereof is said, ^' And His leaf 
shall not fall off." God, therefore, in Thy name make me 
safe, and iti TJiy virtue judge me. 

5. Ver. 2. O God, hearken to my prayer, in Thy ears 
receive the words of my mouth. Let the words of my 
mouth reach Thine ears, because it is not the flower of the 
Ziphites that 1 desire of Thee. I?i Thy ears receive the 
words of my mouth. Do Thou receive. For to the Ziphites 
even if there sound my prayer, they hear not, because they 
understand not. In temporal things to wit they rejoice, 
good things everlasting to desire they know not how. To 
Thee may my prayer attain, driven forth and darted out from 
the desire of Thy eternal blessings : to Thy ears I send it 
forth, aid it that it may reach, lest it fall short in the middle 
of the way, and fainting as it were it fall down. But even if 
there result not to me now the good things which I ask, I 
am secured nevertheless that hereafter they will come. For 
even in the case of transgressions a certain man is said to 
have asked of God, and not to have been hearkened to for his 
good. For privations of this world had inspired him to prayer, 
and being set in temporal tribulations he had wished that 
temporal tribulations should jiass away, and there should 
Ps.22,1. return the flower of grass ; and he saith. My God, my God, 



Our requests withheld perchance for uur good. 1 9 

why hast Tliou forsaken me? The very voice of Christ it is, Ver. 
but for His members' sake. The words, he saith, of my — ?^ — 
tra?isgressions I have cried to Thee througJiout the day, and 
Thou hast not hearkened : and by night, and not for the 
sake of folly to me : that is, " and by night I have cried, and 
Thou hast not hearkened ; and nevertheless in this very 
thing that Thou hast not hearkened, it is not for the sake of 
folly to me that Thou hast not hearkened, but rather for the 
sake of wisdom that Thou hast not hearkened, that I might 
perceive what of Thee 1 ought to ask. For those things 
I was asking which to my cost perchance I should have 
received." Thou askest riches, O man ; how many have 
been overset through their riches ? Whence knowest thou 
whether to thee riches may profit? Have not many poor 
men more safely been in obscurity; having become rich 
men, so soon as they have begun to blaze forth, they have 
been a prey to the stronger ? How much better they would 
have lain concealed, how much better they would have been 
unknown, that have begun to be inquired after not for the 
sake of what they were, but for the sake of what they had ! 
In these temporal things therefore, brethren, we admonish 
and exhort you in the Lord, that ye ask not any thing as if 
it were a thing settled, but that which God knoweth to be 
expedient for you. For what is expedient for you, ye know 
not at all. Sometimes that which ye think to be for you is 
against you, and that which ye think to be against you is for 
you. For sick ye are ; do not dictate to the physician the 
medicines he may choose to set beside you. If the teacher 
of the Gentiles, Paul the Apostle, saith. For what tee shouldVxom. s, 

26 

pray for as we ought, we know not, how much more we? 
Who nevertheless, when he seemed to himself to pray 
wisely, namely, that from him should be taken away the 
thorn of the flesh, the angel of Satan, that did buffet him, in 
order that he might not in the greatness of the revelations be 
lifted up, heard from the Lord what? Was that done which 
he wished? Nay ', in order to that being done which wasiiVay, 
expedient. He heard from the Lord, I say, what? Thrice, ^^^^^ 
he saith, / besought the Lord that He would take it from 2 Cor. 
me; and He said to me. My Grace suffice! Ji for thee: for 
virtue in weakness is made 'perfect. Salve to the wound 

c 2 



20 Tliey are aliens loJiose hope is in earthly good. 

PsAi.M I have applied; when I a])plied it 1 know, when it should 

L be taken away I know. Let not a sick man draw back from 

the hands of the physician, let him not give advice to the 
physician. So it is with all these tilings tcni])Oval. There 
are tribulations; if well thou worshippest God, thou wilt 
know that lie knovveth what is expedient for each man: 
theie are prosperities; take the more heed, lest these same 
corrupt thy soul, so that it withdraw from Him that hath 
given these things. Therefore this man understanding saith 
what! O God, Itearkeii to my prayer ; in Thy ears receive 
the words of my mouth. 

6. Ver. 3. For aliens have risen up against me. What 
aliens? Was not David himself a Jew of the tribe of Judah? 
But the very place Ziph belonged to the tribe of Judah; it 
was of the Jews. How then aliens? Not in city, not in 
tribe, not in kindred, but in flower. For wilt thou know of 

Ps. 144, those aliens? In another Psalm, alien sons they have been 
~ ' called, ivhose mouth hath spoken vanity, and their right 
hand is a rigid hand oj' iniquity. And he enumerateth the 
flower of the Ziphites. Of uhom their sons are like young 
plants established in their youth: their daughters disposed 
and decked like the similitude of a temple: their garners 
full, breaking forth from this unto this: their sheep fruitful^ 
multiplying in their goings out ; their oxen fat : there is no 
falling of enclosure, nor going forth, nor cry in their streets. 
But see the Ziphites, see them for a time flourishing. 
Blessed they have called the people to whom these things 
are. With reason alien sons. Thou amid the Ziphites 
hiding saidst what? Blessed the people uhereqf the Lord 
is its God. Out of this aff"ection this prayer is being sent 
forth into the ears of the Lord, when it is said, In Tliy 
ears receive the words of my mouth ; for aliens have risen 
vp against me. 

7. And nriglity men have sought after my soul. For 
in a new manner, my brethren, they would destroy the race 
of holy men, and the race of them that abstain from hoping 
in this world, all they that have hope in this world. Cer- 
tainly commingled they are, certainly together they live. 
Very much to one another are opposed these two sorts: the 
one of those that place no hope but in things secular, and 



The ungodly not discerned, till tried. Secret help. 21 

in temporal felicity, and the other of tliose that do firmly Ver. 
place their hope in the Lord God. And thongh concordant ^' _ 
are these Ziphites, do not much trust to their concord : 
temptations are wanting; when there shall have come any 
temptation, so as that a person may be reproved for the 
flower of the world, I say not to thee he will quarrel with 
the Bishop, but not even to the Church Herself will he draw 
near, lest there fall any part of the grass. Wherefore have 
I said these words, brethren? Because now gladly ye all 
hear in the name of Christ, and according as ye understand, 
so ye shout out at the word; ye would not indeed shout at 
it unless ye understood. This your understanding ought to 
be fruitful. But whether it is fruitful, temptation doth try; 
lest suddenly when ye are said to be ours, through tempt- 
ation ye be Ibund aliens, and it be said, aliens have risen uj) 
against me, aiid niiglify men have sought my soul. Be not 
that said which followeth, Tliey have not set forth God before 
tJieirface. For when will he set God before his face, before 
whose eyes there is nought but the world ? namely, how he 
may have coin upon coin, how flocks may be increased, how 
barns may be filled, how it may be said to his soul. Thou 
hast many good things, he merry, feast, take thy Jill. Doth 
he set before his face Him, that unto one so boasting and so 
blooming with the flower of the Ziphites saith, Fooly that is, 
"man not understanding," '' man unwise," " This night shallLukel2, 
be taken from thee thy soul; all these things which thou" ' 
hast prepared, ivhose shall they be V 

They have not set forth God before their face. 
8. Ver. 4. For behold, God helpeth me. Even themselves 
know not themselves, amid whom I am hiding. But if they 
too were to set God before their face, they would find in 
what manner God helpeth me. For all holy men are 
helped by God, but within, where no one seeth. For in like 
manner as the conscience of ungodly men is a great punish- 
ment, so a great joy is the very conscience of godly men. 
For our glory this is, saith the Apostle, the testimony of our 2 Cor, 
co7iscience. In this doth glory that man within, not in the '» ^2. 
flower of the Ziphites without, that now saith. For behold 
God helpeth me. Surel}' though afar ofl" are to be those 
things which He promiseth, this day have I a sweet and 



22 Real good is inward. Willing sacrifice. 

Psalm present help; to-day in my heart's joy I find that without 
■ cause certain say, Who doth shew to us good things? For 



Fs. 4, 6. 

there is signed npon us the light of Thy countenance^ O 
Lord, Thou Jiast jmt pleasantness into my heart. Not into 
my vineyard, not into my flock, not into my cask, not into 
my table, but into my heart. For behold God helpeth me. 
How doth He help thee ? And the Lord is the lifter up of 
my son I. 

9. Ver. 5. Turn away evil things unto mine enemies. 
So however green they are, so however they flourish, for the 

»al.' let fire they are being ^ reserved. Ln Thy virtue destroy Thou 
j.e_> them. Because to wit they flourish now, because to wit 
Ps.92,7. they spring up like grass: do not thou be a man unwise' and 
foolish, so that by giving thought to these things thou 
perish for ever and ever. For, Turn Thou away evil things 
unto mine enemies. For if ihou shalt have place in the 
body of David Himself, in His virtue He will destroy them. 
These men flourish iu the felicity of the world, perish in the 
virtue of God. Not in the same manner as they flourish, do 
they also perish : for they flourish for a time, perish for 
everlasting : flourish in unreal good things, perish in real 
torments. Ln Thy virtue destroy Thou them, whom in 
Thy weakness Thou hast endured. 

10. Ver. 6. Voluntarily L will sacrifice to Thee. Who 
can even understand this good thing of the heart, at another's 
speaking thereof, unless in himself he hath tasted it? What 
is, Voluntarily L icill sacrifice to Thee? Nevertheless, I will 
say on; let him receive that is able, as he is able: let him 
believe that is not able, and pray that he may be able. For 
ought we by any means so to pass over this verse as not to 
commend it to you .'' I say to your Love, my affection for it 
doth sufficiently invite me to speak something concerning it: 
and thanks I render to God, that with attention ye hear. 
But if I should observe you reluctant to hear, unwillingly on 
this verse I shoidd hold my peace, and yet in my heart, as 
far as the Lord would deign to grant, I should not hold my 
peace. May there come then unto my tongue that which in 
lieart hath been conceived: may there be drawn forth in 
word that which in mind is kept: say we as we are able, 
what is, Voluntarily I will sacrifice to Thee. For what 



God is to he loved freely , for His Oivn sake. 23 

sacrifice here shall I take, brethren ? or what worthily shall ver. 
I offer to the Lord for His inercy? Victims shall I seek— ?i-_ 
Irom flock of sheep, ram shall I select, for any bull in the 
herds shall I look out, frankincense indeed from the land of 
the Sabasans shall I bring? What shall I do ? What offer; 
except that whereof He speaketh, Sacrifice of praise shall ^s.bOy 
honour Me? Wherefore then voluntarily? Because truly I^^* 
love that which I praise. I praise God, and in the self-same 
praise [ rejoice: in the praise of Himself I rejoice, at Whom 
being praised, I blush not. For He is not praised in the 
same manner as by those who love the theatrical follies is 
praised either a charioteer, or a hunter, or actor of any 
kind, and by their piaisers, other praisers are invited, are 
exhorted, to shout together: and when all have shouted, 
ofttimes, if their favourite is overcome, they are all put to 
the blush. Not so is our God : be He praised with the 
will, loved with charity : let it be gratuitous that He is loved 
and that He is praised. What is gratuitous ? Himself for 
the sake of Himself, not for the sake of something else. 
For if thou praisest God in order that He may give thee 
something else, no longer freely dost thou love God. Thou 
wouldest blush, if thy wife for the sake of riches were to 
love thee, and perchance if poverty should befal thee, 
should begin to think of adultery. Seeing that therefore 
thou wouldest be loved by thy partner freely, wilt thou for 
any thing else love God ? What reward art thou to receive 
of God, O covetous man .? Not earth for thee, but Himself 
He keepeth. Who made heaven and earth. Voluntarily 
I will sacrifice to Thee : do it not of necessity. For if for 
the sake of any thing else thou praisest God, out of necessity 
thou praisest. If there were present to thee that which 
thou lovest, thou wouldest not praise God. See what I say: 
thou praisest God, for example, in order that He may give 
thee abundant money : if thou wert to have from any other 
quarter abundant money, not from God, wouldest thou praise 
God.? If, therefore, because of money thou praisest God, not 
voluntarily thou sacrificest to God, but out of necessity thou 
sacrificest : because, beside Him, something else has thy 
love. Thence hath it been said. Voluntarily I ivill sacrifice 
to Thee. Despise all things, to Himself give heed. These 



24 God can give nothing so good as Himself. 

Psalm things also which He hath given, because of the Giver are 

l-good tilings. For He giveth entirely, He giveth these 

temporal tilings : and to certain men to their good, to certain 
men to their harm, after the height and depth of His judg- 
ments. At the abyss of which judgments an Apostle stood 

Kom. in awe, saying, O the depth of the riches oftJie uisdom and 
' ' knowledge of God! hotv unsearchable are His judgments, 
and His ways past finding out ! For who shall find out 
His ways, or who shall comprehend His counsels ? He 
knoweth when He giveth, to whom He giveth ; when He 
taketh away, and from whom He taketh away. Ask thou in 
this present time that which may profit thee hereafter, 
ask that which may help thee for eternity. But Himself 
without price love thou : because from Him thou findest 
not any thing that He may give better than Himself; or 
if thou findest a better thing, this ask thou. Voluntarily I 
will sacrifice to Thee. Wherefore voluntarily? Because 
gratis. What is gratis^ And I will confess to TJiy 
name, O Lord, far it is a good, tiling : for nothing else, but 
because a good tiling it is. Doth he say, I will confess to 
Thy name, O Lord, because Thou givest me fruitful manors, 
because Thou givest me gold and silver, because Thou 
givest me extended riches, abundant money, most exalted 
dignity } Nay. But what .^ For it is a good thing. Nothing 
I find better than Thy name: therefore I will corf ess to Thy 
name, O Lord, for it is a good thing. 

11. Ver. 7. For out of all tribtilation Thou hast delivered 
mo. For this cause I have perceived how good a thing is 
Thy name : for if this I were able before tribulations to 
acknowledge, perchance for me there had been no need of 
thcin. But tribulation hath been applied for admonition, 
admonition hath redounded to Thy praise. For I should 
not have understood where T was, except of my weakness 
I had been admonished. Out of all tribulations, therefore, 
Thou hast delivered me. And upon mine enemies mine eye 
hath looked bach: upon those Ziphites mine eye hath looked 
hack. \cc\, their flower I have ])assed over in loftiness of 
heart, unto Thee 1 have come, and thence T have looked 

18.40, 6. back upon them, and have seen that All flesh is grass, and 
all the glory of man as the flower of grass: as in a certain 



Overthrow of the Wicked. Christ the 'End.'' 25 

place is also said, / have seen the ungodly man to he exalted Ver. 

and raised up like ' the cedars of Lebanon : I passed hi/, il_ 

and, lo! he itas not. Wherefore //e ivas not? Because 35"." se.* 
thou hast passed by. What is, because thou hast passcd^^^^' 
by? Because not to no purpose hast thou heard Lift np thy 'above' 
heart ; because not on earth, where thou wouldest have 
rotted, thou hast remained ; because thou hast lifted thy 
soul to God, and thou hast mounted beyond the cedars of 
Lebanon, and from that elevation hast observed : and Lo ! 
he was not ; and thou hast sought him, and there hath not 
been found place for him. No longer is labour before thee; Ps. 73, 
because thou hast entered into the sanctuary of God, and^''**''* 
hast understood for the last things. So also here thus he 
concludeth. And upon mine enemies mine eye hath looked 
hack. This do ye therefore, brethren, with your souls ; lift 
up your hearts, sharpen the edge of your mind, learn truly 
to love God, learn to despise the present world, learn 
voluntarily to sacrifice the offerings of praise ; to the end 
that, mounting beyond the flower of the grass, ye may look 
back upon your enemies. 



PSALM LV. 



EXPOSITION ». 

L Of this Psalm the title is: At the end, in hymns, 
understanding to David himself. What the " end" is, we will 
briefly call to your recollection, because ye have known it. 
For the end of the Law is Christ, for righteousness unto'Rom.\o, 
every man believing. Be the attention therefore directed ' 
unto the End, directed unto Christ. Wherefore is He 
called the end .'' Because whatever we do, to Him we refer 
it, and when to Him we shall have come home, more to ask 
we shall not have. For there is an end spoken of which 
doth consume, there is an end spoken of which doth make 
perfect. In one sense, for instance, we understand it, when 

» Sermon to the people, wherein he is discoursing of enduring evil men, and 
disputing against the IJonatists. 



26 Constant Praise. Christ o?id His Body JIgured in David. 

Psalm we hear, there is ended the food which was in eating ; and 
'— in another sense wc understand it, when we hear, there is 



ended the vesture which was in weaving : in each case we 
hear, there is ended ; but the food so that it no longer is, 
the vesture so that it is perfected. Our end therefore ought 
to be our perfection, our perfection Christ, For in Him we 
arc made perfect, because of Himself the Head the Members 
are we. And He hath been spoken of as the End of the 
Law, because without Him no one doth make perfect the 
Law. When therefore ye hear in the Psalms, At the end: 
(for many Psalms are thus superscribed :) be not your thought 
upon consuming, but upon consummation. 

2. In hymns: in praises. For whether we are troubled 
and are straitened, or whether we rejoice and exult, He is to 
be praised. Who both in tribulations doth instruct, and in 
gladness doth comfort. For the praise of God from the 
heart and mouth of a Christian man ought not to depart ; 
not that he may be praising in prosperity, and speaking evil 
in adversity ; but after the manner that this Psalm doth 
prescribe, / will speak good of the Lord in every time, 
alivay the praise of Him is in my mouth. Thou dost 
rejoice; acknowledge a Father indulging : thou art troubled; 
acknowledge a Father chastening. Whether He indulge, or 
whether He chasten, He is instructing one for whom He is 
preparing an inheritance. 

3. What then is. Understanding to David himself? David 

2 Sam. indeed was, as we know, a holy prophet, king of Israel, sou 

^^' ^' of Jesse : but because out of his seed there came for our 

Rom. 1, salvation after the flesh the Lord Jesus Christ, often under 

' . that name He is figured, and David instead of Christ is in a 

figure set down, because of the origin of the Flesh of the 

Same. For after some sort He is Son of David, after some 

sort the Lord He is of David ; Son of David after the flesh, 

John 1, Lord of David after the divinity. For if by Him have been 

^" made all things, by Him also David himself hath been made, 

out of whose seed He came to men. Moreover, when the 

Lord had questioned the Jews, whose Son they affirmed 

Christ to be, they made answer, David^s. (Where the Lord 

Msti.add chides the Jews, when they said that He was the Son of 

*^^ , , . David \) He saw that they had stayed at the flesh, and had 

brackets 



Understanding needed to he aioare of our true state. 27 

lost sight of the divinity ; and He reproveth them by pro- Title. 
pounding a question : How then doth David himself in Mat.22, 
spirit call Him Lord, The Lord hath said unto my Lord,^ ~~ ' 
Sit on My right hand, untill lay Thy foes beneath Thy feet? 
If then He in spirit calleth Him Lord, how is He his Son ? 
A question He propounded ; His being Son He denied not. 
Ye have heard Lord; say ye how He is his Sofi : ye have 
heard Son; say how He is Lord. This question the Cathohc 
Faith solveth. How Lord? Because In the beginning was ^ohn 1, 
the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was 
God. How Son? Because The IVord was made Jlesh, and ib. u. 
dwelt among us. Because then David in a figure is Christ, 
but Christ, as we have often reminded your Love, is both 
Head and Body ; neither ought we to speak of ourselves as 
alien from Christ, of Whom we are members, nor to count 
ourselves as if we were any other thing : because The two Gen. 2, 
shall be in one flesh. This is a great Sacrament, saith the Eph. 5 
Apostle, but I speak in regard of Christ and the Church.^^- 
Because then whole Christ is Head and Body ; when we 
hear. Understanding to David himself, understand we our- 
selves also in David. Let the members of Christ understand, 
and Christ in His members understand, and the members of 
Christ in Christ understand : because Head and Members 
are one Christ. The Head was in heaven, and was saying. 
Why dost thou persecute Me ? We with Him are in heaven Acts 9, 
through hope. Himself is with us on earth through love. 
Therefore understanding to David himself. Be we ad- 
monished when we hear, and let the Church understand : 
for there belongeth to us great diligence to understand in 
what evil we now are, and from what evil we desire to be 
delivered, remembering the Prayer of the Lord, where at the 
end we say, Deliver us from evil. Therefore amid many Matt. G, 

' • 13 

tribulations of this world, this Psalm complaineth somewhat 
of understanding. He lamenteth not with it, who hath not 
understanding. But furthermore, dearly beloved, we ought 
to remember, that after the image of God we have been 
made, and that not in any other part than in the under- 
standing itself. For in many things by beasts we are 
surpassed : but when a man knowelh himself to have been 
made after the image of God, therein something in himself Gea. 1, 



28 Man knoics not his misery, not knowing his due honour. 

Psalm he acknowledseth to be more than hath been given to dumb 
LV 



animals. But on consideration of all those things which a 
man hath, he findeth himself in this thing jK'culiarly dis- 
tinguished from a dumb animal, in that he liath himself an 
understanding. Whence certain men despising in them- 
selves that peculiar and especial thing which from their 
Maker they had received, the Maker Himself reproveth, 

Ps. 32, saying, Du not become like horse and mule, in which there 
is no understanding. And in another place He speaketh of 

Ps. 49, 3Ian in honour set. In what honour, except that he is 

20 

made after the image of God ? Therefore, In honour set, he 
understood not, He saith ; he hath been compared unto brutes 
without sense, and hath been made like unto them. Let us 
acknowledge therefore our honour, and let us understand. 
If we do understand, we see this not to be the region of 
rejoicing, but of groaning; not now of exulting, but as yet 
of lamenting. But even if certain exultation doth dwell in 
our hearts, not yet is it in substance, but in hope. Because 
of a thing promised we are glad, because we know He that 
promiseth doth not deceive us. JCevertheless, as regardeth 
the present time, in what evil, in what straits we are, hear 
ye ; and if to this way ye keep, that which ye hear in 
yourselves acknowledge ye. For whosoever doth not yet 
hold to the path of godliness, wondereth that the members 
of David make such groanings. For he seeth not in himself 
those things. So long as in himself too those things he 
seeth not, not yet is he there : he feeleth not that which the 
body feeleth ; because he is beside the body ; let him be 
embodied, and he shall feel. Let him speak then, and let us 
Oxf. hear, let us hear and speak *. 
]^^^- 4. Hear Thou, God, my entreaty, and despise not my 

stand.' prayer: give heed unto me, and hearken unto me. Of 
one earnest, anxious, of one set in tribulation, are these 
words. He is praying, suffering many tilings, from evil 
yearning to be delivered : it remaineth that we hear in what 
evil he is, and when he beginneth to speak, let us acknow- 
ledge there ourselves to be ; in order that the tribulation 
being shared, we may conjoin prayer. (Ver. 2.) I have been 
made sad in my exercise, and have been troubled. Where 
made sad, where troubled? In my exercise, he saith. Of 



IVe may hope for all enemies except evil spirits. 29 
evil men, whom be suffbreth, he halh made mention, a,nd Ver. 

2 

the same sajfenng of evil men he hath called his exercise. '- — 



Think ye not tlial without profit there are evil men in this 
world, and that no good God makelh of them. Every evil 
man either on this ac-count liveth that he may be corrected, 
or on this account liveth that through him a good man may 
be exercised. O that therefore they that do now exercise 
us would be converted, and together with us be exercised ! 
Neveitlieless, so long as they are such as to exercise, let us 
not hate them : because in that wherein any one of them 
is evil, whether unto the end he is to persevere, we know 
not; and ofltimes when to thyself thou seemest to have 
been hating an enemy, thou hast been bating a brother, and 
knouest not. The devil and his angels in the holy 
Scriptures have been manifested to us, that for fire ever- 
lasting they have been destined. Of them only must amend- 
ment be despaired of: against whom we have a secret 
wrestling, for which wrestling the x\postle armeth us, saying, 

Our ureslUng is not against JiesJi. and Mood, that is, against Ephes. 

6 ]2 
men whom ye see, hut against princes, and powers, and ' 

rulers of the world, of this darkness. Lest perchance when 

he had said, of the world, thou shouldest understand demons 

to be rulers of heaven and earth : he hath said, o/ the 

world, of this darkness: of the world he hath spoken, 

of the lovers of the world ; of the world he hath spoken, 

of ungodly and unrighteous men : of the world he hath 

spoken, whereof saith the Gospel, And the world knew Him John i, 

not. For if the woidd knew not Light, because Light ' 

shinefh in darkness, and darkness comprehended It not; 

and this darkness itself, which comprehended not Light 

present, is called by the name of " the world ;" then of this 

darkness they are the rulers. Concerning these same rulers 

therefore we have a definite sentence of Scripture, that from 

thence no return at all of any one of iheni is to be hoped 

for. But truly of the darknesses themselves of whom these 

are the rulers we are not sure, whether perchance they that 

were darkness may not be made light. For instance, to 

them that were lately made believers, saith the Apostle, 

Ye have heeii sometime darkness, hut noio liqht in Me Ephes. 

Lord: darkness in yourselves, light in the Lord. There- ' ' 



30 GocPs forbearance to he followed in our measure. 

Psalm fore, brethren, all evil men, while they are evil men, do 
'— exercise good men. For, behold, hear ye briefly and under- 
stand. If thou art a good man, thou wilt have no enemy 
but a bad man. Moreover, before thee this rule of goodness 
hath been set, that thou shouldest imitate the goodness of 
Matt. 5, thy Father, Who maketh His sun to rise on good men and 
on evil men, and rainelh on just men and unjust men. For 
thou hast not an enemy that God hath not. Thou indeed 
hast for enemy him that with thee hath been created : but 
He him that He hath created. Of enemies therefore of God, 
of evil men and unrighteous men, often in the Scriptures we 
read: and He spareth them. Who hath nothing that the 
enemy may lay to His charge, to Whom every enemy is 
ungrateful : for from Him he hath w hatever of good he 
hath. For from Him he hath it in mercy, even whatever 
thing there is whereby he is troubled. For to this end he is 
troubled, that he be not proud ; to this end he is troubled, 
in order that being humbled he may acknowledge the 
Highest. Thou therefore on thy enemy, whom hardly thou 
suffierest, hast bestowed what ? If He hath him for enemy. 
That hath bestowed so great things on him, and maketh 
His sun to rise on good men and evil men, and raineth on 
just men and unjust men : thou that neither canst make the 
sun to rise, nor upon the lands make rain, canst thou not 
keep one thing for thine enemy, so that there may be to 
Luke 2, thee. Peace on earth to a man of good will ? Therefore 
^*- since this rule of Love for thee is fixed, that imitating the 
LuTcc 6, Father thou shouldest love an enemy : for, He saith, Love 
'' your enemies: in this precept how wouldest thou be exer- 
cised, if thou hadst no enemy to suffer } Thou seest then 
that he profiteth thee somewhat: and let God sparing evil 
men profit thee, so that thou shew mercy : because perchance 
thou too, if thou art a good man, out of an evil man hast 
been made a good man : and if God spared not evil men, 
not even thou wouldest be found to return thanks. May He 
therefore spare others, That hath spared thee also. For it 
were not right, when thou hadst passed through, to close 
up the way of godliness. 

5. Whence then doth this man pray, set among evil men, 
with whose enmities he was being exercised ? Why saith 



Trouble from the wicked the Saints' ' exercise.' 31 

he, / have been made sad in my exercise, and have been Veb. 
troubled? While he is extendiug his love so as to love — — — 
enemies, he hath been affected with disgust, being bayed at 
all around by the enmities of many men, by the phrenzy 
of many, and under a sort of human infirmity he hath sunk. 
He hath seen himself now begin to be pierced through with 
an evil suggestion of the devil, to bring on hatred against his 
enemies : wrestling against hatred in order to perfect love 
herself, in the very fight, and in the wrestling, he hath been 
troubled. For there is his voice also in another Psalm, 
Mine eye hath been troubled, because of anger. And what Ps. 6, 7. 
foUoweth there ? / have waxen old among all mine enemies. 
As if in storm and waves he were beginning to sink, likeMat.14, 
Peter. For he doth trample the waves of this world, that^^' 
loveth enemies. Christ on the sea was walking fearless, 
from Whose heart there could not by any means be taken 
away the love of an enemy ; Who hanging on the Cross did 
say, Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. Luke23, 
Peter too would walk. He as Head, Peter as Body: because, ^^" 
Upon this rock, He saith, / will build My Church. HeMat.iG, 
was bidden to walk, and he was walking by the Grace of'^" 
Him bidding, not by his own strength. But when he saw 
the wind mighty, he feai'ed ; and then he began to sink, 
being troubled in his exercise. By what mighty wind } 
(Ver. 3.) By the voice of the enemy, and by (he tribulation 
of the sinner. Therefore, in the same manner as he cried 
out on the waves. Lord, I perish, save me, a similar voice Mat. 14, 
from this man hath preceded, Hearken Thou, O God, to niy ^^'^. j 
entreaty, and despise not my prayer : give heed unto me, 
and hearken unto me. Wherefore } For what sufferest 
thou ? Of what dost thou groan .'' / have been made sad in 
my exercise. To be exercised indeed amid evil men Thou 
hast set me, but too much they have risen up, beyond my 
powers: calm Thou one troubled, stretch forth a hand to one 
sinking. / have been made sad in my exercise, and have 
been troubled by the voice of the enemy, and by the tribulation 
of the sinner : for they have brought down upon me iniquity, 
and in anger they ivere shadowing me. Ye have heard of 
waves and winds: one as it were humbled they were insulting, 
and he was praying : on every side against him with the roar 



3*2 A human enemy scarce means us real harm. 

Psalm of insult they were raging, but he within was calling upon 

'— Hira whom they did not see. 

6. Wlien some such thing is a Christian's lot to suffer, he 
ought not lightly, as if in hatred, to proceed against that 
man by whom he is suffering, and to will to conquer the 
wind; but to turn himself to prayer, that he lose not love. 
For we must not fear that a human enemy can do any thing. 
For what is he to do ? To say many evil things, to hurl 

Matt. 5, reproaches, to rage with revilings : but to thee what? Be- 
joice, He saith, and exults/or your reward is great in the 
heavens. He on earth redoublcth reproaches, thou in heaven 
thy gains. But let him rage more, he might do yet some- 
thing more : what is more secure than thou, to whom hath 

Mat.io,been said, Fear not them that kill the body, but the soul 

28 

they cannot kill. What then is to be feared when thou 
sufferest an enemy ? Lest thy love be troubled wherewith 
thou lovest an enemy. For that human enemy, being flesh 
and blood, desireth that which he seeth in thee. But 
another hidden enemy, ruler of this darkness, which thou 
Epbes. sufferest in flesh and blood, is seeking the other hidden 
thing of thine ; thy inward treasures to plunder and waste 
he is striving. Two enemies, therefore, set thou before 
thine eyes, the one open, and the other hidden : the open, a 
man ; the hidden, the devil. This man is the same as thou 
art after human nature, but after faith and love not yet that 
which thou art, but will be able to be that which thou art. 
Since therefore there are two, the one see thou, the other 
perceive thou; the one love thou, of the other beware. For 
even that enemy, whom thou seest, would humble that thing 
in thee wherein he is conquered. For instance, if by thy 
riches he is conquered, poor he would make thee; if by 
thy honour he is conquered, humble he would make thee ; 
if by thy powers he is conquered, weak he would make 
thee : to these things therefore he giveth heed, in thee 
either to throw down or to take away the things whereby 
he is conquered. That hidden enemy also from thee would 
take away that thing wherein he is conquered. For being 
man thou conquerest a man in human lelicity, but the devil 
thou conquerest in love of an enemy. In like manner then, 
as a man gocth about to take away from thee, and to cut 



Oio' victojy is, to maintain Charity. 33 

short, or to overthrow the felicity wherein he is conquered : Ver. 

so also the devil conquers a man by taking away that wherein — ll__ 

he is conquered. IJut take care in heart to hold fast the 

love of an enemy, wherewith the devil is conquered of thee. 

Let a man rage as much as he can, let him take whatever 

he can ; if he is loved that is openly raging, he hath been 

conquered who is secretly raging. 

7. But this man being troubled and made sad was praying, 

his eye being disturbed as it were on account of anger. But Ps- 6, 7. 

the anger of a brother if it shall have been inveterate is then 

hatred. Anger doth trouble the eye, hatred doth quench it : 

anger is a straw, hatred is a beam. Sometimes thou hatest 

and chidest an angry man : in thee is hatred, in him whom 

thou chidest anger : with reason to thee is said. Cast out Matt. 7, 

first the beam from thine own eye, and so thou shall see to 

cast out the straiv from thy hrother''s eye. For that ye may 

know how much difference there is between anger and 

hatred : day by day men are angry with their sons, shew 

me them that hate their ^ sons ! This man being troubled ' Oxf. 

. Mss. 

was praying even when made sad, wrestling against all « him 

revilings of all revilers; not in order that he might conquer ^'^^^ 

any one of them by giving back reviling, but that he might 

not hate any one of them. Hence he prayeth, hence asketh. 

From the voice of the enemy and from tiie tribulation of the 

sinner; for they hare brought down upon me iniquity, and 

in anger they were shadowing me. (Ver. 4.) 3Iy heart hath 

been troubled in me. This is the same as elsewhere hath been 

said, Mine eye because of anger hath been troubled. And if Ps. 6, 7. 

eye hath been troubled, what followeth ? And fear of death 

hath fallen upon me. Our life is love : if life is love, death 

is hatred. When a man hath begun to fear lest he should 

hate him that he was loving, it is death he is fearing ; and 

a sharper death, and a inore inward death, whereby soul is 

killed, not body. Thou didst miud a man raging against 

thee ; what was he to do, against whom thine own Lord had 

given thee security, saying, Fear not them that kill ^//<?Mat, lo, 

body ? He by raging killeth body, thou by keeping hatred 

hast killed soul ; and he the body of another, thou thine 

own soul. Fear, therefore, of death hath fallen upon me. 

VOL. III. D 



34 Why a good man may long to escape. 

rsALM 8. Ver. 5. Fear/iiliiess and Iremhling hare come vpon me, 
- - and darkness have covered me. And I hare said, — 
lJi.lm2, He that hatelh his brother, is in darkness until now. If 
^' '*' love is liglit, hatred is darkness. And what sailh to himself 
one set in that weakness and troubled in that exercise ? (Ver. 6.) 
Who shall give me wings as to a dove, and I shall Jiy and 
shall rest? Either for death he was wishing, or for solitude he 
was longing. So long, he saith, as this is the work with me, 
as this command is given me, that I should love enemies, the 
revilings of these men, increasing and shadowing me, do 
derange mine eye, perturb my sight, ])enetrate my heart, slay 
1 Oxf. my soul. I could wish to depart, but^ weak I am, lest by 
' for'as abiding 1 should add sins to sins : or at least may I be 
much separated for a little space from mankind, lest m}' wound 
suffer from frequent blows, in order that when it hath been 
made whole it may be brought back to the exercise. This 
is what takes place, brethren, and there ariscth ofttimes in the 
mind of the servant of God a longing for solitude, for no other 
reason than because of the multitude of tribulations and scan- 
dals, and he saith. Who shall give me wings ? Doth he find 
himself without wings, or rather with bound wings? If they 
are wanting, be they given ; if bound, be they loosed ; because 
even he that looseth a bird's wings, either giveth, or giveth 
back to it its wings. For it had not as though its own them, 
wherewith it could not fly. Bound wings make a burden. 
Who, he saith, shall give vie icings as to a dove, and I shall 
fly and shall rest ? Shall rest, where ? 1 have said there are 
Philip. ^^'^ senses here: either, as saith the Apostle, To he dissolved 
J, 23. and to he with Christ, for it is hg far the best thing. For 
he too, although strong, although great, although in heart 
most stout; although in Christ a soldier invincible, in his 
Gal. G, exercise, as we read, was troubled, and he saith. Henceforth 
^'' let not any one be vexatious to me. As though he were 
Ps. 119, saying out of that Psalm, Weariness hath gotten hold on me 
• because of sin nets forsaking Thy law. Therefore a man 
ofttimes endeavoureth to amend men perverted*, crooked, 
belonging indeed to his care, but men in whom there is 
but failure for all human pains and vigilance ; amend he 
cannot, suffer them he must. Even he that amended cannot 



Duty and love retain where trouble annoys. 35 

be, is thine, either by the fellowship of the human race, or Ver; 
ofttimes by Church Communion; he is within, what wilt thou — - — 
do ? whither wilt go ? whither sejDarate thyself, in order that 
these things thou mayest not suffer? But go to him, speak, 
exhort, coax, threaten, reprove. I have done all things, 
whatever powers I had I have expended and have drained, 
nothing I see have I prevailed; all my labour hath been 
spent out, sorrow hath remained. How then shall my heart 
rest from such men, except I say, Who shall give me 
wings? As to a dove, however, not as to a raven. A dove 
seeketh a flying away from troubles, but she loseth not love. 
For a dove as a type of love is set forth, and in her the 
plaint is loved. Nothing is so fond of plaints as a dove : 
day and night she complaineth, as though she were set here 
where she ought to complain, What then saith this lover? 
Revilings of men to bear I am unable, they roar, with 
phrensy are carried away, are inflamed with indignation, 
in anger they shadow * me ; to do good to them I am ' adum- 
unable; O that I might rest somewhere, being separated '^'^^ 
from them in body, not in love ; lest in me there should bo 
troubled love itself: with my words and my speech no good 
can I do them, by praying for them perchance I shall do 
good. These words men say, but ofttimes they are so bound, 
that to fly they are not able. For perchance they are not 
bound with any birdlime, but are bound by duty. But if 
they are bound with care and duty, and to leave it are 
unable, let them say, 1 was wishing to he dissolved and /o Philip. 
he ivilh Christ, for it is by far the hest thing: to abide in '" '" * 
the jlesh is necessary hecause of you. A dove bound back 
by affection, not by cupidity, to fly av/ay was not able 
because of duty to be fulfilled, not because of little merit. 
Nevertheless a longing in heart must needs be ; nor doth 
any man suffer this longing, but he that hath begun to walk 
in that narrow way: in order that he may know that there Matt. 7, 
are not wanting to the Church persecutions, even in this * 
time, when a calm is seen in the Church, at least with 
respect to those persecutions, which our Martyrs have suf- 
fered. But there are not wanting persecutions, because a true 
saying is this. All that will godly to live in Christ, shall ^ Tim. 
suffer persecution. Thou sufferest not persecution: thou ' 

D 2 



.3() Religious retirement no escape from trial. 

PsAi.M wiliest not godly to live in Christ. Dost thou will to prove 
'— that to be a true saying which halli been said ? Begin 



godly to live in Christ. What is it, godly to live in 
Christ ? So that this may belong to thy bowels, whereof 
2 Cor. the Apostle speakctli, Who is weak, and lam not iveak? who 
' ' is offended, and I burn not P Other men's infirmities, other 
men's offences, were to him persecutions. Are they then 
wanting at this time ? More do abound to them that mind 
these things. And ofttinics from afar a man is seen, and it 
is said of him, It is icell with him; and he that saith it, 
is cither tasting his own matters, and is not able to taste 
those of others ; or of himself hath not whereof he may taste, 
and with another man tasting, nay devouring, he suffereth 
not. Let him begin therefore godly to live in Christ, and 
prove that which is said : he beginueth to long for wings, to 
go afar off, to flee and to abide in the desert. 

y. For whence is it think ye, brethren, that the servants of 
God have thronged the deserts.'' If well with them it were 
amid men, would they withdraw from men? And yet what 
do even these same ? Behold they go afar off fleeing, they 
abide in the desert : but do they one by one ? There 
holdeth them love, so that with many they abide ; and from 
these same many, there come forth some to exercise them. 
Because in every congregation of a multitude there must needs 
be found evil men. For God, that knoweth that we must be 
exercised, mingleth with us even men that are not to per- 
severe ; or certainly so counterfeit, as that they have not so 
much as begun that wherein they ought to persevere. For 
He knoweth that it is necessary for us that we bear evil men, 
and the good there is in what we are should advance ; let us 
love enemies, rebuke, chastise, excommunicate, with love 
from us even separate them. For see what saith the Apostle; 
2 Thess. But if any one obey not our word through the epistle, him 
' ■ mark ye, and be not miugled together with him. But let 
there not steal uj)on thee because of this thing indignation, 
ib. ]5. and trouble thine eye. Not, he saith, as an enemy esteem 
him, but rebuke him as a brother, that he may blush. From 
him from whom he proclaimeth separation, he cutteth not off 
love. That eye liveth, thy life liveth. For love lost is thy 
death. This he hath feared to lose that hath said, Fear of 



Our Lord's example in enduring evil men. 37 

death hath fallen upon me. Accordingly, lest I should lose Ver. 
the life of love, Who shall give me wings as to a dove, and ' ' 
I shall fly and shall rest? Whither art thou to go ? whither 
to fly? where to rest? (Ver. 7.) Behold I have gone afar 
fleeing, and have abode in the desert. In what desert ? 
Wherever thou shalt be, there will gather them together 
other men, the desert with thee they will seek, will attach 
themselves to thy life, thou canst not thrust back the society 
of brethren : there are mingled with thee also evil men ; 
still exercise is thy due portion, Behold I have gone afar, 
and have abode in the desert. In what desert ? It is per- 
chance in the conscience, whither no man entereth, where 
no one is with thee, where thou art and God. For if in the 
desert, in any place, what wilt thou do with men gathering 
themselves together ? For thou wilt not be able to be sepa- 
rated from mankind, so long as among men thou livest. 
Observe rather that Comforter, our Lord and King, our Ruler 
and Creator, created also among us: observe that with His 
Twelve He joined one man whom He was to suffer. 

10. He saith, Behold I have gone afar fleeing, and have 
abode in the desert. Perchance that man, as I have said, 
hath fled unto his conscience, there some little desert he will 
have found where he may rest. But that love doth trouble 
him : alone he found himself in conscience, but not alone in 
charity: within he was comforted in conscience, but without 
tribulations left him not. Therefore in himself at peace, on 
others depending, when he was yet being troubled, he saith 
what ? 

Ver. 8. / ivas looking fo^r him that should save me 
from loeakness of mind and tempest. Sea there is, tempest 
there is : nothing for thee remaineth but to cry out, Zorc/, Mat. 14, 
I pjerish. Let Him stretch forth hand. Who doth the waves ^ 
tread fearlessly, let Him relieve thy dread, let Him confirm 
in Himself thy security, let Him speak to thee within, and 
say to thee. Give heed to Me, what I have borne : an evil 
brother perchance thou art suffering, or an enemy without 
art suffering ; which of these have I not suffered ? There 
roared without Jews, within a disciple was betraying. There 
rageth therefore tempest, but He doth save men from weakness 
of mind, and tempest. Perchance thy ship is being troubled, 



38 C/irist to he aivaked in us when storms arise. 

Psalm because He in tliee is sleeping. Tiie sea was raging, the 
bark wlierein the disciples were sailing was being tossed; 



Matt. 8, but Christ was sleeping: at length it was seen by them that 
Umpe- among ihem was sleeping the Ruler' and Creator of winds ; 
•■ator they drew near and awoke Christ; lie commanded^ the 
lavit winds, and there was a great calm. With reason then per- 
chance thy heart is troubled, because thou hast forgotten 
Him on Whom ihou hast believed : beyond endurance thou 
art suffering, because it hath not come into tliy mind what 
for thee Christ hath borne. If unto thy mind cometh not 
Christ, He sleepeth : awake Christ, recall faith. For then in 
thee Christ is sleeping, if thou hast forgotten the sufferings 
of Christ : then in thee Christ is watching, if thou hast 
remembered the sufferings of Christ. But when with full 
heart thou shalt have considered what He hath suffered, wilt 
not thou too with equanimity endure ? and perchance rejoic- 
ing, because thou hast been found in some likeness of the 
sufferings of thy Kiug. When therefore on these things 
thinking thou hast begun to be comforted and to rejoice, He 
hath arisen. He hath commanded the winds ; therefore there 
is a great calm. I was looking for Him that should save 
me from weakness of mind and tempest. 

11. Ver. 9. Sink, Lord, and divide the tongues of them. 
He is referring to men troubling him and shadowing him, 
and he hath wished this thing not of anger, brethren. They 
that have wickedly lifted up themselves, for them it is expe- 
dient that they be simk. They that have wickedly con- 
spired, it is expedient for them that their tongues should be 
divided: to good let them consent, and let their tongues 
Ps. 41, agree togetlier. But if to one purpose' there were whisper- 
sin id- "^g against me, he saith, all mine enemies, let them lose 
ipsum their * one purpose' in evil, divided be the tongues of 
them, let them not with themselves agree together. Sink, 
O Lord, and divide the tongues of them. Wherefore sink ,? 
Because themselves they have lifted up. Wherefore divide? 
Because for an evil thing they have united. Recollect that 
tower of proud men made after the deluge : what said the 
Gen. 11, proud men .? Lest we perish in a deluge, let us make a lofty 
tower. In pride they were thinking themselves to be for- 
tified, they builded up a lofty lower, and the Lord divided 



Humility unites; Pride divides tongues. 39 

the tongues of them. Then they began not to understand Ver. 

one another ; hence arose the beginning of many tongues. ^ — 

For before, one tongue there was : but one tongue for men 
agreeing was good, one tongue for humble men was good : 
but when that gathering together did into a union of jDride 
fall headlong, God spared them, even though He divided 
the tongues, lest by understanding one another they should 
make a destructive unity. Through proud men, divided 
were the tongues ; through humble Apostles, united were 
the tongues. Spirit of pride dispersed tongues, Spirit Holy 
united tongues. For when the Holy Spirit came upon the Acts 2, 
disciples, with the tongues of all men they spake, by all men * 
they were understood : tongues dispersed, into one were 
united. Therefore if still they rage and are Gentiles, it is 
expedient for them divided to have their tongues. They 
would have one tongue ; let them come to the Church ; 
because even among the diversity of tongues of flesh, one is 
the tongue in faith of heart. 

Sink, O Lord, and divide the tongues of them. 

12. For I have seen iniquity and contradiction in the 
city. With reason this man was seeking the desert, for he 
saw iniquity and contradiction in the city. There is a certain 
city turbulent : the same it was that was building a tower, 
the same was confounded and called Babylon, the same Gen. li, 
through innumerable nations dispersed : thence is gathered 
the Church into the desert of a good conscience. For he 
saw contradiction in the city. ' Christ cometh.' — ' What 
Christ?' thou contradictest. — 'Son of God.' — 'And hath 
God a Son ?' thou contradictest. — ' He was born of a 
Virgin, suffered, rose again.' — ' And whence is it possible 
for this to be done ?' thou contradictest. — Give heed at 
least to the glory of the Cross itself. Now on the brow of 
kings that Cross hath been fixed, over which enemies in- 
sulted. ''The effect hath proved the virtue. It hath subdued 
the world, not with steel, but with wood. The wood of the 
Cross deserving of insults hath seemed to enemies, and 
before the wood itself standing they were wagging the head, 
and saying. If Son of God He is, let Him come down from Mat. 27, 
the Cross. He was stretching forth His hands to a people * 
^ Nearlj' all Mss. '' By effect prove the virtue." Ben. 



40 The city of ungodliness, and its walls. 

Psalm unbelieving and contradicting. For if just he is that of faith 

= '- liveth, unjust he is that hath not faith. By that which here 

Rom. 1, ' •' '' 

17. he saith iiiiquiiy, I understand unbelief. Tlie Lord there- 
fore was seeing in the city iniquity and contradiction, and 
was stretching forth His hands to a people unbelieving and 
contradicting: and nevertheless waiting for these same, He 
Luke was saying, Father, forgive them, for they know not what 
^ ' ' iheij do. Even now indeed there rage the remnant of that 
city, even now they contradict. From the brows of all men 
now He is stretching forth hands to the remnant unbelieving 
and contradicting. For I have seen iniquifi/ and contra- 
diction in the city. 

13. Ver. 10. Day and night there will compass it upon the 
' Oxf. ivalls thereof iniquity, and labour^. " Upon the nails there- 
om/and^fi" upou the fortilicalions thereof, holding as it were the 
labour: heads thereof, the noble men thereof. If that noble man 
were a Christian, not one would remain a pagan ! Ofttimes 
men say, ' no one would remain a pagan, if he were a 
Christian.' Ofttimes men say, * If he too were made a 
Christian, who would remain a pagan r' Because therefore 
not yet they are made Christians, as if walls they are of that 
city unbelieving and contradicting. How long shall these 
>valls stand ? Not always shall they stand. The Ark is 
Josh. 6, going around the walls of Jericho : there shall come a time at 
the seventh going round of the Ark, when all the walls of the 
city unbelieving and contradicting shall fall. Until it come 
to pass, this man is being troubled in his exercise ; and 
enduring the remains of men contradicting, he would choose 
Avings for flying away, would choose the rest of the desert. 
Yea let him continue amid men contradicting, let him endure 
menaces, drink revilings, and look for Him that will save 
him from weakness of mind and tempest: let him look upon 
2or?mythe Head, the pattern for his "life, let him be made calm in 
hope, even if he is troubled in fact. Day and niyht there 
ivill compass it upon the walls thereof iniquity ; and labour 
in the midst thereof an I iiijustice. And lor this reason 
labour is there, because iniquity is there : because injustice 
is there, therefore also labour is there. But let them hear 
Mat. 11, him stretching forth hands. Come unto Me, all ye that 
^ ' lahvnr. \'e cry, ye contradict, ye revile : He on the contrary, 



Usury publicly avoiced. Its icorst kind, in Revenge. 41 

Come unto Me, all ye that labour, iw your pride, and ye Ver. 
shall rest in My humility. Learn of Me, He saith, for ^^.\, 

*" iVJ 2L\i i i ) 

meek I am and humble in heart, and ye shall Jind rest unto 2d. 
your souls. For whence do they labour, but because they 
are not meek and humble in heart? God humble was made, 
let man blush to be proud. 

14. Ver. 11. There lialh not failed from the streets thereof 
tisury and deceit. Usury and deceit are not hidden at least, 
because they are evil things, but in public they rage. For 
he that in his house doth any evil thing, however for his evil 
thing doth blush : In the streets thereof usury and deceit. 
Money-lending' even hath a profession, Money-lending also ' Foenus 
is called a science ; a corporation is spoken of, a corporation 
as if necessary to the state, and of its profession it payeth 
revenue; so entirely indeed in the streets is that which should 
have been hidden. There is also another usury worse, when 
thou forgivest not that which to thee is owed; and the eye 
is disturbed in that verse of the prayer. Forgive us our debts. Matt, 6, 
{as ue too forgive our debtors^). For what there wilt thou do, .,g^ q^^ 
when thou art going to pray, and coming to that same verse ? Mss. 
An insulting word thou hast heard : thou wouldest exact the 
punishment of condemnation. Do but consent to exact just 
so much as thou hast given, thou usurer of injuries! With 
the fist thou hast been smitten, slaying thou seekest. Evil 
usury! How wilt thou go to prayer ? If thou shalt have left 
praying, which way wilt thou come round unto the Lord ^ 
Behold thou wilt say: Our Father, Which art in heaven, Matt. 6, 
halloaed be Thy Name, Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, ~~ 
as in heaven so on earth. Thou wilt say, Our daily bread 
give us to-day. Thou wilt come to, Forgive us our debts, as 
we also forgive our debtors. Even in that evil city let there 
abound these usuries ; let them not enter the walls where 
the breast is smitten ! What wilt thou do ? because there 
thou and that verse are^ in the midst ? Petitions for thee hath 
a heavenly Lawyer composed. He that knew what used there 
to be done, said to thee, " Otherwise thou shalt not obtain." 
Verily, verily, I say unto you, that if ye shall Jiave forgiven Ma.\.L 6, 
men sins, they shall be forgiven you; but if ge shall not 

<= Oxf. Mss. ' Where thnu arnl that <' See Tract. 7. On the Gospel of 
verse are there.' St. John, §. 11. 



42 To ivin pardon, we must do as we say in prayer. 

Psalm have forgiven sins unto men, neither loill your Father forgive 
' you. Who saith tins ? lie that knowcth what tliere is being 



done, in the place whereat thou art standing to make request. 
See how Himself hath willed to be thy Advocate ; Himself 

» juris- thy l^awyer ', Himself the Assessor of the Father, Himself 

pentus ^^^^^ Judge hath said, " Otherwise thou shalt not receive." 
What wilt thou do? Thou wilt not receive, unless thou 
shalt speak ; wilt not receive if falsely thou shalt speak. 
Therefore either thou must do and speak, or else what thou 
askest thou wilt not earn ; because they that this do not do, 
are in the midst of those evil usuries. Be they engaged 
therein, that yet do idols either adore or desire : do not 
thou, O people of God, do not thou, O people of Christ, do 
not thou the Body of Him the Head ! Give heed to the 

'^incu-bond^ of thy peace, give heed to the promise of thy life. 
For what doth it profit thee, that thou exactest for injuries 
which thou hast endured ? doth vengeance refresh thee ? 
Therefore, over the evil of another shalt thou rejoice ? Thou 

3 i.e. evil hast Suffered evil; pardon thou; be not ye two'. 

™^° And there faileth not from the streets thereof usury and 

deceit. 

15. Therefore for this reason thou wast seeking solitude 
and wings, for this reason thou art complaining, these things 
to bear thou art not able, namely, the contradiction and 
iniquity of this city. Rest thou in those things which with 
thee are within, and do not seek solitude. Hear also of 
these very things what he saith. 

Ver. 12. For if an enemy had upbraided me. And indeed 
above he was ' troubled in his exercise' by the voice of the 
enemy and by the tribulation of the sinner, perhaps being 
placed in that city, that proud city that was building a tower, 
which was " sunk %" that divided might be the tongues : 
give heed to his inward groaning because of perils from false 
brethren. For if an enemy had upbraided me, I would have 
undergone it assuredly, and if he that did hate me had over 
me great words spoken, that is, through pride had ou me 
trampled, did magnify himself above me, did threaten me all 
in his power: I would hide myself assuredly from him. 
From him that is abroad, thou wouldest hide thyself where ? 
* Mss. ' submorsa,' (not ' subversn,') nlluciing to verse 9. Ben. 



The ivorst enemies those icho were once within. 43 

Amid those that are within. But now see whether any thing Ver. 
else remaineth, but that thou seek solitude. (Ver. 13.) Btd thou, — iil- 
he saith, man of one mind, my guide and my friend. Per- 
chance sometimes good counsel thou hast given, perchance 
sometimes thou hast gone before me, and some wholesome 
advice thou hast given me : in the Church of God together 
we have been. But thou, man of one mind, my guide and my 
friend, (ver. 14.) that together with me didst take sueet morsels. 
What are the sweet morsels ? Not all they that are present 
know : but let them not be soured that do know, in order 
that they may be able to say to them that as yet know not : 
Taste ye and see, how sweet is the Lord. rs.34,8. 

Thou that together with me didst take sweet morsels. In 
the House of God we have icalked with consent. Whence 
then dissention ? Thou that wast within, hast become one 
without. He hath walked with me in the House of God 
with consent: another house hath he set up against the 
House of God. Wherefore hath that been forsaken, wherein 
we have walked with consent'? wherefore hath that been 'against 
deserted, wherein together we did take sweet morsels ? nalists" 

16. Ver. 15. Let there come death upon them, and let 
them go down unto Hell living. How hath he cited and 
hath made us call to mind that first beginning of schism, 
when in that first people of the Jews certain proud men 
separated themselves, and would without have sacrificed ? 
A new death upon them came : the earth opened herself, Numb. 
and swallowed them up alive. Let there come, he sailh, '^ 
death upon them, ajid let them go down into Hell living. 
What is living ? knowing that they are perishing, and yet 
perishing. Hear of living men perishing and being swallowed '^against 
up in a gulph of the earth, that is, being swallowed up in the^g^igt"' 
voraciousness of earthly desires. Thou sayest to a man, 
What aileth thee, brother ? Brethren we are, one God we 
invoke, in one Christ we believe, one Gospel we hear, one 
Psalm we sing, one Amen we respond, one Hallelujah we 
sound, one Easter we celebrate : why art thou without and 
I am within ? Ofttimes one straitened, and perceiving how 
true are the charges which arc made, saith, May God requite 
our ancestors ! Therefore alive he perisheth. In the next 
place thou continuest and thus givest warning. At least let the 



44 Leaders in evil perish hnoivingly. 

Psalm evil of separation stand alone, why dost thou adjoin thereto 
__IiX:_that of rebaptisra ? Acknowledge in me what thou hast; 
and if thou hatest me, Christ in me sjiare thou. And this 
evil thing doth frequently and very greatly displease them. 
Truly, say they, it is ill done ; O that it were possible not to 
have it done : but what have we to do with the statutes of 
our ancestors ? Let them go doicu unto Hell living. If 
being dead thou shouldest go down, what thou wert doing 
thou wouldest not know ; l)ut when thou knowest that to be 
an evil thing which thou doest, and nevertheless docst it, 
dost thou not alive go down unto the lower places ? And why 
Numb, is it that a gulf of the earth swallowed up alive the rulers 
16, 32. themselves for the most part, but the people that with them 
consented, fire falling from heaven consumed ? It is on this 
account that this Psalm referring to this punishment, with 
the people hath begun, and with the leaders hath concluded. 
Let t/tere come death upon them, it hath said, because of 
them upon whom there came fire from Heaven ; and imme- 
diately hath continued. Let them go down unto Hell living, 
because of the leaders whom a gulf of the earth swallowed 
up. For how should they have descended unto Hell living, 
of whom it had said, Let there come death upon them ? If 
already upon them death had come, how alive unto the lower 
places did they descend ? Therefore with the lesser ones he 
hath begun, with the greater he hath concluded. Let there 
come death upon them, that have consented and have followed. 
What of those leaders and princes ? Let them go down unto 
Hell living ; because they themselves have the Scriptures in 
their hands, and know well by daily reading how the Church 
Catholic through the whole world is so spread, that in a 
word all contradiction is void ; and that there cannot be 
found any sujjport for their schism they know well : there- 
fore unto the lower places living they go down, because the 
evil which they do, evil to be they know. But the former a 
fire of divine indignation consumed. For being inllanied 
with desire of strife, from their evil leaders they would not 
depart. There came upon fire a fire, upon the heat of 
dissension the heat of consuming. Let there come death 
\q)on them and let them go down unto LLell living. For 
naughtiness is in their lodgings, in the midst of them. Ln 



Complaint of the Church. Its reftuje in God. 45 

their lodgings^, wherein tliey tarry and pass away. For here Ver. 
they are not alway to be: and nevertheless in defence of ar/r — 'r- 
temporal aunnosity they are nglitnig so fiercely. In their tUs^ 
lodgings is iniquity ; in the midst of them is iniquity: no 
part of them is so near the middle of them as their heart. 

17. Ver. Ifc). Therefore to the Lord I have cried out. The 
Body of Christ and the oneness of Christ in anguish, in 
weariness, in uneasiness, in the tribulation of its exercise, that 
One Man, Oneness in One Body set, when He was wearying 
His soul in crying out from the ends of the earth; saith, 
From the ends of the earth to Thee I have cried out, wheti'Ps.6],^. 
My heart was being vexed. Himself one, but a oneness^ that-unitas 
One ! and Himself one, not in one place one, but from the 

ends of the earth is crying as one. How from the ends of the 
earth should there cry one, except in many there were one? 
/ to the Lord have cried out. Rightly do thou cry out to 
the Lord, cry not to Donatus : lest for thee he be instead of 
the Lord a lord, that under the Lord would not be a fellow- 
servant. I to the Lord have cried out : and the Lord hath 
heard me. 

18. Ver. 18. In evening, in morning, at noon-day I will 
recount and will tell forth, and He shall hearken to my 
voice. Do thou proclaim glad tidings, keep not secret that 
which thou hast received, in evening of things gone by, in 
unorning of things to be, at noon-day of things ever to be. 
Therefore to that which he saith in evening belongeth that 
which he recounteth : to that which he saith, in morning, 
belongeth that which he telleth forth : to that which he saith 
at noon-day, belongeth that wherein his voice is hearkened 
to. For the end is at noon-day; that is to say, whence there 
is no going down unto setting. For at noon-day there is 
light full high, the splendour of wisdom, the fervour of love. 
In evening and in morning and at noon-day. In evening, 
the Lord on the Cross ; in morning, in Resurrection ; at noon- 
day, in Ascension. I will recount in evening the patience of 
Him dying, 1 will tell forth in morning the life of Him rising, 
I will pray that He hearken at noon-day sitting at the right 
hand of the Father. He shall hearken to my voice, That Rom. 8, 
intercedeth for us. How great is the security of this man ? 
How great the consolation, how great the refuge ' from 



46 Proud Christians are the chaff in the hordes floor. 

Psalm weakness of mind and tempest,' against evil men, against 
ungodly men both without and within, and in the case of 



those that are without though tliey had been within. 

19. Therefore, my Brethren, those that in the very con- 
gregation of these walls ye see to be rebellious men, proud, 
seeking their own, lifted up ; not having a zeal for God that 
is chaste, sound, quiet, but ascribing to themselves much ; 
ready for dissension, but not finding opportunity ; are the 
Matt. 3, very chaff of the Fiord's floor. From hence these few men 
^^' the wind of pride hath dislodged : the whole floor will not 
fly, save when lie at the last shall winnow. But what shall 
we do, save with this man sing, with this man pray, with 
this man mourn and say securely, (ver. 18.) He sltall redeem 
in peace my soul. Against them that love not peace: in 
peace He shall redeem my soul. " Because with those that 
Ps. 120, haled peace I was peace-making.'''' He shall redeem in peace 
^'^' my soul, from those that draw near to me. For from those 
that are afar from me, it is an easy case : not so soon doth 
he deceive me that saith, Come, pray to an idol: he is very 
far from me. Art thou a Christian ? A Christian, he saith. 
Out of a neighbouring place he is my adversary, he is at 
hand. He shall redeem in peace my soul, from those that 
draw near to me : for in, many thinys they were with me. 
Wherefore have I said, draw near to me? Because in 
many tilings they were with me. In this verse two pro- 
positions occur. In many things they were with me. 
Baptism we had both of us, in that they were with me : 
the Gospel we both read, they wero in that with me : the 
festivals of martyrs we celebrated, they were there with me : 
Easter's solemnity we attended, they were there with me. 
But not entirely with nic : in schism not with me, in heresy 
not with me. In many things with mc, in few things not 
with n)e. But in these few things wherein not with me, 
there is no profit to them of the many things wherein they 
were with me. For see, brethren, how many things hath 
recounted the Apostle Paul : one thing, he hath said, if it 
1 Cor. shall have been wanting, in vain are those things. If with 
,1 ^-fj^Q tongues of men and of angels I shall speak, he saith, if 
I have all prophecy, and all faitli, and all knowledge ; if 
mountains I shall remove, if I shall bestow all my goods 



Outward privileges avail not without Charity. 47 

upon the jwor, if I shall deliver my body even so that it he Ver. 
burned. How many things he hath enumerated ! To all ^°' - 
these many thmgs let there be wanting one thing, charity; 
the former in number are more, the latter in weight is 
greater. Therefore in all Sacraments they are with me, in 
one charity not with me : In many things they were with 
me. Again, by a different expression : For in many things 
they were icith me. They that themselves have separated 
from me. with me they were, not in few things, but in many 
things. For throughout the whole world ic\w are the grains, 
many are the chaffs. Therefore he saith what ? In chaff 
with me they were, in wheat with me they were not. And 
the chaff is nearly related to the wheat, from one seed it 
goeth forth, in one field is rooted, with one rain is nourished, 
the same reaper it suffereth, the same threshing sustaineth, 
the same winnowing awaiteth, not into one barn entereth. 
For in many things they were with me. 

20. (Ver. 19.) God will hear me, and He shall humble 
them That is be/ore ages. For they rely on some leader or 
other of theirs that hath begun but yesterday. He shall 
humble them That is be/ore ages. For even if with reference 
to time Christ is of Mary the Virgin, nevertheless before 
ages " In the beginning He is the Word, and the V/ord with John i, 
God, and the Word God.'" He shall humble them. That is ^' 
before ages. For to them is no changing : of them I speak 
to whom is no changing. He knew of some to persevere, 
and in the perseverance of their own wickedness to die. 
For we see them, and to them is no changing: they that 
die in that same perverseness, in that same schism, to them 
is no changing. God shall humble them, shall humble them 
in damnation, because they are exalted in dissension. To 
them is no changing, because they are not changed for the 
better, but for the worse : neither while they are here, nor in 
the resurrection. For all wo s])all rise again, but' not all'E.V. ^ 
shall be changed. Wherefore? Because To them is /lOjCor.is, 
changing: and they have not feared God. My brethren, ^^• 
one remedy there is: let them fear God, let them forsake 
Donatus. Thou sayest to him. Thou art perishing in schism; 
it must needs be that God should requite those evil things : 
thou wilt come unto damnation ; flatter not thyself with thy 



48 Heretics jicrvcrt God's covenant with Christ. 

Psalm words, follow not a blind euidc : for a blind man leading a 

TV 

— r— ' blind man, tof^cther into a ditch do thov fall. What is that 

IVIat. 15 ' D ./ 

14. to me ? he sailh: as I have lived yesterday, so also to-day: 
what my parents were, the same also am I. Thou fearest 
not God : give fear to God : let him think that all these 
things are true which are read, that the faithfulness of 
Christ is that which cannot be broken : how in heresy shall 
he remain in the face of so great evidentness of the holy 
Catholic Church, which God hath diffused throughout the 
whole world ; which before He diffused, He promised, 
foretold, hath so manifested as He promised? Therefore 
let them beware and mark that fear not God. 

Ver. 20. He siretchcth forth His hand in requiting. 

21. They have polluted His Testarnent. Read the testa- 
Gen. 12, ment which they have polluted : " In thy seed shall be blessed 
' ' 'all nations.'''' They have polluted His Testament. Thou 
against these words of the Testator sayest what.? The 
Africa of holy Donatus halh alone deserved this grace, in 
him hath remained the Church of Christ. Say at least the 
Church of Donatus. Wherefore addest thou, of Christ ? 
Of whom it is said, In thy seed shall be blessed all nations. 
After Donatus wilt thou go ? Set aside Christ, and then 
secede. See therefore what followeth : They have polluted 
His Testament. What Testament? To Abraham have been 
spoken the promises, and to his seed. The Apostle saith, 
Gal. 3, Nevertheless, a man^s testament confirmed no one maketh 
void, or superaddeth to : to Abraham have been spoken the 
jjromises, and to his seed. He saith not, And to seeds, as if 
in many; but as if in one. And to thy Seed, which is Christ. 
In this Christ, therefore, what Testament hath been promised? 
In thy seed shall be blessed all nations. Thou that hast 
given up the unity of all nations, and in a part hast remained, 
hast polluted His Testament. That which therefore hath 
befallen thee, to be banished, to be from the inheritance 
separated, is of the anger of God. For attend to that which 
followeth: They have p)olluted H'ls Testament; {they have 
1 not in been divided, because of the anger of His countenance^.) 
What do ye look for, by what clearer mark should heretics 
be pointed out ? I^iey have been divided, because of the 
anger of His countenance. 



Heretics serve to bring out jwints of faith. 49 

22. Ver. 22. And His heart hath drawn near. Of whom Ver. 
do we understaud it, except of Him, by the anger of whom — ^^' 
they have been divided ? How hath His heart drawn near ? 
In such sort, that we may understand His will. For by 
heretics hath been vindicated the Catholic Church, and 
by those that evil think have been proved those that think 
well. For many things lay hid in the Scriptures : and when 
heretics had been cut off, with questions they troubled the 
Church of God : then those things were opened which lay 
hid, and the will of God was understood. Thence is said in 
another Psalm, A congregation of bulls amid the cows o/Ps. 68, 
the jyeople, in order that they might be excluded that have 
been proved with silver. For let them be excluded, He hath 
said, let them come forth, let them appear. Whence even 
in silver- working men are called ' excluders,' that is, pressors 
out of form from the sort of confusion of the lump. There- 
fore many men that very excellently could the Scriptures 
understand and expound, were hidden among the people of 
God : but they did not declare the solution of difficult 
questions, when no reviler again urged them. For was 
the Trinity perfectly treated of before the Arians snarled 
thereat ? Was repentance perfectly treated of before the 
Novatians opposed ? So not perfectly of Baptism was it 
treated, before rebaptizers set without contradicted; nor of 
the very oneness of Christ were the doctrines clearly stated 
which have been stated, save after that this separation began 
to press upon the weak : in order that they that knew 
liow to treat of and solve these questions, (lest the weak 
should perish vexed with the questions of the ungodly,) 
by their discourses and disputations should bring out unto 
open day the dark things of the Law. Therefore they 
have been divided because of the anger of His counte- 
nance, and unto us for understanding His heart hath drawn 
near. Therefore perceive ye that which in another Psalm 
He hath mentioned, " Congregation of bulls," that is, of 
proud smiters with horns, " amid the cows of the people." 
What doth he speak of as cows ? Souls easy to be led 
astray. Why this ? " In order that those may be excluded," 
that is, may appear, that were lying hid, " that have been 
proved with silver." What is, " with silver ?" With the 

VOL. III. E 



50 Trial icilli the ivonL Hard sayings easy to Faith. 

rsALM saying of God. The sayings of God are sayings chaste, 

pT^'g silver idthjire triedy the thing approved of the earthy purged 
seven times so much. This obscure sense see in what manner 

1 Cor, lY^Q AposUe bringeth out into light ; It is needful, lie saith, 

' * that also heresies there be, in order that men proved may 

be made manifest among you. What is " men proved ?" 

Proved with silver, proved with the word. What is, " may 

' exclu- be made manifest?" Maybe brought out'. Wherefore this? 

antur gg^ause of heretics. What is, because of heretics? Because 

of the " congregation of bulls amid the cows of the people." 

So therefore these also have been divided because of the 

anger of His countenance, and His heart hath drawn near. 

23. Ver. 21. His discourses have been softened above oil^ 
and themselves are darts. For certain things in the Scriptures 
were seeming hard, while they were obscure; when explained, 
they have been softened. For even the first heresy in the 
disciples of Christ, as it were from the hardness of His dis- 

John G, course arose. For when He said, Except a man shall have 
' ^' eaten My flesh and shall have drunk My blood, he shall not 
have life in himself : they, not understanding, said to one 
another, Hard is this discourse, who can hear it ? Saying 
that. Hard is this discourse, they separated from Him : He 
remained with the others, the twelve. When they had in- 
timated to Him, that by His discourse they had been 
scandalized. Will ye also, He saith, choose to go? Then 
Peter, The Word of life eternal Thou hast : to whom shall 
we go ? Attend, we beseech you, and ye little ones learn 
godliness. Did Peter by any means at that time understand 
the seci'et of that discourse of the Lord ? Not yet he under- 
stood: but that good were the words which he understood 
not, godly he believed. Therefore if hard is a discourse, 
and not yet is understood, be it hard to an ungodly man, but 
to thee be it by godliness softened : for whenever it is solved, 
it both will become for thee oil, and even unto the bones it 
will penetrate. 

2 J. Furthermore, just as Peter, after their having been 
scandalized by the hardness, as they thought, of the dis- 
ccurse of the Lord, even then said, The Word of life eternal 
Thou hast: to whom shall we go? so he hath added, (ver. 22.) 
Cast upon the Lord thy care, and He shall Himself nourish 



The hard loord, softened^ remains powerful. 51 

thee lip. A little one thou art, not yet thou vmdeistandest the Ver. 

• 22 

secret things of words : perchance from thee the bread is „"" 
hidden, and as yet with milk thou must be fed: be not3, i. 
angry with the breasts : they will make thee fit for the table, 
for which now little fitted thou art. Behold by the division 
of heretics many hard things have beerr softened : His 
discourses that v/ere hard have been softened above oil, and 
they are themselves darts. They have armed men preaching 
the Gospel : and the very discourses are aimed at the breast 
of every one that heareth, by men instant in season and out 
of season : by those discourses, by those words, as though 
by arrows, hearts of men unto the love of peace are smitten. 
Hard they were, and soft they have been made. Being 
softened they have not lost their virtue, but into darts have 
been converted. His discourses have been softened above 
oil : and themselves^ the softened discourses, themselves are 
darts. But thou not yet perchance art fitted to be armed 
with these darts, and not yet for thee hath shone out that 
which in discourse perchance is obscure and hard. Cast 
upon the Lord thy care, and Himself shall nourish thee up. 
Upon the Lord cast thyself Behold thou wilt cast thyself 
upon the Lord, let no one put himself in the place of the 
Lord. Cast upon the Lord thy care. See in what manner 
that great soldier of Christ would not that upon himself the 
care of little ones should be cast : Hath by any means Paul^ Cor. 

1 13. 

for you been crucijied, or in the name of Paid have ye been ' 
baptized? What did he say to them after that, Cast upon 
the Lord your care, and Himself shall nourish you up ? But 
now a little one would cast his care upon the Lord, and some 
one or other meeteth him and saith, I will take thee in. He 
meeteth as it were a ship tossed by the waves, and he saith, 
I will take her in. Do thou also make answer, A harbour 
I seek, not a rock. Cast upon the Lord thy care, and Him- 
self shall nourish thee up. And see, a harbour doth take 
thee in : He shall not give for everlasting tossing to the fust 
man. Thou art seeming to toss in that sea, but a harbour 
taketh thee in. Do thou only before that thou enter into the 
harbour break not away from the anchor. The ship is tossing 
at anchor, but not afar from the land is she driven, nor for 
everlasting will she toss, even if for a time she toss. For to 

E 2 



52 Murder of the body and of the soul by heretics. 

Psalm tossine: belonsr tlic words above : / have been made sad in 
LV 

my exercise^ and have been troubled. I was looking for 
V. 8. Him that shoidd make me safe from iveakness of mind and 
tempest. Tossing he sj^cakcth, but not for everlasting he 
shall toss: for to an anchor he is bound, the anchor is his 
hope. He shall not give for everlasting tossing to the just 
man. 

25. But to the others what ? 

Ver. 23. But Thou, God, shall bring them down unto 
the 2nt of corruption. The pit of corruption is the darkness 
of sinking under. Thou shall bring them down, he saith, 

'MziAb^iDito the pit of corruption: because, when blind leadeth 
blind, they both fall into a ditch. God bringeth them down 
into the pit of corruption, not because He is the author of 
their own guilt, but because He is Himself the judge of their 

Eom. 1, j^-iiqi^ities. For God hath delivered them unto the desires of 
their heart. For they have loved darkness, and not light ; 
they have loved blindness, and not seeing. For behold the 
Lord Jesus hath shone out to the whole world, let them sing 

g^* ^^' in unity with the whole world : For there is not one that 
can hide himself from the heat of Him. But they passing 
over from the whole to a part, from the body to a wound, 
from life to a limb cut off, shall meet with what, but going 
into the pit of corruption ? 

26. Men of bloods and of dcceitfidness. Men of bloods, 
because of slayings he calleth them : and O that they 
were corporal and not spiritual slayings. For blood from 
the flesh going forth, is seen and shuddered at : who 
seeth the blood of the heart in a man rebaptized ? Those 
deaths require other eyes. Although even about these 
visible deaths Circumcelliones armed every where remain 
not quiet. And if of these visible deaths we think, there are 
men of bloods. Give heed to the armed man, whether he is 
a man of peace and not of blood. If at least a club only he 
were to carry, well ; but he carrieth a sling, carrieth an axe, 
carrieth stones, carrieth lances : and carrying these weapons, 
wherever they may they scour, fur the blood of innocent men 
they thirst. U'herefore even with regard to these visible 
deaths there are men of bloods. But even of them let us 
say, O that such deaths alone they perpetrated, and souls 



Spiritual seiise of murder acknowledged hy Donatists. 53 

they slew not. These that are men of bloods and of deceit, Ver. 

let them not suppose that we thus wrongly understand men '— 

of bloods, of them that kill souls : they themselves of their 
Maximianists' have so understood it. For when they con- 'see on 
demned them, in the very sentence of their Council they 
have set down these words : Swift are the feet of them to Vs. 14, 
shed the blood (of the proclaimers^, tribulation and calamity 
are in the ways of them, and the way of peace they have not 
known. This of the Maximianists they have said. But 
I ask of them, when have the Maximianists shed the body's 
blood; not because they too would not shed, if there were so 
great a multitude as could shed, but because of the fear in 
their minority rather they have suffered somewhat from 
others, than have themselves at any time done any such 
thing. Therefore I question the Donatist and say : In thy 
Council thou hast set down of the Maximianists, Swift are 
the feet of them to shed blood. Shew me one of whom the 
Maximianists have hurt so much as a finger ! What other 
thing to me is he to answer, than that which 1 say ? They 
that have separated themselves from unity, and who slay 
souls by leading astray, spiritually, not carnally, do shed 
blood. Very well thou hast expounded, but in thy exposition 
acknowledge their own deeds. Men of bloods and of deceit- 
fulness. In guile is deceitfulness, in dissimulation, in se- 
duction. What therefore of those very men that have been 
divided because of the anger of His countenance ? They are 
themselves men of bloods and of deceit. 

27. But of them he saith what ? They shall not halve 
their days. What is, They shall not halve their days? 
They shall not make progress as much as they think : within 
the time which they expect, they shall perish. For he is 
that partridge, whereof hath been said. In the half of his je^. 17, 
days they shall leave him, and in his last days he shall be an ^^* 
umvise one. They make progress, but for a time. For what 
saith the Apostle .? But evil men and seducers shall make 2 Tim. 
progress for the icorse, themselves erring, and other men ' * 
into error driving. But a blind man leading a blind man, Mat.i5, 

f The word' annuntiatorum'is omit- given in the 4th book against Crescon- 
ted in some copies. It is not in the tius, c. 4. Ben. 
sentence of the synod of Bagai, as 



64 Fall of the wicked. Christ the ' End.'' 

Psalm together into a ditch they fall. Deservedly they fall into 

JlZli-ihe pit of corruption. What therefore saith he? They 

shall make progress for the worse: not however for long. 

2 Tim. For a little before he hath said, But further they shall not 

^'^' make progress : that h, shall not halve their days. Let the 

Apostle proceed and tell wherefore: For the madness of 

them shall be manifest to all men, as also uas that of the 

others. 

Men of bloods and of deceit shall not halve their days. 
But I in Thee will hope, O Lord. But deservedly they 
shall not halve their days, because in man they have 
hoped. Dut I from days temporal have reached unto day 
eternal. Wherefore ? Because in Thee I have hoped, O 
Lord. 

T'^- PSALM LVL 

EXPOSITION \ 
A discourse to the people of Carthage. 

Just as when we are going to entei' into any house, we 
look on the title to see whose it is and to whom it belongeth, 
lest perchance inoi^portuncly we burst into a place where- 
unto we ought not ; and again, in order that we may not 
through timidity withdraw from that which we ought to 
enter : as if in a word we were to read, These estates belong 
to such an one or to such an one: so on the lintel of this 
Psalm we have inscribed, At the end, for the people that 
from holy men tvere put afar off, to Darid himself, at the 
1 Sara, inscription of the Title, when the Allophyli held him in 
' ■ Oath. Let us therefore take knowledge of the people that 
from holy men were put afar off at the inscription of the 
Title. For this doth belong to that David whom now ye 
know how to understand spiritually. For there is here com- 
mended to our notice no other than He of Whom hath been 
Rom. said. The end of the Law is Christ for righteousness to 
^^' ^' every man believing. Therefore when thou hearest at the 

a A Paris Ms. has the title, Incipit Restituta, Fcria V. de Psalmo LV. 
Carthagine Sermo habitus in Basilic*^ Ben. 



^ The Inscription of the Title'' refers to the Crucifixion, 55 

end, unto Christ give heed, lest tarrying in the way thou arrive Title. 
not at the end. For whatever that place is where beneath 
thou shalt have stood, before that thou shalt have come 
home unto Christ, the divine discourse sailh to thee nothing 
but, draw near, not yet is the place where tliere is security. 
There is one place where a most sure standing-ground is 
established ; there is a rock whereon a House doth stand up 
so secure as that it feareth not the rain of the tempest. For Matt. 7, 
the floods have heat against that House, and it hath not ^' 
fallen, for it had been founded upon a Rock : but the Ilock 
was Christ. Under the name of David Christ is figured: 
because of Him hath been said, He that hath been made ofiUom, i, 
the seed of David after the flesh. ^' 

2. Who are then the people that from holy men were put afar 
off at the inscription of the Title ? Let the Title itself declare 
to us that people. For there was written a certain title at 
the Passion of the Lord, when the Lord was crucified: there 
was in that place a Title inscribed in Hebrew, in Greek, and 
in Latin, The King of the Jews; in three tongues as though John 1 9, 
by three witnesses the Title was confirmed: because in the\^\ ,„ 

•' _ Mat. 18, 

mouth of two or t/iree witnesses shall stand every icord. 16. 
When the Jews had read this Title, they were indignant, and iq^'q 
they said to Pilate, Write not. King of the Jews, but that He 
said Himself tJiat He was King of the Jews. Write thou 
that He said Himself, they said ; not that the thing was 
which He said. But because in another Psalm it is truly 
said'', For the Inscription of the Title corrupt thou not, 
Pilate answered, What I have written 1 have written: as John 19, 
though he were saying, I corrupt not truth, even if ye love 
falsehood. Because therefore in that cursed one" the Jews 
had indignation, saying, We have no king but desar alone ; 
from offence at the Title they were put afar off from holy 
men. Let them draw near to holy men, and cleave unto 
the holy One that confess and desire to have Christ for King: 
be they put afar off from holy men that gainsaying the Title 
repudiated God for King, and chose man for king. Every 
people therefore that with human kingdom is pleased, rejecting 
the Lord from being King over them — to whom reigning 
every man is subject in such sort that he too may himself 
b Vid. Tit. Psalm LVII. LVIII, >= i. e. as members of Satan. 



56 Use of trouble in trying a man. 

Psalm reign over his passions — every such people, I say, is put 

'- afar ofF from holy men. Do not, therefore, brethren, in the 

Jews alone remark this thing. There were given in them 
as it were primitive examples, to the end that in that 
same people might shine forth that thing whereof every man 
shonld beware. I'here is indeed also a Caesar, a human 
king, for men in things human, but another King there is 
for things divine : one king for life temporal, another King 
for life eternal; one king earthly, another King heavenly: 
king earthly under King heavenly, King heavenly over all 
things. It is not therefore because they said they had 
Ca!sar for king, that they sinned ; but because Christ for 
King they would not have. And now many men Christ for 
King, in Heaven sitting, and every where reigning, will not 
have: and these are they that trouble us. Against such 
men this Psalm strengtheneth us. For it must needs be that 
such men we suffer even unto the end : whom we should not 
suffer, unless for us it were expedient. For every temptation 
is probation, and the effect of every probation hath its fruit. 
Because a man for the most part even to his own self is 
unknown : what he may bear, or what he may not bear, he 
knoweth not : and sometimes presumeth that he may bear 
that which he is not able, and sometimes despaireth of 
himself to be able to bear that which he is able : there 
Cometh up temptation like a sort of inquisition, and a 
man is found out by himself; because he lay hid even 
to himself, but to his Maker he lay not hid. Furthermore, 
Peter presumed of something which in him was not yet, that 

Luke22, even unto death he with the Lord Jesus Christ would 
persevere : his own powers Peter knew not, but the Lord 
knew. That he was not fitted replied He that had formed 
him, He that even to him that had been formed by Himself 
meet powers would give, what not yet He had given, knew : 

Mat.2G, ]jg \X\^i not yet had received knew not: there came on 
temptation ; he denied, wept, received. Since therefore we 
know not what we should ask, as though not having, and for 
what we should give thanks as if receiving, need there is 
alway that with temptations and tribulations we be educated 
in this world : but troubled we cannot be, except by those 
that have been put afar off from holy men. This farness, 



David among Philistines ; Christ among the wicked. 57 

brethren, understand ye to be of heart, not of the body. Title. 

For ofttimes it cometh to pass that he that in body afar 

is estranged from thee, is joined to thee, because he loveth 

that which thou lovest; and ofttimes it cometh to pass that 

one standing beside thee is joined to thee, because he loveth 

that which thou lovest : and ofttimes it cometh to pass that 

one standing beside thee, because that he loveth the world, 

while thou lovest God, is afar from thee. 

3. What therefore meaneth, that which to the title itself 

still belongeth, namely, that the Allophyli held him in Oeth? 

Geth was a certain city of the Allophyli'', that is, of strangers, 

to wit, of people afar from holy men. All they that refuse 

Christ for King become strangers. Wherefore strangers are 

they made? Because even that vine, though by Him planted, 

when it had become sour what heard it ? Wherefore hast Jer. 2, 

21. 
thou been tamed into sourness, O alien vine? It hath not 

been said, My vine : because if Mine, sweet ; if sour, not 
Mine ; if not Mine, surely alien. There held him, then, 
Allophyli in Geth. We find indeed, brethren, David him- 
self, son of Jesse, king of Israel, to have been in a strange 
land among the Allophyli, when he was being sought by 
Saul, and was in that city and with the king of that city, 1 Sam. 
but that there he was detained we read not. Therefore our ' 
David, the Lord Jesus Christ out of the seed of that David, 
not alone they held, but there hold Him still Allophyli in 
Geth. Of Geth we have said that it is a city. But the 
interpretation of this name, if asked for, signifielh ' press.' 
Christ inasmuch as He is the Head, the Saviour of the 
Body, He that was born of a Virgin, crucified, that now to 
us display eth the pattern of our resurrection in the resur- 
rection of His flesh, that sitteth at the right hand of the 
Father, and for us intercedeth, is also here, but in His Body 
which is the Church- The Body is conjoined to the Head 
thereof, the Head for the Body is crying, Saul, Saul, why ^ots 9, 
persecutest thou Me ? And the Head in the Body thereof 
after the Apostle's saying, And together hath raised us again, Ephes. 
and together hath made us to sit in heavenly places. And we ' 
there are sitting, and Himself is here labouring; we there are 
sitting after hope, and He here is with us after charity. This 
'' The usual name of the Philistines in LXX. and Vulg. 



58 The grape fruitful in pressing. Our chief enemy. 

PsAtM. bond as it were of one man makelh two to be in one flesh, 
LVI . 1 . 
^ Bride and Bridegroom. Whence also the Lord Himself saith, 



Msit.W, Therefore now not (wo, but one Jlesh. How therefore here 
is He held in Geth ? Held in a winepress is His Body, that 
is, His Church. What is, in a winepress ? In pressings. 
But in a winepress fruitful is the pressing. A grape on the 
vine sustaineth no pressing, whole it seeraeth, but nothing 
thence flowcth : it is thrown into a winepress, is trodden, is 
pressed ; harm seemcth to be done to the grape, but this 
harm is not barren; nay, if no harm had been applied, barren 
it would have I'cmained. 

4. Let whatsoever holy men therefore that are suffering 
pressing from those that have been put afor off from the 
saints, give heed to this Psalm, let them perceive heie them- 
selves, let them speak what here is spoken, that suffer what 
here is spoken of. Surely let him that suffereth not, speak 
not; I bind not to the speaking, him tliat I see out of suffer- 
ing. But let him beware, that when he would be afar from 
suffering, he be not put afar off from holy men. Let each 
one therefore think of his enemy; if Christian he is, the 
world to him is an enemy. Private enmities therefore let no 
one think of, when about to hoar the words of this Psalm : 

Epbes. Know ye that for us the ivreslling is not against flesh and 
' ' blood, but against princes and powers, and spiritual things 
of wickedness, that is, against the devil and his angels ; be- 
cause even when we suffer men that annoy us, he is insti- 
gating, he is inflaming, as it were his vessels he is moving. 
Let us give heed therefore to two enemies, him whom we 
see, and him whom we sec not; man we see, the devil we 
see not; man let us love, of the devil beware; for man pray, 
against the devil pray, and let us say to God, 

Ver. I. Have pity on me, O Lord, for man hath trodden 
me down. Fear not because man hath trodden thee down : 
have thou wine, a grape thou hast become in order that thou 
shouldest be trodden. Have pity on me, O Lord, for man 
hath trodden me down : all day long warring he hath 
troubled me, every one that hath been put afar off from the 
saints. But why should not here bo understood even the 
devil himself? Is it because mention is made of 'man'?' 
« So Mss. Edd. * because he is not called man.' 



Satan how called ' a man.'' All the godly have troubles. 59 

doth therefore the Gospel err, because it hath said, A man Ver. 
tJtat is an enemy hath done tliis? But by a kind of figure ^' 



may he also be called a man, and yet not be a man. 28. ' 
Whether thei'efore it was him whom he that said these words 
was beholding, or whether it was the people and each one 
that was put afar off from holy men, through which kind the 
devil troubleth the people of God, who cleave to holy men, 
who cleave to the Holy One, who cleave to the King, at the 
title of which King being indignant they were as though 
beaten back, and put afar off: let him say. Have jpily on 
me, O Lord, for man hath trodden me down: and let him 
faint not in this treading down, knowing Him on Whom he 
is calling, and by Whose example he hath been made strong. 
The first cluster in the winefat pressed is Christ. When that 
cluster by passion was pressed out, there flowed that whence ls.63, 3. 
the cup inelriating is how passing beautif id! Let His Body ^'^ ' ' 
likewise say, looking upon its Head, Have pity on me, O 
Lord, for man hath trodden me down : all day long warring 
he hath troubled me. All day long, at all times. Let no 
one say to himself, There have been troubles in our fathers' 
time, in our time there are not. If thou supposest thyself 
not to have troubles, not yet hast thou begun to be a Chris- 
tian. And where is the voice of the Apostle, But even all'2Tim. 

3 12 

that will live godly in Christ, pe?'secntiotis shall suffer. If ' 
therefore thou sufferest not any persecution for Christ, take 
heed lest not yet thou hast begun godly to live in Christ. 
But when thou hast begun godly to live in Christ, thou hast 
entered into the winepress; make ready thyself for pressings: 
but be not thou dry, lest from the pressing nothing go forth. 
5. Ver. 2. 3Iine enemies have trodden me down all day 
long. They that have been put afar off from holy men, 
these are mine enemies. All day long : already it hath 
been sairl. From the height^ oj" the day. What meaneth, lor 
from the height of the day? Perchance it is a high thing to ^^ 
understand. And no wonder, because the height of the day 
it is. For perchance they for this reason have been put 
afar off from holy men, because they were not able to 
penetrate the height of the day, whereof the Apostles are 
twelve shining hours. Therefore they that crucified Him, 
as if man, in the day have erred. But why have they 



60 Matis pride is temporal. Humility safe in the end. 
Psalm suffered darkness, so that they should be put afar off from 

Li VI 

holy men ? Because on high the da}' was shining, Him in 



1 Cor. the height hidden they knew not. For if they had known^ 
^' ^' never the Lord of Glory would they have crucijied. 
Therefore from this height of day starling back and put afar 
off from holy men, they have been made enemies, that 
trouble and tread down as it Avere a grape in a winepress. 
There is also another sense. From the heiyht of the day 
mine enemies have trodden me down all day lony, that is, at 
all times. From the heiyht ufthe day, that is, from pride 
temporal. For when they tread down, high they are: 
hiunble are they that are trodden down, high are they that 
tread down. But fear not the height of men treading down : 
of the day the height is, temporal it is, not eternal. 

6. Ver. 3. For many men that war against me, shall fear. 
Shall fear when ? When the day shall have passed away, wherein 
they are high. For for a time high they are, when the time 
of their height is finished they will fear. But I in Thee 
will hope, O Lord. He saith not, But I will not fear : but, 
Many men, that war against me, shall fear. When there 
Mat.24, shall have come that day of Judgment, then shall mourn for 
themselves all the tribes of the earth. When there shall 
have appeared the sign of the Son of Man in heaven, then 
secure shall be all holy men. For that thing shall come 
which they hoped for, which they longed for, the coming 
whereof they prayed for: but to those men no place for 
repentance shall remain, because in that time wherein fruit- 
ful might have been repentance, their heart they hardened 
against a warning Lord. Shall they too raise up a wall 
against a judging God ? The godliness of this man do thou 
indeed acknowledge, and if in that Body thou art, imitate 
him. When he had said, 3Iany men, that tear against me, 
shall fear: he did not continue, ' But 1 will not fear:' lest 
to his own powers ascribing his not fearing, he too should 
be amid high temporal things, and through pride temporal 
he should not deserve to come to rest everlasting : rather he 
hath made thee to perceive whence he shall not fear. But 
L, he saith, in thee taill hope, O Lord: he hath not spoken 
of his confidence: but of the cause of his confidence. For if 
I shall not fear, I may also by hardness of heart not fear, for 



Better to feel j^ain than to he inseyisible. G\ 

many men by too much pride fear nothing. Let your love Ver. 

attend. One thing is soundness of body, another thing is '- — 

torpor of body, another thing is immortality of body. Perfect 
soundness indeed is immortality : but by a sort of mode of 
speaking, that is called soundness which we have in this life. 
When he is not sick, a man is called sound; and when the 
physician hath made examination, sound he pronounceth 
him : and when any one hath begun to be sick, that same 
soundness is disturbed ; and when it is healed, to the same 
soundness he returneth. To three states as it were of the 
body give heed and examine, soundness, torpor, immortality. 
Soundness hath no sickness, but nevertheless, when it is 
touched and molested, it feeleth pain. But torpor hath no 
pain, hath lost sense of pain, by so much the more insen- 
sible as it is worse. Again, immortality hath no pain, for 
swallowed up is all corruption, and this corruptible hath put i Cor. 
on incorruption, and this mortal hath put on immortality. ' * 
There is therefore no pain in a body immortal, no pain 
in a body torpid. Let not a torpid man deem himself 
forthwith immortal : nearer immortality is the soundness of 
a man in pain, than the torpor of a man not feeling. 
Thou findest therefore a man proud in the most ex- 
cessive vapouring, that hath persuaded himself to fear 
nothing : mightier dost thou deem him than that man, that 
saith, Without firjhtlngs, within fears: mightier than the 2 Cor. 7, 
Head Himself our Lord God, Who said, Sorrowful is 3Iy Mat.26 
Soul even unto death? This man is not more mighty: be 38. 
not thou pleased with his torpor : not with immortality hath 
he been clothed, but of feeling stripped. But do thou keep 
thy soul not without affection ; for they have been blamed 
that are without affection : and say thou with the feeling of 

soundness, Who is tveak, and I am not weak? who «5 Rom. 1, 

31 
offended^ and I burn not? If to this man there reached 2 cor. 

not offence, to wit the perdition of every weak man, while ii? 29. 

being as it were stiff and without pain would he seem to be 

the better ? Far be it: torpor there would be, not calmness. 

Evidently, brethren, when we shall have come to that place, 

to that seat, to that blessedness, to an heavenly country, 

where our soul may be filled with security, be filled with 

rest and everlasting felicity, no pain there shall be; because 



C2 Man may praise that which he has learned of God. 

Psalm cause for pain there shall not be. Many men^ he saith, that 

-ivar arjainst me, shall fear. And those very torpid men that 

now nothing do fear, shall fear sometime. For there shall 
come so great terror as shall break and crush all hardness. 
Many men that war against me, shall fear. But I in Thee 
will hope, Lord. 

7. Ver. 4. In God I will praise my discourses, in God 
^ or Willi have^ hoped: I will not fear tvhat flesh doeth to me. 
lus' Wherefore ? Because in God 1 will praise my discourses. 
If in thyself thou praisest thy discourses : I say not that 
thou art not to fear; it is impossible that thou have not to 
fear. For thy discourses either false thou wilt have, and 
therefore thine own, because false : or if thy discourses shall 
be true, and thou shalt deem thyself not to have them from 
God, but of thyself to spealc ; true they will be, but thou 
wilt be false : but if thou shalt have known that thou canst 
say nothing true in the wisdom of God, in the faith of the 
Truth, save that which from Him thou hast received, of 
iCor.4,Whom is said, For what hast thou, tvhich thou hast not 
'' received'? Then in God thou art praising thy discourses, in 

order that in God thou mayesl be praised by the discourses 
of God. For if whatever in thee is of God, is honoured by 
thee ; thou also, having been made by God, wilt be honoured 
in God: but if whatever in thee is of God, thou shalt have 
honoured as though thine own, not of God ; in like manner 
as that people was put afar off from holy men, so thou wilt be 
put afar off from the floly One. Therefore, In God I icill 
praise my discourses : if in God, wherefore mine ? Both 
in God, and inine. In God, because from Himself: mine, 
because 1 have received. Himself hath willed them to be 
mine, Who hath given, by loving Him of Whom they are: 
because from Him to me they are, mine they have been 
made. For whence, Our daily bread give us this day ? 
How ours? How give? By asking from Him thou wilt 
not be empty, by confessing it to be thine, thou wilt not be 
ungi'ateful. For if thou say not thine, thou hast not received : 
again, if thou say thine, so as if from thee be that which thou 
callest thine, thou losest that which thou hadst received, 
because ungrateful thou art to Him from Whom thou hadst 
received. In 6'oc^, therefore, I will praise discotirses,hec3iUse 



Hoping in God. Persecutors hate the Righteous. 63 

there He is Himself the fountain of true discourses : ISIine, Ver. 
because, thirsting, I have drawn near and have drunk. In — ^ — 
God I will praise my discourses, in God I have hoped, I will 
not fear what flesh docth to me. Wast thou not the same 
that a Httle before wast saying, Have fity on me, Lord,for^' i. 
man hath trodden me down ; all day long warring he hath 
troubled me? How therefore here, / will not fear what 
flesh doeth to me ? What shall he do to thee ? Thou 
thyself a little before hast said, Hath trodden me down, hath 
troubled me. Nothing shall he do, when these things he 
shall do ? He hath had regard to the wine which floweth 
from treading, and hath made answer. Evidently he hath 
trodden down, evidently hath troubled; but what to me shall 
he do ? A grape I was, wine T shall be : In God I have 
hoped) I will not fear what flesh doeth to me. 

8. Ver. 5. All day long my v:ords they abhorred. Thus 
they are, ye know. Speak truth, preach truth, proclaim 
Christ to the heathen, proclaim the Church to heretics, 
proclaim to all men salvation : they contradict, they abhor 
my words. But when my words they abhor, whom think ye 
they abhor, save Him in Whom I shall praise my discourses? 
All day long my words they abhorred. Let this at least 
suffice, let them abhor words, no farther let them proceed, 
censure, reject ! Be it far from them ! Why should I say 
this ? When words they reject, when words they hate, those 
words which from the fount of truth flow forth, what would 
they do to him through whom the very words are spoken ? 
what but that which followeth. Against me all the counsels 
of them are for evil? If the bread itself they hate, how 
spare they the basket wherein it is ministered ? Against me 
all the counsels of them are for evil. ]f so even against the 
Lord Himself, let not the Body disdain that which hath 
gone before in the Head, to the end that the Body may 
cleave to the Head. Despised halh been thy Lord, and wilt 
thou have thyself be honoured by those men that have been 
put afar off from holy men ? Do not for thyself wish to 
claim that which in Him hath not gone before. The disciple '^\i.i.\Q, 
is not greater than his blaster; the servant is not greater" ' ' 
than his Lord. If the Blaster of the family they have called 



64 Evil men sojourn in the Church, hiding what they are. 

Psalm Beelzebub, how much more them of His household? Against 

- me all the counsels of them are for evil. 

9. Vor. 6. They shall sojourn^ and shall hide. To sojourn 
is to be in a strange land. Sojourners is a term used of those 
then that live in a country not their own. Every man in 
this life is a foreigner: in which life ye see that with flesh we 
are covered round, through which flesh the heart cannot be 

1 Cor. 4, seen. Therefore the Apostle saith, Do not before the time 
^' Judge any thing, until the Lord come, and He shall en- 
lighten the hidden things of darkness, and shall manifest 
the thoughts of the heart; and then praise shall be to each 
one from God. Before that this be done, in this sojourning 
of fleshly life every one carrielh his own heart, and every 
heart to every other heart is shut. Furthermore, those men 
of whom the counsels are against this man for evil, shall 
sojourn, and shall hide : because in this foreign abode they 
are, and carry flesh, they hide guile in heart; whatsoever of 
evil they think, they hide. Wherefore ? Because as yet 
this life is a foreign one. Let them hide ; that shall appear 
which they hide, and they too will not be hidden. There 
is also in this hidden thing another interpretation, which 
perchance will be more approved of. For out of those men 
that have been put afar off from holy men, there creep in 
certain false brethren, and they cause worse tribulations to 
the Body of Christ ; because they are not altogether avoided 
as if entirely aliens. From these same men the Apostle, 
calling to mind weightier perils, when he was enumerating 

2 Cor. many sufferings of his, and was saying, By perils of rivers, 
11) 26. }jy pQYiis of robbers, by perils from mine own people, by perils 

from the nations, by perils in the city, by perils iii the 
desert, by perils in the sea : by perils, he saith, in false 
brethren. These men are exceeding dangerous, of whom 
P8.4l,6. is said in another Psalm, And they uere entering in, in 
order that they might see. They were entering in, in order 
that they might see, and no one saith, Go not in to sec. 
For he goeth in as though thine, he is not guarded against 
as an alien. Those men, therefore, shall sojourn and shall 
hide. For thus they go into the great house, not there to 
abide ; therefore they shall sojourn. For such sinners the 



Our Lord bore loifh Judas for our example. G5 

Lord willing to be considered as servants, after that Gospel Ver. 
interpretation, whereby Every one that doeth sin is the 



^ . . 1 mi J John 8, 

servant of suf, saiih, The servant ahidtth not in the house 3i. 
for ever: hit the Sou ahidelh for ever. He that goeth in as 
a son, will not sojourn, because he shall continue even unto Mat. lO, 
the end: he that goeth in as a servant, deceitful, sinful, tOjg' ^^' 
the eye giving heed, seeking what he may carry off, seeking 
what he may accuse, or what he may find fault with, in order 
to sojourn goeth in, not to inhabit and continue. Not even 
those men nevertheless let us fear, brethren : (ver. 4.) In God 
I have lioped, I will not fear ivhat Jlesh doeth to me. Even 
if they sojourn, even if they go in, even if they feign, even if 
they hide, flesh they are: do thou in the Lord hope, nothing 
to thee shall flesh do. But he bringeth in tribulation, 
bringeth in treading down. There is added wine, because 
the grape is pressed : thy tribulation will not be unfruitful : 
another seeth thee, imitateth thee : because thou also in 
order that thou mightest learn to bear such a man, to thy 
Head hast looked wp, that first cluster, unto whom there hath 
come in a man that he might see, hath sojourned, and hath 
hidden, to wit, the traitor Judas. All men, therefore, that 
with false heart go in, sojourning and hiding, do not thou 
fear: the father of these same men, Judas, with thy Lord 
hath been : and He indeed knew him ; although Judas the 
traitor was sojourning and hiding, nev^ertheless, the heart of 
him was open to the Lord of alH: knowingly He chose one 
man, whereby He might give comfort to thee that wouldest 
not know whom thou shouldest avoid. For He might have 
not chosen Judas, because He knew Judas : for He saith 
to His disciples, Have not I chosen you tuelve, and owe John G, 
out of you is a devil f Therefore even a devil was chosen.'^* 
Or if chosen he was not, how is it that He hath chosen 
twelve and not rather eleven ? Chosen even he is, but 
for another purpose. Chosen were eleven for the work 
of probation, chosen one for the work of temptation. 
Whence could He give an example to thee, that wouldest 
not know^ what men thou shouldest avoid as evil, of 
what men thou shouldest beware as false and artificial, 
sojourning and hiding, except He say to thee. Behold, 
f Oxf. Mss. ' Guilty before the Lonl.' 
VOL. III. F 



GO False u:ifnr!t.'<e.< prevail for a time. Malicious observers. 

PsAtM with Myself I have liad one of those very men ! There hath 

^gone before an example, I have borne, to suffer I have 

willed that which I knew, in order that to thee knowing not 

I might give consolation. That which to Me he hath done, 

the same he will do to thee also : in order that he may be 

able to do much, in order that he may make much havoc, 

he will accuse, false charges he will allege. Suppose false- 

' al. hoods' prevail; shall they any wise against thee prevail, 

•„'!,y f and against Me not have prevailed ? Against Me surely 

nesscs they have prevailed, but heaven from Me they have not 

taken. His flesh when buried had false witnesses to endure: 

Mat.26, too little it was to suffer then in the judgment, He suffered 

them in the tomb. They received money to speak falsely ; 

]\Tat.28, they said. When ive were sleeping, there came His disciples 

and took Him away. Furthermore, so blind were the Jews, 

that they beheved a saying altogether incredible : they 

believed witnesses sleeping. Either it was false that they 

slept, and lying men they should not have believed : or it 

was true that they slept, and that which was done they knew 

not. They shall sojourn and shall hide. IjCt them sojourn 

and hide, to do what? In God I have hoped, I will not fear 

what flesh doeth to me. 

10. Ver. 6. These same men shall mark my heel. For 
they shall sojourn and hide in such sort, that they may 
mark where a man slippeth. Intent they are upon the heel, 
to see when a slip may chance to be made ; in order that 
they may detain the foot for a fall, or trip up the foot for a 
stumble ; certes that they may find that which they may 
accuse. And what man so walketh, that no where he slippeth } 
For example, how speedily is a slip made even in tongue? 
Jam. 3, For it is written. Whosoever in tomjne stumhleth not, the 
^' same is a perfect man. What man I pray would dare 
himself to call or deem perfect? Therefore it must needs be 
that every one slip in tongue. But let them that shall so- 
journ and shall hide, carp at all words, seeking somewhere to 
make snares and knotty false accusations, wherein they are 
themselves entangled before those whom they strive to 
entangle : in order that they may themselves be taken and 
perish before that they catch other men in order to destroy 
them. For a man runneth back unto his heart, and thence 



A slip does not prove a tenclier useless. G7 

runneth back to God, and knowctli how to say, In God I will Ver. 
praise my discourses. Whatever good thing I have said, — - — 
whatever true thing I have said, of God I have said it, and 
from God have said it : whatever other thing perchance I 
have said, which to have said I ought not, as a man I have 
said, but under God I have said. He that strengtheneth one 
walking, doth menace one straying, forgive one acknowledg- 
ing, recalleth the tongue, recalleth him that slipped. For aProv.24, 
just man seven times shall fall, and shall rise again ; but ' 
ungodly men shall be made weak in evil things. Let not 
therefore any one of us fear cunning pursuers, carpers at 
words, tellers almost of syllables, and breakers of command- 
ments. He is minding what in thee he may convict; in 
order to believe in Christ through thee, he is not minding. 
Attend thou unto the discourses of him whom thou blamest, . 
whether perchance he may teach thee something to thy 
health. And what, he saith, shall he be able to teach to my 
health, that hath so slipped in word ? This very thing per- 
chance he is teaching thee to thy health, that thou be not a 
carper at words, but a gatherer of precepts. Themselves 
shall mark my heel. 

11. ^5 my soul hath undergone. I speak of that which I 
have undergone. He was speaking as one experienced : As 
my soul hath undergone. They shall sojourn and hide. Let 
my soul undergo all men, men without barking, men within 
hiding, let it undergo. From without coming, like a river 
cometh temptation : on the Rock let it find thee, let it strike Matt, r, 
against, not throw thee down ; the house hath been founded ^^* 
upon a Rock. Within he is, he shall sojourn and hide : 
suppose chaff is near thee, let there come in the treading of 
oxen, let there come in the roller of temptations ; thou art 
cleansed, the other is crushed. 

12. As my soul hath undergone : (ver. 7.) for nothing 
Thou shall save them. He halh taught us even for these 
very men to pray. However they shall sojourn and hide, 
however deceitful they be, however dissemblers and liers in 
wait they be ; do thou pray for them, and do not say. Shall 
God amend even such a man, so evil, so perverse ? Do not 
despair: give heed to Him Whom thou askest, not him for 
whom thou askest. The greatness of the disease seest thou, 

F -2 



08 Men converted and saved without merits [/oing before. 

Psalm the might of tlic Physician seest thou not ? T/iey shall 

-sojourn and hide: as viy soul hath undergone. Undergo, 

pray: and there is done wliat? For volhiug Thou shall 
save them. Thon shalt make them safe so as that nothing 
to Thee it may be, that is, so tliat no labour to Thee it may 
be. With men they are despaired of, but Thou with a word 
dost heal; Thou wilt not toil in healing, though we are 
astounded in looking on. There is another sense in this 
verse, For nothing Thou shalt save tliem: with not any 
1 Tim. merits of their going before Thou shalt save them. / tliat 

1 13 

' ' ' before uas a blasphemer, he saith, and a persecutor, and 
Acts 9, iifjirrious ; he received letters in order that wherever he 
might find Christians, he might bind and lead away. Certes in 
order that he might bind and lead away, at first he was sojourn- 
ing and was hiding. Therefore of this man not any good 
merits had gone before, nay, such things had gone before on 
account of which he would be condemned: nothing of 
good he brought in, and saved M-as he. For nothing Thou 
shalt save them. They shall not bring to Thee he-goats, 
rams, bulls, not gifts and spices shall they bring Thee in 
Thy temple, not any thing of the drink-offering of a good 
conscience do they pour thereon ; all in them is rough, all 
foul, all to be detested : and though they to Thee bring 
nothing- whereby they may be saved; For nothing Thou 
shalt save them, that is, with the free gift of Thy Grace. 

Luke23, \Yljj^|. jj^^^^j ^\^r^^ robber brought to the cross? From the 

43. . '^ . 

I'fauee,' lurking place' to the judginent, from the judgment unto the 

fh 1 , tree, from the tree unto Paradise. ' He believed, where- 

< the fore he spake.' But even that very faith who did give, but 

Ps! 116 H<3 t^'^i^ beside him hung? For nothing Thou shalt save 

10- ' them. 

13. In anger the peoples Thou shalt bring donn. Thou 

art angry and dost bring down, dost rage and save, dost 

terrify and call. For what is. In anger the peoples TIiou 

shalt bring down ? Thou fillest with tribulations all things, 

in order that being set in tribulations men may fly to Thee, 

lest by pleasures and a wrong security they be seduced. 

From Thee anger is seen, but that of a father. A father is 

angry with a son, the despiser of his injunctions : being 

angry with him he boxeth him, slrikcth, pulleth the ear, 



Some ' fell out thei?- life to loin souls to God. 69 

with hand draggeth,to school leadeth. In anger tlie peoples Veu. 

Thou shalt bring down. How many men have entered, ?i_ 

how many men have filled the House of the Lord, in the 
anger of Him brought down, that is, by tribulations terrified 
and with faith filled ? For to this end tribulation stirreth 
up; in order to empty the vessel which is full of wickedness, 
so as that it may be filled with grace. In anger the peoples 
Thou shalt bring doivn. 

14. Ver. 8. O God, my life I have told out to Thee. For 
that I live hath been Thy doing, and for this reason I tell 
out my life to Thee. But did not God know that which He 
had given? What is that which thou tellest out to Him? 
Wilt thou teach God ? Far be it. Therefore why saith 
he, / have told out to Thee ? Is it peixhance because 
it profiteth Thee that I have told out my life ? And what 
doth it profit God? To the advantage of God it doth profit. 
I have told out to God my life, because that life hath been 
God's doing. In like manner as his life Paul the Apostle 
did tell out, saying, / that before was a blasphemer and a i Tim. 
persecutor and injurious, he shall tell out his life. But ' 
mercy I have obtained. He hath told out his life, not for 
himself but for Him : because he hath told it out in such 
sort, that in Him men believe, not for his own advantages, 
but for the advantages of Him. For what saith that same 
Paul ? Therefore Christ hath died, and hath risen, in order 'i Cor. 
that he thai liieth, no more for himself may live, but for Him g^g 
that for all men hath died. If therefore thou livest, and^°^- 

.14, 9. 

livest not by thyself, because that thou shouldest live He 
hath granted : tell out thy life, not for thyself, but for Him ; 
not thine own things seeking, not for thyself living, but for 
Him That for all men hath died. For of certain reprobate 
men what saith the same Apostle ? For all men seek their Philip. 
own things, not the things which are of CJirist Jesus. If ' " " 
for this reason thou tellest out thy life, in order that it may 
profit thee, and other men it may not profit ; for thyself thou 
tellest it out, not for God ; but if so thou tellest out thy life, 
in order that other men also thou mayest invite to receive 
life, which thou too hast received, thou tellest out thy life to 
Him from Whom thou hast received, and thou shalt have a 
reward more ample, because even out of that which thou 



70 He that icuuld put himself Jirst falls into error. 

Psalm hast recuivcd, not ungrateful thou hast shewn thyself. O God, 
—^ — — my life I have told out to Thee. Thou liasl put my tears in 



Thy sight. Thou hast hearkened to me imploring Thee. As 
also in Thy promise. Because as Thou hadst promised this 
thing, so Thou hast done. Thou hast said Thou wouldest 
liearken to one wee])ing. I have believed, I have wept, I 
have been hearkened unto ; I have found Thee merciful in 
promising, tnie in repaying. As also in Thy promise. 

15. Ver. 9. Turned be mine enemies backward. This 
thing to these very men is profitable, no ill to these men he 
is wishing. For to go before they are willing, therefore to 
be amended they are not willing. Thou warnest thine 
enemy to live well, that he amend himself: he scorneth, he 
rejectcth thy word: " Behold him that adviseth me; behold 
him from whom I am to hear the commandments whereby 
1 shall live !" To go before thee he willeth, and in going 
before is not amended. He mindeth not that thy words are 
not thine, he mindeth not that thy life to God thou tellest 
out, not to thyself In going before therefore he is not 
amended : it is a good thing for him that he be turned 
backward, and follow him whom to go before he willed. 
The Lord to His disciples was speaking of His Passion that 
Mat.16, was to be. Peter shuddered, and saith, Far be it, O Lord, 
^^' there shall not be done this thing: he that a little before had 
said, Thou art the Christ, Son of the livitig God, having 
confessed God, feared for Him to die, as if but a man. But 
the Lord Who so came that He might suffer, (for we could 
not otherwise be saved unless with His blood we were 
redeemed,) a little before had praised the confession of Peter, 
Mat. 16, and had said. Because to thee jlesh and blood hath not 
^'^' revealed this thing, but 3Ty Father Which is in the heavens; 
therefore thou art Peter, and npon this Rock I will build 
My Church, and the gates of hell shall not overcome Her: 
and to thee I will give the keys of the kingdom of 
Heaven. See yc after what sort He followed up a con- 
fession true, godly, full of confidence, because he said. Thou 
art the Christ, Son of the living God. But immediately 
when the T^ord begiuneth to speak of His Passion, he feared 
lest He should perish by death, whereas we ourselves should 
perish unless He died; and he saith, Frrr be it, Lord, this 



How the God of all is especially His People's God, 7 1 

thing shall not be done. And the Lord, to him to whom a Vkr. 

little before He had said, Blessed thou art, and upon this ^^ — 

Bock I will build 3Iy Church, saith, Go back behind, Satan, Mat.ie, 
an offence thou art to 3Ie. Why therefore Satan is he, that^^' 
a little before was blessed, and a Rock ? For thou savourest 
not the things which are of God, lie saith, but those things 
which are of man. A little before [he savoured] the things 
which are of God : " because not flesh and blood hath revealed 
to thee, but My Father Which is in the Heavens." When 
in God he was praising his discourse, not Satan but Peter, 
from petra : but when of himself and out of human infirmity, 
carnal love of man, which would be for an impediment to his 
own salvation, and that of the rest, Satan he is called. Why? 
Because to go before the Lord he willed, and to the Leader 
heavenly, earthly counsel to give. Far be it, O Lord, this 
thing shall not be done. Thou sayest. Far be it. and thou 
sayest, O Lord : surely if Lord He is, in power He doeth : 
if Master He is, He knoweth what He doeth. He knowetli 
what He teacheth : but thou wiliest to lead thy Leader, teach 
thy Master, command thy Lord, choose for God : much thou 
goest before, go back behind. Did not this too profit these 
enemies ? Turned be Mine enemies backward ; but let them 
not remain backward. For this reason let them be turned 
backward, lest they go before ; but so that they follow, not 
so that they remain. Turned be Mine enemies backward. 

16. Ver. 9. In whatsoever day I shall have called upon 
Thee, behold I have known that my God art Thou. A great 
knowledge. He saith not, / have known that God Thou art: 
but, That 7ny God art Thou. For thine He is, when thee 
He succoureth : thine He is, when thou to Him art not an 
alien. Whence is said. Blessed the p)eople of ivhom is the Ps. 144, 
Lord the God of the same. Wherefore of whom is ? For of '^" 
whom is He not ? Of all things indeed God He is : but of those 
men the God peculiarly He is said to be, that love Him, that 
hold Him, that possess Him, that worship Him, as though be- 
longing to His own House : the great family of Him are they, 
redeemed by the great blood of the Only Son. How great a 
thing hath God given to us, that His own we should be, and 
He should be ours ! But in truth foreigners afar have been 
put from holy men, sons alien they are. See what of them 



72 God gives ouhcard things to all. Himself to His ovm. 

Psalm is said in another Psalm : () Lord, deliver me, he ^dx\\\,from 
^^^•- the hand of alien sons, of ichom the mouth hath spoken 
w—idl vanity, and the right hand of them is a right hand of 
iniquity. And see the height of these same; but it is ' the 
height of the day,' that is, pride temporal. Of ivhom their 
sons, he sailh, are as young plants firmly rooted, the daughters 
of them adorned as the similitude of a temple. The felicity 
of the present world he is describing, wherein men erring, 
and counting it as some great matter, the felicity true and 
everlasting seek not. Thence therefore these are sons 
alien, not sons of God: Of whom their sous, he sailh, rtve 
as young plants firmly rooled, their daughters adorned 
as the similitude of a temple : their garners full, belching 
forth out of this unto this: their oxen fat, their sheep 
fruitful, multiplying in their goings out : there is not 
falling of wall, nor going over, nor cry in the streets of them. 
And what followeth ? Blessed they have called the people to 
whom these tilings are. But who have called them ? Sons 
alien, of whom the mouth hath spoken vanity. Thou, what 
sayest thou ? Blessed the people, of whom the Lord is the 
God of the same. He hath taken from among them all other 
tilings which God giveth, and hath given God Himself. For 
all those things, brethren, of which the sons alien have made 
mention, God giveth; but even to aliens He giveth, but even 
Mat. 5, to evil men giveth, but even to blasphemers giveth, He that 
maketh His sun to rise upon good men and upon evil men, 
and raineih upon Just men and upon unjust men. Some- 
times these things to good men He giveth, sometimes giveth 
not : and to evil men sometimes giveth, sometimes giveth 
not: for good men however He kcepeth Himself, but for 
evil men fire everlasting. There is therefore an evil thing 
which He giveth not to good men, and there is a good thing 
which He giveth not to evil men : there are certain middle 
things, both good things and evil things, which He giveth 
both to good men and to evil men. 

17. Let us therefore love God, brethren, purely and 
chastely. There is not a chaste heart, if God for reward 
it worshijipeth. How so ? Reward of the worship of God 
shall not we have } We shall have evidently, but it is God 
Himself Whom we worship. Himself for us a reward shall 



He must be loved freely, not for outward reioards. 73 

be, because ue shall see Him as He is. Observe that a Ver, 
reward' thou shalt obtain. To His lovers our Lord Jesus ^^' — 
Christ saith what ? He that loveth Me, keepeth My com- 3, 2. 
mandments ; and lie that loveth Me, shall be loved of 3Ii/^^^''^^f'^ 

' J J reward. 

Father, and I will love him. What therefore wilt Thou give John 14, 
him? And I will manifest Myself to him. If thou lovest * 
not, too little it is : if thou lovest, if thou sighest, if freely 
thou worshippest Him, by Whom freely thou hast been 
bought ; for thou hadst not deserved of Him that He should 
redeem tliee ; if upon consideration of His benefits towards 
thee thou sighest, and unquiet hast thy heart with longing 
for Him ; do not beside Him ask any thing from Him, He 
is Himself sufficient for thee. Howsoever covetous thou art, 
sufficient for thee is God. For avarice sought to possess the 
whole earth, add also Heaven : more is He that hath made 
heaven and earth. I will tell you, brethren: in these human 
alliances consider a chaste heart, of what sort it is towards 
God: certainly human alliances are of such sort, that a man 
doth not love his wife, that loveth her because of her portion : 
a woman her husband doth not chastely love, that for these 
reasons loveth him, because something he hath given, or 
because much he hath given. Both a rich man is a 
husband, and one that hath become a poor man is a 
husband. How many men proscribed, by chaste wives 
have been the more beloved ! Proved have been many 
chaste marriages by the misfortunes of husbands : that the 
wives might not be supposed to love any other object more 
than their husband, not only have they not forsaken, but the 
more have they obeyed. If therefore a husband of flesh 
freely is loved, if chastely he is loved ; and a wife of flesh 
freely is loved, if chastely she is loved ; in what manner 
must God be loved, the true and truth-speaking Husband of 
the soul, making fruitful unto the offspring of everlasting 
life, and not suffering us to be barren? Him, therefore, so let 
us love, as that any other thing besides Himself be not loved: 
and there takes place in us that which we have spoken of, 
that which we have sung, because even here the voice is ours: 
In whatsoever day I shall have called upon Thee, behold, 
I have known that my God art Thou. This is to call upon 
God, freely to call upon Him. Furthermore, of certain men 



7-1 Unreal hopes and fears. JVIiat we cnti renJer to God. 

Psalm hath been said what ? Upo7i the Lord they have not called. 

— '- The Lord they seemed as it were to call unto themselves; and 

they besought Him about inheritances, about increasing 
money, about lengthening this life, about the rest of temporal 
things: and concerning them the Scripture saith what? 
Upon the Lord they have not called. Therefore there 
followeth what ? There they have feared with fear^ where 
there uas no fear. What is, where there icas no fear i 
Lest money should be stolen from them, lest any thing in 
their house should be made less ; lastly, lest they should 
have less of years in this life, than they hoped for them- 
selves: but there have they trembled with fear, where there 

Johnii,was no fear. Such men they are as were tliose Jews: If we 
shall have let Him live, there will come the Romans, and 
will take away from us both place and nation. There they 
have feared a fear, where there was no fear. Behold, 1 have 
knoivn that my God art Thou. Great riches of heart, great 
light of the eye interior, great confidence of security ! 
Behold, I have known that my God art Thou. 

18. Ver. 10. In God I will praise the word, in the Lord 
I icill praise the discourse : (ver. 1 1.) in God I have hoped, 
I will not fear whoA man doeth unto me. Now this is the 

> V. 4. very sense which above ^ hath been repeated. 

19. V^er. 12. In me, God, are Thy vows, which 1 will 
Ps. 76, render of praise to Thee. " Vow ye, and render to the Lord 

your God." What vow, what render? Perchance those 
animals wdiich were offered at the altars aforetime ? No 
such thing offer thou : in thyself is what thou mayest vow 
and render. From the heart's cofl'er bring forth the incense 
of praise; from the store of a good conscience bring forth 
the sacrifice of faith. Whatsoever thing thou bringest forth, 
kindle with love. In thyself be the vows, which thou mayest 
render of praise to God. Of what praise ? For what hath 
He granted thee? (Ver. 13.) For Thou hast rescued my 
soul from death. This is that very life which he telleth out 
V. 8. to Him: God, my life I have told out to Thee. For I was 
what? Dead. Through myself I was dead: through Thee 
I am what ? Alive. Therefore in me, O God, are Thy 
vows, which I will render of praise to Thee. Behold 
I love my God: no one doth tear Him from me: that 



Sata7i caruiof. rob us of our acceptable offerings. 75 

which to Him I may give, no one doth tear from me, Vek. 
because in the heart it is shut up. With reason is said with -^ — 
that former confidence, What should man do unto me?v. ii. 
Let man rage, let him be permitted to rage, be permitted 
to accomphsh that which he attempteth : what is he to take 
aM'ay ? Gold, silver, cattle, men servants, maid servants, 
estates, houses, let him take away all things : doth he by 
any means take away the vows, which are in me, which 
I may render of praise to God ? The tempter was permitted Job i, 
to tempt a holy man. Job ; in one moment of time he took ^' 
away all things : whatever of possessions he had had, he 
carried off: took away inheritance, slew heirs ; and this not 
little by little, but in a crowd, at one blow, at one swoop, so 
that all things were on a sudden announced : when all 
was taken away, alone there remained Job, but in him 
were vows of praise, which he might render to God, in him 
evidently there were : the coffer of his holy breast the 
thieving devil had not rifled, full he was of that where- 
from he might sacrifice. Hear what he had, hear what he 
brought forth: 77/6 Lord hath given, the Lord hath taken Soh\, 
away; as hath pleased the Lord^ so hath been done: be" 
the name of the Lord blessed. O riches interior, whither 
thief doth not draw near! God Himself had given that 
whereof He was receiving ; He had Himself enriched him 
with that whereof to Him he was offering that which He 
loved. Praise from thee God requireth, thy confession God 
requireth. But from thy field wilt thou give any thing? He 
hath Himself rained in order that thou mayest have. From 
thy coffer wilt thou give any thing ? He hath Himself put in 
that which thou art to give. What wilt thou give, which 
from Him thou hast not received ? For what hast thou which i Cor. 4, 
tltou hast not received ? From the heart wilt thou give ? 
He too hath given faith, hoise, and charity ; this thou must 
bring forth : this thou must sacrifice. But evidently all the 
other things the enemy is able to take away against thy will ; 
this to take away he is not able, unless thou be willing. 
These things a man will lose even against his will: and 
wishing to have gold, will lose gold ; and wishing to have 
house, will lose house : faith no one will lose, except him 
that shall have despised her. 



76 JoWs trial, lohether he served God for love. 

Psalm 20. Ill ))te, O God, are Tliy vows, which I will render of 

-praise to Thee: (ver. 13.) because Thou Jiasl rescued my soul 

from death, mine eyes from tears, and. my feet from slipping: 
that I may be pleasing before God in the light of the living. 
With reason he is not pleasing to alien sons, that arc put 
afar off from holy men, because they have not the light of 
the living, whence they may see that which to God is 
pleasing. TAyhl of the living, is light of the immortal, 
light of holy men. He that is not in darkness, is pleasing 
in the light of the living. A man is observed, and the 
things which belong to him; no one knoweth of what sort 
he is: God seeth of what sort he is. Sometimes even 
the devil himself he escapeth ; except he tempt, he findeth 
not: just as concerning that man of whom just now I have 
made mention. God knew him, and bore witness to him : 
the devil knew him not, and therefore had said, Doth Job 
by any means worship God for nought ? See to what a proof 
the eneuiy challengeth : there is perfection. See what the 
enemy throweth out for reproach : he saw a man serving 
God, in all things obeying, all things doing well ; and 
because a rich man he was, and his house most prosperous, 
this thing he throweth out for reproach, that for this reason 
he worshippeth God, because He had given to him all these 

Jo^ l> things : Doth Job by any means worship God for nought ? 
For this was true light, this the light of the living, that gratis 
he should worship God. God saw in the heart of His 
servant His gratuitous worship. For that heart was pleasing 
in the sight of the Lord in the light of the living : the devil's 
sight he escaped, because in darkness he was. God admitted 
the tempter, not in order that He might Himself know that 
which He did know, but in order that to us to be known and 
imitated He might set it forth. Admitted was the tempter ; 
he took away every thing, there remained the man bereft of 
possessions, bereft of family, bereft of children, full of God. 

Job 2, A wife certainly was left. Merciful do ye deem the devil, 
that he lel't him a wife : He knew through whom he had 
deceived Adam. He had left a help-mate for himself, not a 
comforter for the husband. He, therefore, being full of God, 
in whom vows there were, which he might render of praise, in 
order that he might shew that gratis he did worship God, not 



Being in Light, ice may hops for those yet in darkness. 77 

because so great things he had received ; even ^yith the loss Ver. 
of all things was a man of such sort, because Him that had — ill- 
given all things, he lost not: The Lord hath given, he saith, Jobi, 
the Lord hath taken away; as hath pleased the Lord, so^^' 
hath been done : be the Name of the Lord blessed. JNIore- 
over, with wound smitten from head even unto feet, whole 
nevertheless within, he made answer to the woman tempting, 
out of the light of the living, out of the light of his heart: 
thou hast spoken as though one of the unwise w;o;7ee«, that Job2, 
is, as though one that hath not the light of the living. For ^^" 
the light of the living is wisdom, and the darkness of unwise 
men is folly. Thou hast spoken as though one of the unwise 
women: my flesh thou secst, the light of vay heart thou 
seest not. For she then might more have loved her husband, 
if the interior beauty she had known, and had beheld the 
place where he was beautiful before the eyes of God : be- 
cause in Him were vows which he might render of praise to 
God. How entirely the enemy had forborne to invade that 
patrimony! How whole was that which he was possessing, 
and that because of which yet more to be possessed he hoped 
for, being to go on from virtues unto virtue. Therefore, Ps.84,7. 
brethren, to this end let all these things serve us, that God 
gratis we love, in Him hope always, neither man nor devil 
fear. Neither the one nor the other doeth any thing, except 
when it is permitted: permitted for no other reason can it 
be, except because it doth profit us. Let us endure evil 
men, let us be good men : because even we have been evil. 
Even as nothing' God shall save men, of whom we dare to 'pro 
despair. Therefore of no one let us despair, for all men 
whom we suffer let us ])ray, from God let us never depart. 
Our patrimony let Him be, our hope let Him be, our safety 
let Him be. He is Himself hero a comforter, there a re- 
munerator, every where Maker-alive, and of life the Giver, 
not of another life, but of that whereof hath been said, /«;;« Johi]]4, 
the Way, and the Truth, and the Life: in order that both 
here in the light of faith, and there in the light of sight, 
as it were in the light of the living, in the sight of the Lord 
we may be pleasing. 



7S Our Lord tlie Example for onr Love. lie can he folhiced. 



lat. PSALM LVII. 

LVI. 



EXPOSITION ». 

1. We have heard in tlic Gospel just now, bveUircn, bow 
loveth us our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, God with the 

' circa Father, Man with us, out of our own selves, now at ' the 
right hand of the Father; yc have heard how much He 
loveth ns. For the measure of His own love He hath even 
Himself prescribed, and upon ns hath laid it, saying that 

Johni3, His commandment is, that we should love one another. 
And that we should not inquire doubting and fretting how 
much we ought to love one another, and how much that 
perfect love is which is pleasing to God, (for that is perfect 
than which greater there cannot be,) He hath Himself 

John 15, expressed, hath taught, and He saith, Greater love than 

^'^' this no one hath^ than that a man should lay down his life 
for his friends. He hath Himself done that which He 
taught; the Apostles have done that which from Him they 
learned, and by us that it be done they have preached. Let 
us also do thus; because even if we are not what He was, in 
respect of this, that He created us, what He was nevertheless 
we are, in respect of that which He was made because of us. 
And if He alone had done, perchance no one of us ought to 
dare to imitate Him : for in such sort He was Man, as that 
God also He was: but in that Man He was, servants have 
imitated Lord, and disciples Master; and they have done 
that have gone before us in His own Family, our fathers 
indeed, but nevertheless our fellow-servants ; nor would God 
command that we should do this, if impossible He judged 
it, that this by man should be done. ]5ut considering thy 
weakness, dost thou faint under the command ? be comforted 
in the example. But even the exam])le for thee is a great 
thing. There is present He that furnished the example, to 
furnish also aid. Let us hear therefore in this Psalm ; for 
» Sermon to the Commonalty. 



Christ the End, in the spnae of Perfection. 70 

opportunely it chanceth, even by His provision, that there- Title. 
with doth harmonize the Gospel, which commendeth to us 
the love of Christ, Who His life hath laid down for us, in i John 
order that we also our life for the brethren should lay down."^' ^^• 
It hath accorded and harmonized with this Psalm, so that 
we may see in what manner our Lord Himself His life hath 
laid down for us. For this Psalm the Passion of the Same 
doth sing. And since whole Christ is Head and Body, 
which truth well ye know I doubt not: the Head is onr 
Saviour Himself, Who suffered under Pontius Pilate; WhoMat.27, 
now after that He hath risen again from the dead, is sitting |j^^]. 
at the right hand of the Father: but the Body of Him is the i^s 19- 
Church, not this or that, but in the whole world spread ] '^3^ 
abroad ; nor that only which now is among men that are 
living in the present life, but in those also belonging to it, 
that have been before us, and in those that are to be after us, 
even unto the end of the world. For the whole Church 
consisting of all faithful men, because all faithful men are 
members of Christ, hath that Head established in the 
Heavens that governeth His Body : and if separated It is 
in sight, yet joined It is in love. Because therefore whole 
Christ is Head and Its Body, therefore in all the Psalms let 
us so hear the words of the Head, as that we hear also the 
words of the Body. For He would not speak separately, 
because He would not be separated, saying, Behold, loith you Mat.28, 
/ atn even unto the consummation of the ivorld. If with us " 
He is. He speaketh in us, speaketh of us, speaketh through 
us ; because we also speak in Him : and therefore the truth 
we speak, because in Him we speak. For whenever in our- 
selves and out of ourselves we shall have willed to speak, in 
a lie we shall remain. 

2. Because then this Psalm is singing of the Passion of the 
Lord, see what is the title that it hath : at the end. The end is T?om. 
Christ. Why hath He been called end .'' Not as one that con- ' * 
sumeth, but one that consummateth. For to consume, is to 
destroy: to consummate, to perfect. For whatever we speak of 
as ended, from the word ' end' we derive our expression. But 
in one sense we say, the bread hath been ended ; in another 
sense we say, the coat hath been ended: there halh been ended 
the bread which was being eaten, there hath been ended the 



80 David, the chosen King^ persecuted hy rejected Saul. 

PsAi,M coat which was being woven : the bread then hatli been 

-— ended so that it is consnir.ed ; the coat hath been ended so 

that it is perfected; the end therefore of our purpose is 
Christ: because however much we attempt, in Him we are 
made perfect, and by Ilim are made perfect, and this is our 
perfection, that unto Ilim we come home : but when unto 
Him thou shalt have come home, more thou seekest not ; 
thy end He is. For in like manner the end of thy Hfe is the 
place whither thou art tending, to which when thou shalt 
have arrived, then thou wilt stay : so the end of thy study, of 
thy purpose, of diy attempt, of thy intention, is He to Whom 
thou art tending, unto Whom when thou shalt have come 
home, more thou wilt not desire, because nothing better thou 
wilt have. He therefore Himself both an example of living to 
us hath set forth in this life, and the reward of living He will 
give us in a future life. 

10. At the end, corrupt not, for David himself, for the 

inscription of the title; when he fled from the face of Said 

into a cavern. We referring to holy Scripture, do find 

indeed how holy David, that king of Israel, from whom too 

the Psalter of David hath received the name thereof, had 

suffered for persecutor Saul the king of his own people, as 

many of you know that have either read or have heard the 

Scriptures. King David had then for persecutor Saul: and 

whereas the one was most gentle, the other most ferocious : 

the one mild, the other envious ; the one patient, the other 

cruel; the one beneficent, the other ungrateful: he endured 

1 Sam, him with so much mildness, that when he had gotten him 

24, 4. 7. jjj^Q his hands, him he touched not, hurt not. For David 

himself received power from the Lord God, so that if he 

would he might have killed Saul : and he chose to spare 

rather than to slay. But the other, not even by such a 

benefit was overcome, so as to cease to persecute. We find 

therefore at that time, when Saul was persecuting David, the 

king now rejected pursuing the future and predestinated 

king, that David himself fled from the face of Saul into a 

cavern. What reference hath this to Christ? If all things 

which then were being done, were figures of things future, 

we find there Christ, and by far in the greatest degree. For 

this, corrupt not for the inscription of the title ^ I see not 



The * Title,'' at the Crucifixion^ hejjt to shame the Jews. 81 

liovv it belongeth to that David. For not any title was Title. 
inscribed over David himself which Saul would corrupt. 
But we see in the Passion of the Lord that there had been 
written a title, King of the Jews : in order that this title Mat.27, 
might put to the blush these very men, seeing that from joimio 
their King they withheld not their hands. For in them ^^• 
Saul was, in Christ David was. For Christ, as saith the 
Apostolic Gospel, is, as we l<now, as we confess, of the seed Rom. 1, 
of David after the flesh ; for after the Godhead He is above j^^^^^.^ I 
David, above all meu, above heaven and earth, above angels, i- 
above all things visible and invisible ; because all things 
through Him were made, and without Him was not any John 1, 
thing made: nevertheless, having deigned to be made Man ' 
out of the seed of David, to us He came; because of the Luke], 
tribe of David He was born, whence the Virgin Mary who ''^''^• 
bore Christ. The title therefore inscribed is this. King o/'Jolini9, 
the Jews. Saul, as we said, was the people of the Jews; ' 
David was Christ. The Jews were indignant, because there 
had been inscribed for title, King of the Jews : it shamed 
them Him to have for King Whom to crucify they were able. 
For they saw not that the very Cross, whereon they nailed 
Him, would be on the brows of kings. When therefore 
they were indignant because of tl:at title, they went to Pilate 
the judge, to whom they had given up Christ to be slain; 
and they said to liiin, Write not so, King of the Jeus, but 
icrite that He said Himself thai He teas King of the Jews. 
And because already it had been sung through the Holy 
Spirit, ?7w/o the end, corrupt not, for the inscription of the title: 
Pilate answered them. What I have tcriiten, 1 have ivritten: Johni9, 
why do ye suggest to me falsehood ? I corrupt not truth. 

4. We have heard what meaneth, corrupt not for the 
inscription of the title. What therefore is, WJien lie fled 
from the face of Saul into a cavern? Which thing indeed 
the former David also did : but because in him we find not i Sam. 
the inscription of the title, in the latter let us find the flight^'*' ^' 
into the cavern. For that cavern wherein David hid himself 
did figure somewhat. But wherefore hid he himself .? It 
was in order that he might be concealed and not be found. 
What is to be hidden in a cavern ? To be hidden in earth. 
For he that fleeth into a cavern, with earth is covered so that 

VOL. III. G 



82 Horn Our T/yrd * hid Himself in a cnve.'' 

Psalm he may not be seen, liut .Jesus did carry earlli, flesh wliich 
He had received from earth: and in it lie concealed Him- 
self, in order that by Jews He might not be discovered as 

iror.2, God. For if they had knoini, never the Lord of glory 
would they have crucijied. Why therefore the Lord of 
glory found they not? Because in a cavern He had hidden 
Himself, that is, tlie flesh's weakness to their eyes He 
presented, but the Majesty of the Godhead in the body's 
clothing, as though in a hiding-place of the earth, He hid. 
They therefore, not knowing the God, crucified the Man. 
Neither die could He except in Man; nor be crucified could 
He except in Man ; because not even held could He be except 
in Man. He offered to men wrongly seeking, earth; He kept 
for men rightly seeking, life. He fled therefore after the flesh 
into a ctivern from the face of Saul. But if this also thou 
wonkiest understand in this way; to wit, that the Lord fled 
from the face of Saul, because He suffered ; even unto that 
point He concealed Himself from the Jews, as actually 
to die. For however much the Jews were raging against 
Him, until He died, they still were thinking that He might 
be delivered, and shew by some miracle that He was the 
Son of God. This thing foretold had been in the book of 

Wisd.2, Wisdom : IVitli deatli most shameful let us condemn Him; 
' ' for there shall be respect to Him out of His discourse : for 
if truly Son of God He is, He uill take Him up and 
trill deliver Him from the hands of adcersaries. Because 
therefore He was being crucified, and was not delivered, 
they believed Him not to be Son of God. Wherefore 
reviling Him hanging on the Tree, and shaking their head, 

Mat.27, they did say to Him, If Son of God Thou art, come down 

' from the Cross. Other men He hath saved. Himself to save 

He is not able. These words they were saying as it is in the 

Wisd.a.same book of Wisdom, tliese thitiys they thouyht and erred; 

Q 1 

for there blinded them their malice. For what great matter 
was it from the Cross to come down, to Him, for Whom an 
easy thing it was from the Tomb to rise again .? But where- 
fore even unto death willed He to be patient? It was in 
order that He might flee from the face of Saul into a cavern. 
For a cavern may be understood as a lower part of the 
earth. And certainly, as is manifest and certain to all, 



Our Lord with true human Soul prayed for mercy. 83 

His Body in a Tomb was laid, wliicli was cut oul in a Ver. 
Rock. Tliis Tomb therefore was the Cavern ; tliither He — '- — 
fled from the face of Saul. For so long the Jews did 
persecute Him, even until He was laid in a cavern. 
Whence prove we that so long they persecuted Him, until 
therein He was laid? Even when dead, and, on the Cross Johnif), 
hanging, with lance they wounded Hhn. But when shrouded, ' 
the funeral celebrated, He was laid in a cavern, no longer 
had they any thing which to the Flesh they might do. 
Hose therefore the Lord again out of that cavern unhurt, 
uncorrupt, from that place whilher He had fled from the 
face of Saul : concealing Himself from ungodly men, whom 
Saul prefigured, but shewing Himself to His members. 
For the members of Him rising again by His members were 
handled : for the members of Him, the Apostles, touched 
Him rising again and believed ; and behold nothing profited Luke24, 
the persecution of Saul. Hear we therefore now the Psalm ;^^* 
because concerning the title thereof enough we have spoken, 
as far as the Lord hath deigned to give. 

5. Ver. I. Have pity on me, O God, have pity on me, for 
in Tliee hath trusted my Soul. (Jhrist in the Passion saith, 
Have pity on Me, O God. To God, God saith. Have pity 
on Me ! He that with the Father hath pity on thee, in thee 
crieth. Have pity on Me. For that part of Him which is 
crying. Have pity on Me, is thine: from thee this He 
received, for the sake of thee, that thou shouldest be delivered, 
with Flesh He was clothed. The flesh itself crieth: Have 
pity on Me, O God, have pity on Me: Man himself, soul 
and flesh. For whole Man did the Word take upon Him, 
and whole Man the Word became. Let it not therefore 
be thought that there Soul was not, because the Evangelist 
thus saith; The Word tvas made Jlesh, and dwelled in ws. Johni, 
For man is called flesh, as in another place saith the Scrip- ^^" 
ture, And all Jiesh shall see the salvation of God. Shall Is,40,6; 
anywise flesh alone see, and shall Soul not be there 1 "Lu'ki*3 
Again saith our Lord Himself of men, As Thou hast given to^- 
Him power of all flesh. Had He anywise over flesh alone 2. ' 
received power, and not most chiefly over souls, which in 
the first place He delivered ? Therefore there was soul, 

G 2 



84 Hope atill in God, though iniquity abound. 

PsAT.M there was flesh, there whole man; and whole man with 
^^'^- the Word, and the Word with Man, and Man the Word, 
one Man, and Word and Man one God. Let him ^ay 
therefore, Have piti/ on me, God, have pity on me. Let 
us not be afraid at the words of one asking pity and holding 
out pity. For this cause He asketh, because He holdeth it 
out : for this reason He became Man, because pitiful He 
was, not so as that He would be born by the necessity of His 
lot, but so that He might deliver us from the lot of our 
necessity. Have pity on mc^ O God, have pity on me; 
because in Thee halh trusted my soul. Thou hearest the 
IVIaster praying, learn thou to pray. For to this end He 
prayed, in order that He might teach how to pray : because 
to this end He suffered, in order that He might teach how 
to suffer; to this end He rose again, in order that He might 
teach how to hope for rising again. 

G. And in the shadow of Thy wings I will hope, until 
iniquity pass over. This now evidently whole Christ doth 
say: here is also our voice. For not yet hath passed over, 
still rife is iniquity. And in the end our Lord Himself said 
Mat.24, there should be an abounding of iniquity : And since iniquity 
shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold; but he that 
shall have persevered unto the end, the same shall he saved. 
But who shall persevere even unto the end, even until iniquity 
pass over? He that shall have been in the Body of Christ, 
he that shall have been in the members of Christ, and from 
the Head shall have learned the patience of persevering. 
Thou passest away, and behold passed are thy tempta- 
tions; and thou goest into another life whither have gone 
holy men, if holy thou hast been. Into another life have 
gone Martyrs ; if Martyr thou shalt have been, thou also 
goest into another life. Because thou hast passed away 
hence, hath by any means iniquity therefore passed away ? 
There are born other unrighteous men, as there die some 
unrighteous men. \n like manner therefore as some un- 
righteous men die and others are born : so some just men 
go, and others are born. Even unto the end of the world 
neither iniquity will be wanting to oppress, nor righteousness 
to suffer. And in the shadow of Thy icings I will hope, 



I 



Ow Lord raised by Himself as well as hy the Father. 85 

until iniquihj pass over: that is, Thou shalt protect me, and Ver. 
in order that by the beat of iniquity I dry not up, Thou — '—^ 



shalt afford a shelter for me. 

7. Ver. 2. / ivill cry to God most higli. If most high 
He is, how heareth He thee crying? Confidence hath been 
engendered by experience: to God, he sailh. Who hath done 
good to me. If before that I v/as seeking Him, He did good 
to me, when I cry • 'lall He not hearken to me ? For good 
to us the Lord Gc i hath done in sending to us our Saviour 
Jesus Christ, that He raiglit die for our offences, and rise Rom. 4, 
again for our justification. For what sort of men hath He^'^- 
willed His Son to die ? For ungodly men. But ungodly 

men were not seeking God, and have been sought of God. 
For He is Most High in such sort, as that not far from Him 
is our misery and our groaning: because ^^ near is the Lord Ps. 34, 

. 18 

to them that have bruised the hearth I trill cry to God 
most high, God that hath done good to me. 

8. Ver. 3. He hath sent from heaven and Italh saved me. 
Now the Man Himself, now the Flesh Itself, now the Son of 
God after His partaking of ourselves, of Him it is manifest, 
how He was saved, and sent hath from heaven the Father 
and hath saved Him, hath sent from heaven, and hath raised 
Him again : but in order that ye may know, that also the 
Lord Himself hath raised again Himself; both truths are 
written in Scripture, both that the Father hath raised Him 
again, and that Himself Himself hath raised again. Hear 
ye how the Father hath raised Him again : the Apostle 
saith, He hath been made, he saith, obedient unto death, Phil. 2, 
even the death of the Gross: wherefore God also hath ' • 
exalted Him, and hath given Him a name which is above 
every name. Ye have heard of the Father raising again and 
exalting the Son ; hear ye how that He too Himself His flesh 
hath raised again. Under the figure of a temple He saith to 

the Jews, Destroy this Temple, and in three days I will John 2, 
raise it up. But the Evangelist hath explained to us what^^* 
it was that He said : But this, he saith, He sjmke of the 
Temple of His Body. Now therefore out of the person of 
one praying, out of the person of a man, out of the person of 
the flesh. He saith, He hath sent from heaven, and hath saved 
me. 

9. He hath given unto rOproach those that trampled on 



so The Jctcs, Chrisfs proud enemies, nuiv made a reproach. 

Psalm mc. Them that have trampled on Him, that over Him dead 
^ ^ ' have insulled, that Him as though man have crucified, 
because God they perceived not, them He hath given unto 
reproach. See ye whether it has not been so done. The 
thing we do not believe as }-et to come, but fulfilled we acknow- 
ledge it. The Jews raged against Christ, they were over- 
bearing against Christ. Where? In the city of Jerusalem. 
For where they reigned, there they were puffed up, there 
their necks they lifted up. After the Passion of the Lord 
thence they were rooted out ; and they lost the kingdom, 
wherein Christ for King they would not acknowledge. In 
what manner they have been given unto reproach, see ye : 
dispersed they have been throughout all nations, no where 
having a settlement, no where a sure abode. But for this 
reason still Jews they are, in order that our books they may 
carry to their confusion. For whenever we wish to shew 
Christ prophesied of, we produce to the heathen these 
writings. And lest perchance men hard of belief should say 
that we Christians have composed these books, so that 
together with the Gospel which we have preached we have 
forged the Prophet, through whom there might seem to be 
foretold that which we preach : by this we convince them ; 
namely, that all the very writings wherein Christ hath been 
prophesied are with the Jews, all these very writings the 
Jews have. We produce documents from enemies, to con- 
found other enemies. In what sort of reproach therefore are 
the Jews ? A document the Jew carrieth, wherefrom a 
Christian may believe. Our librarians they have become, 
just as slaves are wont behind their masters to carry docu- 
ments, in such sort that these faint in carrying, those profit 
by reading. Unto such a reproach have been given the 
Jews: and there hath been fulfilled that which so long 
])efore hath been foretold. He hath given unto reproach 
those that trampled on me. But how great a reinoach it is, 
brethren, that this verse they should read, and themselves 
being blind should look upon their mirror! For in the same 
manner the Jews ajipear in the holy Scripture which they 
carry, as appearcth the face of a blind man in a mirror: by 
other men it is seen, by himself not seen. He hath given 
vnto reproacJi those that trampled on me. 

10. Thou wast inquiring perha})s when he said, He hath sent 



Mercy and Truth in Christ delivered Christ. 87 

from heaven and hath saved me. What hath He sent from Veu 



heaven ? Whom hath He sent from heaven ? An Angel hath He '- — 

sent, to save Christ, and through a servant is the Lord saved? 
For all Angels are creatures' serving Christ. For obedience' Lata 
there might have been sent Angels, for service they might have ^'^'^^ "'^ 
been sent, not for succour: as is written, Angels ministered Ma.tt A, 
unto Him, not like men merciful to one indigent, but like sub- 
jects to One Omnipotent. What therefore hath He sent from 
heaven, and hath saved me ? Now we hear in another verse what 
from heaven He hath sent. He hath sent from heaven His v. 3. 
mercy and His truth. For what purpose ? And hath drawn v. 4. 
out my sold from the midst of the lions'' whelps. Hath sent, 
he s,Q.\ih, from heaven His mercy and His truth : and Christ 
Himself saith, / am Truth. There was sent therefore Truth, 
that it should draw out my soul hence from the midst of the 
lions' whelps : there was sent mercy. Christ Himself we 
find to be both mercy and truth ; mercy in suffering with us, 
and truth in requiting us. This is the same that a little 
before 1 said, namely, that He Himself Himself did raise 
again. For if Truth raised again Christ, and if Truth did 
draw forth the Soul of Christ from the midst of the lions' 
whelps; in like manner as merciful He was in dying for us, 
so true He was in rising again to justify us. For He had 
said that He was about to rise again, and the Truth could 
not lie, and being Truth and truth speaking, therefore true 
scars Pie shewed, because true wounds He endured. These 
scars the disciples held, handled, made evident to them- 
selves : he cried out who thrust fingers into the pierced side, 
and saith, 3Iy Lord and my God. In mercy for him Hejobn20, 
had died, and in truth unto him had risen again. He hath ' 
sent from Heaven His mercy and His truth: and hath 
drawn out my soul from the midst of the lions'' tchelps. 
Who are the lions*' whelps? That lesser- people, unto evil^minu- 
deceived, unto evil led away by the chiefs of the Jews : so "^ 
that these are lions, those lions' wheli)S. All roared, all slew. 
For we are to hear even here the slaying of these very men, 
presently in the following verses of this Psalm. 

11. And hath drawn oat, he saith, my soul from the midst 
of the lions'' whelps. Why sayest thou, And hath drawn out 
my soul? For what hadst Ihou surtcred, that thy soul should 



88 Our Lord ' slepV of His own power. 

Psalm be drawn out? / have slept troubled. Christ liatli inti- 

^ mated His death. Assuredly of old David we read that he 

fled info a cavern, nevertheless not that he slept in a cavern. 
Another David is in a cavern, another David there is that 
saith, / have slept troubled. We see the perturbation of 
Him, not that He was troubled, but that they were troubling. 
For 'troubled' He called Himself, after the notion of the 
men that were ragintr, not after the conscience of Him That 
gave way. They thought that they had disturbed Him, 
thought they had overcome, but He ' slept troubled.' So 
calm had been this disturbed one, tliat when He willed He 
slept. No one sleepeth disturbed: all men that are perturbed 
either from sleep are roused, or else are not suffered to go 
off to sleep. But He disturbed was, and slept. Great is 
the hu.mility of Him disturbed, great the power of Him 
sleeping. By what power came it that He slept? From 

John 10, that whereof He speaketh Himself, Power I have of laying 
down Ml/ life, and poner of taking it : no one taketh it 
from 3Ie; but I do it lay doivn, and again I take it. They 
disturbed, and He slept. The type of which thing Adam 

Gen. 'i, bore, when God sent upon him a slumber, in order that out 
■ of his side He might make a help-male for him. For was it 
that He could not make a wife for the first man even out of 
the side of one awake ? Or did He for this reason will him 
to sleep, that he might not feel when a rib was being taken 
away from him? In a word, who doth sleep so soundly, as 
that when a bone is plucked from him he would not awake.'' 
He that could without pain take away a rib from one sleeping, 
could do so from one awake also. But why willed he to do 

John 19, it to one sleeping? Because to Christ sleeping on the Cross 
there was made a wife out of His side. For smitten was His 
side as He hung, with a lance, and there flowed forth the 
Sacraments of the Church. I have slept, he saith, troubled. 
And in another Psalm he manifesteth this thing, in the place 

Ps. 3, 5. where he saith, / 3Iyself^ hare slept; and, sleep I have 
*^^° taken. There He expresseth His power. He might even 
there have said, 1 have slept : as He hath said here. But 
what is, / Myself have slept ? It is, Because 1 have willed, I 
have slejit. They have not driven mo unwilling unto sleep ; 
^ut of uiine own will 1 have sle; t, after the saying above 



The Jews His slayers, though by others' hands. 89 

quoted, Power I have of laying doicn My life, and power Veb. 
/ liaie of taking it again. Wherefore there He continueth r~r- — 

^ • 1 T 1 7 J7 Tj 7 John 10, 

and saitn, 1 have slejA, and sleeji 1 have taken, and have 18. 
risen up, because the Lord shall sustain me. 

12. / have slept troubled. Whence troubled? Who 
troubling? Let us see in what manner He brancleth an 
evil conscience upon the Jews, wishing to excuse themselves 
of the slaying of the Lord. For to this end, as the Gospel 
speaketh, to the judge they delivered Him, that they might 
not themselves seem to have killed Him. For when at that 
time Pilate the judge had said to them. Take ye Him, and Johnis, 
after your Law Judge Him : they made answer. For us it is ' 
not lawful to kill any man. To kill is not lawful, is it lawful 
to deliver to be killed ? For which doth slay ? He that hath 
yielded on hearing an outcry, or he that by outcry hath 
extorted that He should be slain .? Let the Lord Himself 
give testimony by whom He \\as slain, whether by that 
Pilate who unwillingly slew Him, v/hence also he scourged 
Him, and with garment of shame clothed Him, and when 
scourged brought Him forth before their eyes, in order that 
at all events being satiated with the punishment of His 
stripes, that He should be slain they should not extort. 
Therefore also when he saw them persevere, as we read, he 
washed his hands, and said, Innocent I am of the blood o/Mai.27, 
this Just One. Consider whether he was innocent, that did * 
so much as yield to men clamouring; nevertheless, much 
more guilty they were that by clamour willed to slay Him. 
But let us question and hear the Lord, to whom He 
doth ascribe His death, for that He hath said, / have slept 
troubled. Let us question Him, and say, since Thou hast 
slept troubled, who have persecuted Thee ? who have slain 
Thee ? was it perchance Pilate, who to soldiers gave Thee, 
on the Tree to be hanged, with nails to be pierced ? Hear 
who they were, (ver. 5.) Sons of men. Of them He speaketh, 
whom for persecutors He suffered. But how did they slay, 
that steel bare not ? They that sword drew not, that made 
no assault upon Him to slay ; whence slew they ? Their 
teeth are arms and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword. 
Do not consider the unarmed hands, but the mouth armed : 
from thence the sword proceeded, wherewith Christ was to 



90 Itatje of the enemy. Our Lord nevertheless exalted. 

Psalm be slain : in like manner also as from the montli of Christ, 
— ^ihat wherewith the Jews were to be slain. For lie hath 

licv. 1 

16. ' a sword twice whetted : and rising again lie hath smitten 
them, and hath severed (ioni them those whom He would 
make Mis faithful ]ieople. They an evil sword, He a good 
sword : they evil arrows, He good arrows. For He hath 
Himself also arrows good, words good, whence He pierceth 
the faithful heart, in order that He may be loved. Therefore 
of one kind are their arrows, and of another kind their sword. 
Sons of men, their teeth are arms and nrrotcs, and their 
ionijiie a sharp sabre. Tongue of sons of men is a sharp 
sabre, and their teeth arras and arrows. When therefore did 

Mat.27, they smite, save when they clamoured, Crucify, crucify? 

Joiinii) 1'^' ^"^^ what have they done to Thee, O Lord? Let the 

^' Prophet here exult! For above, all those vei'ses the Lord 

was speaking : a Prophet indeed, but in the person of the 
Lord, because in the Prophet is the Lord. And whenever 
there speaketh the Prophet in his own person, the Lord 
Himself speaketh through Him, That to him dictateth the 
truth which he speaketh. Now therefore in the person of 
the Prophet, hear ye, my brethren. This Prophet hath in 
spirit seen the Lord humbled, slain, scourged, with buffets 
smitten, beaten with palms of hands, with spittle defiled, 
with thorns crowned, on the tree hanged: them raging, 
Him bearing; them exulting, Him as if conquered, he hath 
seen in spirit: and then after all that humiliation, and their 
fury, Him to have risen again, and all those things which 
the raging Jews had done to have been made voidj and 
elated with joy, as though he were seeing it come to pass, 
(ver. 6.) Be exalted, he saith, above the Heavens, O God. 
Man on the Cross, and above the tieavens, God. Let them 
continue on the earth raging. Thou in Heaven be judging. 
Where are they that were raging } where are tiieir teeth, 
the arms and arrows } Have not " the stripes of them been 
made the arrows of infants ?" For in another place a Psalm 
this saith, desiring to prove them vainly to have raged, and 
vainly unto phrensies to have been driven headlong : for 
nothiug they were able to do to Christ when for the time 
crucified, and afterwards when He was rising again, and in 
Heaven was sitting : the arrows of infants have the stripes 



Heretics own His Godhead^ disoum His universal reign. 91 

of ilicm been made. How do infants nialic to themselves Veu. 
arrows? Of reeds'? But wliat arrows ? or what powers? or, — - 



caiies. 
what bows ? or what wound ? Be Thoa eojalled above the 

Heavens, God, and above all the earth Thy glory. Where- 
fore exalted above the Heavens, O God ? Brethren, God 
exalted above the Heavens we see not, but we believe : but 
above all the earth His glory to be not only we believe, but 
also see. But what kind of madness heretics are afflicted Against 
with, I pray you observe. They being cut off from the bond ^^/^^^^.^ 
of the Church of Christ, and to a part holding, the whole 
losing, will not communicate with the whole earth, where is 
spread abroad the glory of Christ. But we Catholics are in 
all the earth, because with all the world we communicate, 
wherever the Glory of Christ is spread abroad. For we see 
that which then was sung, now fulfilled. There hath been 
exalted above the Heavens our God, and above all the earth 
the Glory of the Same. O heretical insanity ! That which 
thou seest not thou believest with me, that which thou seest 
thou denicst: thou believest with me in Christ exalted above 
the Heavens, a thing which we see not; and deniest His 
Glory over all the earth, a thing which we see. Be Thou 
exalted above the Heavens, O God, and above all the earth 
Thy Glory. 

14, He returneth to the words of the Lord: and the Lord 
Himself beginnelh to recount to us, as though speaking to 
us, the Prophet also exulting and saying, Be Thou exalted 
above the Heavens, O God, and above all the earth Thy 
Glory. Himself also strengtheneth us, as though saying to 
us, What could they do to Me, that have persecuted Me ? 
But wherefore doth He speak to us ? Because they do so 
to us too. But they do nothing who in like manner may 
persecute us. For let your Love see the Lord speaking to 
us, and exhorting us by His example ; A trap- they have'^Musd- 
prepared for My feet, and have bowed doivn 3Iy Soul.^^^' ^"'' 
They wished to bring It down as if from Heaven, and to 
the lower places to weigh It down: They have bowed My 
Soul: they have digged before My face a pit and themselves 
have fallen into it. Me have they hurt or themselves ? Be- 
hold He hath been exalted above the Heavens, God, and 
behold al)ove all the earth ihc Glory of the Same: the king- 



92 Some seem to ' dig jnts,^ and not to fall therein. 

Psalm dom of Christ wc sec, where is the kingdom of the Jews ? 

^^" Since therefore they did that which to have clone they oiiglit 
not, there hath been done in their ease that which to have 
suffered they ought: tlieraselves have dug a ditch, and them- 
selves have fallen into it. For their persecuting Christ, to 
Ciirist did no hurt, but to themselves did hurt. And do not 
suppose, brethren, that themselves alone hath this befallen. 
Every one that prei)areth a pit for his brother, it must needs 
be that himself fall into it. Take heed, my brctlu'cn, have 
Christian eyes, be not deceived with things visible. Fur 
perchance to some one of you, because I have said this, 
there hath come to mind some man that hath chosen 
to play a cheat uj)on his brother, and hath chosen to 
contrive some snares for him, and he hath contrived, and 
succeeded, and the brother hath fallen into his snares, 
and he hath been spoiled, or hath been oppressed, either by 
prison, or by false witness, or overreached by some wicked 
accusation : but in this case is seen the one oppressed, the 
other to have oppressed: the one overcome, the other to have 
overcome : and a false thing is thought that which we have 
said, namely, that whosoever shall have prepared a pit for 
his brother, doth himself fall into it. I call upon you, as 
being Christians, that 3'e take an example from things which 
we have already experienced. Heathens have persecuted 
Martyrs, and Martyrs have been taken, have been bound, 
into prison have been thrust, to beasts given over, some 
with steel smitten, others with fire consumed ; have they 
conquered that were persecuting, and conquered have been 
the Martyrs ? Far be it. Look for the glory of the Martyrs 
with God, look for the pit of the lieathen in a delved con- 
science : for there is the pit wherein falleth an ungodly man, 
even an evil conscience. For supposes! thou him into no 
pit to have fallen, who the light of Christ hath lost, and with 
blindness hath been smitten ? If he fell not into a pit, he 
would see before him: he knoweth not where he goeth, in 
like manner as when he that walketh in a road hath fallen 
into a pit, he hath lost the road. Ye see, then, all evil-doers 
to have lost the way, having been involved in misdeed. But 
now thee he hath betrayed perchance into the hands of a 
robber, or into the hands of some unjust man, or of a judge 



Yet they do fall , ivhile the '■prepared hearV rejoices. 93 

imposed upon by him, and thou art in oppression, he is Ver. 
rejoicing, he exulting. Do not, I have already said, do not ^' ^' 
have the eyes of heathens : Christian eyes have thou. Thou 
seest him that exultelh ; that very exultation is the pit of 
him. For better is the heaviness of one suiFering unjust 
things, than the rejoicing of one doing unjust things. The 
very rejoicing of one doing unjust things, is that same pit; 
into it when a man shall have fallen, eyes he loseth. For 
thyself thou grievest, because thou hast lost a garment ; and 
for him thou grievest not, because he hath lost faitli. Which 
of you with more grievous loss hath been smitten ? Behold 
he slayeth, thou art slain : he liveth, thou art dead. Far be 
it ! Where is the faith of Christians ? where is he that dieth 
for a time ? Let him hear his Lord: He thai believeth ^/^ johni] 
Me, though he die, is living. Therefore, he that believeth ^^' 
not, though he live, is dead. They have dug before my face 
a pit, and themselves have fallen into it. All evil men it 
must needs be that this befal. 

15. But the patience of good men with preparation of 
heart accepteth the will of God : and glorieth in tribula- 
tions, saying that which follovvetli : (ver. 7.) Prepared is my 
heart, O God, I will sing and play. What hath he done to 
me ? He hath prepared a pit, my heart is prepared. He 
hath prepared pit to deceive, shall I not prepare heart to 
suffer? He halh prepared pit to oppress, shall I not prepare 
heart to endure ? Therefore he shall fall into it, but I will 
sing and play. Hear the heart prepared in an Apostle, 
because he halh imitated his Lord : IVe glory, he saith, Rom. 5 
in tribulations : because tribulation icorketh patience : ^• 
patience probation, probation hope, but hope maketh not 
ashamed: because the love of God is shed abroad iji our 
hearts through the Holy Spirit, Which hath been given to 

Its. He was in oppressions, in chains, in prisons, in stripes, 2 Cor. 
in hunger and thirst, in cold and nakedness, in every casting ^^' ^'^* 
of toils and pains, and he was saying. We glory in tribula- 
tions. Whence, but that prepared was his heart ? Therefore 
he was singing and playing. Prepared is tny heart, O God, 
prepared my heart ; I uill sing and play. 

16. Ver. 8. Pdse up, my glory. He that had fled from 
the face of Saul into a cavern, saith, Rise up, my glory : 



94 Our Lonrs Miracles the 'Psalter^;'' Siifferings, the ^ Harj}.^ 

PsAt-M o-lorificd be Jesus after His Passion. Rise vp, 'psaltery and 
'harp. lie callcth upon what to rise? Two organs I see: 



but Body of Christ one 1 see, one flesh hath risen again, 
and two organs have risen. The one organ then is the 

Organs psaltcry, the other the harp. Organs is the word used for 
all instruments of musicians. Not only is that called an 
organ, which is great, and blown into with bellows ; but 
whatsoever is adapted to playing and is corporeal, whereof 
for an instrument the player makelh use, is said to be an 
organ. But distinguished from one another are these organs; 
and T would, as far as the Lord grantcth me, point out to 
you, both in what manner they are distinguished, and where- 
fore distinfTuished, and wherefore to both is said, Rise vp. 
Already we have said, one flesh of the Lord hath risen 

Psaltery Q.gd\n ; and there is said, Rise up psdllery and harp. The 
psaltery is an organ, which indeed is carried in the hands of 
one that striketh it, and hath strings stretched, but that place 
whence the strings receive sound, that hollow wood which 
hangeth suspended, and when touched resoundeth because it 
is filled with air, this the psaltcry hath in the upper part. 

Harp But the harp hath this sort of wood hollow and sounding on 

the lower part. Therefore in a psaltery the strings receive 

their sound from above, but in a harp the strings receive 

sound from a lower part: this difierence there is between 

psaltery and harp. What therefore do these two organs 

ligure to us ? For Christ the Lord our God is waking up His 

psaltery and His harp ; and He saitli, / will rise up at the 

daun, I suppose that here ye now perceive the Lord rising. 

Mark Wc have read thereof in the (jlospel : see the hour of the 
16 2 
' * Resurrection. How long through shadows was Christ being 

sought? He hath shone, be He acknowledged; at ihedaivn 
He rose again. But what is psaltery? what is harp? 
Through His flesh two kinds of deeds tlie Lord hath wrought, 
miracles and sufferings : miracles from above have been, 
sufferings from below have been. But those miracles which 
He did were divine; but through Body He did them, through 
flesh He did them. The flesh therefore working things 
divine, is the psaltery: the fle-sh suflering things human is 
the harp. Let the psaltery sound, let the blind be en- 
lightened, let the deaf hear, let the paralytics be braced to 



Truth of God seems sheum in Heaven, mercy on Earth ; yet 95 

strength, the lame walk, the sick rise up, the dead rise again; Ver. 

tliis is the sound of the Psaltery. Let there sound also the — 

harp, let Him hunger, thirst, sleep, be held, scourged, derided, 
crucified, buried. When therefore thou seest in that Flesh 
certain things to have sounded from above, certain things 
from the lower part, one flesh hath risen again, and in one 
flesh we acknowledge both psaltery and harp. And these 
two kinds of things done have fulfilled the Gospel, and it is 
preached in the nations ; for both the miracles and the 
sufferings of ihe Lord are preached. 

17. Therefore there hath risen psaltery and harp in the 
dawn, and he confesseth to the Lord ; and saith what? (ver. 9.) 
I will confess to Tliee among ihe peoples, Lord, and will 
play to Thee among the nations: (ver. 10.) /or magnified even 
unto the Heavens hath been Thy mercy, and even unto the 
elands Thy truth. Heavens above clouds, and clouds below 
heavens : and nevertheless to this nearest heaven belong 
clouds. But sometimes clouds rest upon the mountains, 
even so far in the nearest air are they rolled. But a Heaven 
above there is, the habitations of Angels, Thrones, Dominions, 
Principalities, Powers. This therefore may perchance seem 
to be what should have been said; ^^ Magnified even nnto the 
Heavens Thy irulh, and even unto the clouds Tliy mercy T For 
in Heaven Angels praise God, seeing the very form of truth, 
without any darkness of vision, without any admixture of 
unreality: they see, love, praise, are not wearied. There is 
truth : but here in our own misery surely there is mercy. 
For to a miserable one must be rendered mercy. For there 
is no need of mercy above, where is no miserable one. I 
have said this because that it seemeth as though it might have 
been more fittingly said, Magnified even unto the Heavens 
hath been Thy truth, and even unto ihe clouds Thy mercy. 
For ' clouds' we understand to be preachers, of truth, men 
bearing that flesh in a manner dark, whence God both 
gleameth in miracles, and thundereth in precepts : and 
themselves are those clouds of whom speaketh Isaias in the 
person of the Lord, rebuking a certain vineyard, evil, barren, 
thorny, / icill command My clouds, that they rain not upon Is. 5, g. 
it a shower: that is, / ivill command My Apostles, that 
they forsake the Jews, and to them preach not the Gospel, 



96 Truth to the glorified; mercy to such as shall he in Heaven. 

PsAi.M but preach the Gos]k;1 in the good land of the nations, 
. whence not thorns but grapes come forth. We know there- 

fore the clouds of God to be the preachers of truth, Prophets, 
Apostles, all men that rightly ex})onnd the Word of truth, 
and have in themselves a light hidden, as clouds have 
that in them whereby they lighten : men therefore are clouds. 
What mcaneth therefore, O Lord, For magnified even unto 
the Heavens hath been Thy niercy^ and even unto the 
clouds Thy truth ? Truth is mighty above all among the 
Angels : but Thou hast given it to men also, and brought it 
down even to the clouds. Above, mercy the Angels seem 
not to need : but because to miserable meii Thou shewest 
mercy, and by rendering to them mercy makest them Angels 
by partaking of the Resurrection, even unto the Heavens is 
Thy mercy. Glory to our Lord, and to the Mercy of the 
Same, and to the Truth of the Same, because neither hath 
He forsaken by mercy to make us blessed through His 
Grace, nor defrauded us of truth : because first Truth veiled 
in flesh came to us and healed through His flesh the interior 
] Cor. eye of our heart, in order that hereafter face to face we may 
^^' ^^' be able to see It. Giving therefore to Him thanks, let us 
say with the same Psalm the last verses, which sometime 
since too I have said, (ver. 11.) Be Thou exalted above the 
Heavens, O God, and above all tlie earth Thy glory. For 
this to Him the Prophet said so many years before ; this 
now we see ; this therefore let us also say. 



jL^T. PSALM LVHI. 



EXPOSITION. 



Sermon io the Commonality, wherein every where he confutcth the Donafists. 

1. TiiK words which we have sung must be rather heark- 
ened to by us, than proclaimed. For to all men as it were 
in an assemblage of mankind, the Truth crieth, (ver. 1.) //' 
trnly indeed justice ye speak, judge right things, ye sons of 



The Law written in mmi's heart. 97 

men. For to what unjust man is it not an easy thing to v^er. 

speak justice? or what man if about justice questioned, when h 

he hath not a cause, would not easily answer what is just? 
In as much as the hand of our Maker in our very hearts hath 
written this truth, That which to thyself thou wouldest not Toh.i, 
have done, do not thou to another. Of this truth, even before If' 

iVl3,tt« 7 J 

that the Law was given, no one was suffered to be ignorant, 12. 
in order that there might be some rule whereby might be 
judged even those to whom Law had not been given. But 
lest men should complain that something had been want- 
ing for them, there hath been written also in tables that 
which in their hearts they read not. For it was not that 
they had it not written, but read it ihey would not. 
There hath been set before their eyes that which in their 
conscience to see they would be compelled ; and as if from 
without the voice of God were brought to them, to his own 
inward parts hath man been thus driven, the Scripture say- 
ing. For in the thoughts of the ungodly man there icill iewisd. 1, 
questioning. Where questioning is, there law. But because^* 
men, desiring those things which are without, even from 
themselves have become exiles, there hath been given also 
a written law : not because in hearts it had not been written, 
but because thou wast a deserter from thy heart, by Him 
that is every where thou art seized, and to thyself within art 
called back. Therefore the written law, what crieth it, to 
those that have deserted the law written in their hearts ? Rom, 2, 
Return ye transgressors to the heart. For who hath taught jg' 45 
thee that thou wouldest have no other man draw near thy^- 
wife ? Who hath taught thee, that thou wouldest not have 
a theft committed upon thee? who hath taught thee, that 
thou wouldest not suffer wrong, and whatever other thing 
either universally or particularly might be spoken of? For 
many things there are, of which severally if questioned men 
with loud voice would answer, that they would not suffer. 
Come, if thou art not willing to suffer these things, art thou 
by any means the only man ? dost thou not live in the 
fellowship of mankind ? He that together with thee hath 
been made, is thy fellow ; and all men have been made 
after the image of God, unless with earthly covetings they Gen. 1, 
efface that which He hath formed. That which therefore to^^* 

VOL. III. H 



98 MarC s judgment tried in his axon case. 

Psalm thyself thou wilt not have to be done, do not thon to another. 

^"^ ^^^' For thou judgest that there is evil in that, which to suffer 
thou art not willing: and this thing thou art constrained to 
tnow by an inward law ; that in thy very heart is written. 
Thou wast doing somewhat, and there was a cry raised in 
thy hands : how art thou constrained to return to thy heart 
when this thing tliou suffercst in the hands of others ? Is 
theft a good thing ? No ! I ask, is adultery a good thing ? 
All cry, No ! Is man-slaying a good thing ? All cry, that 
they abhor it. Is coveting the property of a neighbour a 
good thing ? No ! is the voice of all men. Or if yet thou 
confessest not, there draweth near one that coveteth thy 
property : be pleased to answer what thou wilt have. All 
men therefore, when of these things questioned, cry that 
these things are not good. Again, of doing kindnesses, not 
only of not hurting, but also of conferring and distributing, 
any hungry soul is questioned thus; " thou sufferest hunger, 
another man hath bread, and there is abundance with 
him beyond sufficiency, he knowelh thee to want, he giveth 
not: it displeaseth thee when hungering, let it displease 
thee when full also, when of another's hungering thou shalt 
have known. A stranger wanting shelter conieth into thy 
country, he is not taken in : he then crieth that inhuman 
is that city, at once among barbarians he might have 
found a home. He feeleth the injustice because he suf- 
fereth ; thou perchance feelest not, but it is meet that 
thou imagine thyself also a stranger ; and tliat thou see in 
what manner he will have displeased thee, who shall not 
have given that, which thou in thy country wilt not give to 
a stranger." I ask all men. True are these things ? True. 
Just are these things ? Just. 

2. But hear ye the Psalm. If truly therefore justice ye 
speak, judge rigid things, ye sons of men. Be it not a 
justice of lips, but also of deeds. For if thou actest other- 
wise than thou speakest, good things thou speakest, and ill 
thou judgest. For if thou actest as ihou judgest; if asked 
which is better, gold or faith, thou art not so far perverse and 
erring from all truth as to answer that gold is better : thou 
preferrest therefore, when asked, to gold, faith ; thou hast 
spoken justice. Hast thou heard the Psalm? //" truly 



Judgment of conscience betxoeen honesty and gold. 99 

therefore jus/ice ye speak, judge right things, ye sons of Ver. 

men. And where shall I prove thee not to judge as thou — L^ 

hast spoken ? I already have got thhie answer setting faith 
before gold. Behold from some place or other a friend hath 
come, and without witness gold he hath entrusted to thee; 
he alone knowelh this, and thou, as far as regardeth men. 
There is there another witness, that is not seen, and yet 
seeth: and the man to thee in a secret place and in thy 
closet perchance, in the absence of witnesses, gold hath 
entrusted ; the witness that is present, not in a chamber of 
walls is present, but in the couches of your consciences. 
He hath entrusted and hath departed, to no one of his 
friends he hath made it known, hoping himself to return and 
to receive from his friend that which he had given: such is 
the uncertainty of things human, he is dead, he hath left 
an heir, hath left a son : the son knovveth not what his 
father had, what to thee he entrusted : return thou, return Is. 46,8. 
transgressor to the heart, there written the law is : That ^^^^' ^> 
which to thyself thou wilt not have to he done, to another do Xob. 4, 
thou not. Suppose thyself to have entrusted, to none of thy ^^• 
friends to have told it, to have died, to have left a son ; 
what wouldest thou wish to be rendered to him by thine own 
friend? Answer, judge the case, the judge's tribunal is in 
thy mind, there is sitting there God, there is at hand for 
accuser conscience, for torturer fear. Amid things of men 
thou art, in the fellowship of men thou art engaged : think 
what thou wouldest have to be rendered to thy son by thy 
friend. I know what answer thy thought maketh. So judge 
thou, as thou hearest judge, a voice there will be; the voice 
of truth holdeth not its peace ; not with lips it crieth, but a 
cry is raised out of the heart: incline thine ear, there be 
thou with the son of thy friend. Thou seest perchance also 
a man in need wandering about, knowing not what his father 
had, where he hath placed it, to whom he entrusted it; 
think also of thy son, suppose that man to live whom thou 
despisest as dead, thyself deem dead in order that thou 
mayest live. But something else covetousness doth enjoin ; 
doth enjoin contrary to God; God one thing, another thing 
covetousness: one thing in Paradise our Maker, another 
thing athwart it, the serpent, the deceiver. Let there come 

h2 



100 AH men ' speak justice ^^ and ought to judge aright. 
PsAi-M into thy mind first thy fall; for this reason mortal thou art, 

IV ITT * 

~ — ~ for this reason toiling, for this in the sweat of thy face eating 
17. bread, for this reason thorns and thistles for thee the earth 
beareth : by example learn that wliicli thou wouldest not by 
precept. But cupidity prevaileth ; why not rather truth ? 
And where is that whicli thou wast speaking ? Behold, 
thou art meditating to deny the deposit of gold ; behold, 
thou art meditating from the heir of thy friend altogether 
to hide it. I had asked a little before which would be the 
more precious, and which would be tiie belter, gold, or good 
faith. Wherefore one thing sayest thou, another thing doest? 
Feai'est thou not this voice, //" truly Justice ye speak, Judge 
right things, ye sons of men ? Behold thou hast told me 
that belter is good faith, and in thy judgment better thou 
hast considered gold to be. Thou hast not judged as thou 
* hast spoken ; true things thou hast spoken, and false things 
thou hast judged : therefore even when thou wast speaking 
justice, truly ihou didst not speak. For if truly justice ye 
speak, Judge right things, ye sons of men. When to me 
concerning justice thou wast making answer, it was for 
shame, not with openness ihou wast speaking. 

3. Bui now to the present case lei us come, if ye please. 
For the voice is that sweet voice, so well known to the ears 
of the Church, the voice of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the 
voice of His Body, the voice of the Church toiling, sojourning 
upon earth, living amid the perils of men speaking evil and 
of men flattering. Thou wilt not fear a threatener, if thou 
lovest not a flatterer. He therefore, of whom this is the 
voice, hath observed and hath seen, that all men speak 
justice. For what man doth dare not to speak it, lest he be 
called unjust? When, therefore, as though he were hearing 
the voices of all men, and were observing the lips of all 
men, he cried out to them, If truly indeed justice ye speak, — 
if not falsely justice ye speak, if not one thing on lips doth 
sound, whilst another thing is concealed in \\eaxis>—j udge 
right tilings, ye sons of men. Hear out of the Gospel His 
Mat. 12, own voice, the very same as is in this Psalm: Hypocrites, 
' ' saith the Lord to the Pharisees, how are ye able good things 
to speak, when ye are evil men ? Either make the tree 
good, and the fruit thereof good ; or make the tree evil and 



Our Lord convicted men^s false dealing. 101 

the fruit ihereof evil. Why wilt ihou whiten thee, wall of Ver. 
mud ? I know thy inward parts, I am not deceived by thy ^' 
covering: I know what thou holdest forth, I know w-hat thou 
coverest. For there was no need for Him, that amj one /o John 2, 
Him should hear testimony qf man ; for He knew Himself^^' 
what ivas in man. For He knew what was in man. Who 
had made man, and Who had been made Man, in order that 
He might seek man. See, therefore, if these words do not 
follow one another. ' Ye hypocrites, how are ye able good 
things to speak, when ye are evil men V If truly, therefore, 
justice ye speak, judge right things, ye sons of men. Have 
ye not justice spoken of, when ye said, Master, loe know Wdit.22, 
that just Thou art, and acceptest the person of no man?^^' 
Wherefore guile in heart did ye conceal ? Wherefore the 
image of Caesar to your Creator did ye shew, and His image 
in your hearts did efface ? Hath not the thing which ye 
spake been heard, and how ye would judge been tried ? 
Have ye not crucified Him, Whom to be just ye had 
pronounced ? //" truly, therefore, justice ye speak, judge 
right things, ye sons of men. Why do I hear your speaking, 
we know that just Thou art, when I foresee your judgment, 
Crucify, Crucify ? If truly, therefore, justice ye speak, 
judge right tilings, ye sons of men. For what have ye done 
by raging against God That was Man, and by slaying your 
King ? For was He no King to be, because He was slain 
by you, when He was to rise again? In the title whereon 
had been written, King of the Jews, set upon the Cross Mat. 27, 
of the Lord, in three tongues, in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, ^ 
a human judge knew how to say. What I have written, John]9, 
I have written : and did not God know how to say, What ^^" 
/ have ivrilten, 1 have written, ? In any wise, your King 
He is; while alive, your King He is; when slain, your 
King He is: behold, He hath risen again, and in Heaven 
your King He is : behold, to come He is ; woe unto you, for 
your King He is. Go to now, and speak justice, and do 
not judge right things, sons of men. Ye will not rightly 
judge, rightly ye shall be judged. For He liveth That is your 
King, and He dielh no more, and death over Him shall no Rom. 6, 
longer have dominion. Behold, He cometh ; ' return ye jj ^g g 
transgressors to the heart.' Behold, He shall come, be 



10-2 Sins in purpose. One sin draws on another. 

Psalm amended before that He come ; * come ye before His face 
Ps 95 2 " ^" confession.' Behold, He shall come, your King He is. 
Ye remember the title upon the Cross : but ye see it not 
written : nevertheless it abideth ; on earth it is not read, 
but in Heaven it is kept. For do ye suppose that this 
inscription hath been corrupted ? And what saith the title 
of this Psalm .? At the end, for David himself, corri(pt not, 
for the inscription of the title. Not, therefore, corrupted is 
that inscription of the title. Your King is Christ, because 
Ps.22, of all things Christ is King: for His is the kingdom, 
and He shall Himself have dominion of the nations. If 
therefore King He is, behold before He come, He saith to 
you, I am still speaking. He saith, Not yet am I judging; 
I that do so cry with menacing, am unwilling to smite with 
the Judgment. If truly therefore justice ye speak, judge 
right things, sons of men. 

4. But now ye do what ? Why theso things to you do 
I speak ? (Ver. 2.) Because in heart iniquities ye ivork on 
earth. Iniquities perchance in heart alone ? Hear what 
i'oUoweth : both their heart hands do follow, and their heart 
hands do serve, the thing is thought of, and it is done ; 
or else it is not done, not because we would not, but because 
we could not. Whatever thou willest and canst not, for 
DONE God doth count it. For in heart iniquities ye icork 
on earth. What next ? iniquities your hands knit together. 
What is, knit together? From sin, sin, and to sin, sin, 
because of sin. What is this ? A theft a man hath com- 
mitted, a sin it is: he hath been seen, he seekelh to slay 
him by whom he hath been seen : there hath been knit 
together sin with sin : God hath permitted him in His 
hidden judgment to slay that man whom he hath willed to 
slay : he perceiveth that the thing is known, he seeketh to 
slay a second also ; he hath knit together a third sin : while 
these things he is planning, perchance that he may not be 
found out, or that he may not be convicted of having done 
it, he consulteth an astrologer; there is added a fourth sin: 
the astrologer answereth perchance with some hard and evil 
res]>onses, he runneth to a soothsayer, that expiation may be 
made ; the soothsayer maketh answer that he is not able 
to expiate: a magician is sought. And who could enumerate 



Sins joined to sins make strong fetters. 103 

those sins which are knit together with sins ? Iniquities Ver. 
your hands do knit together. So long as thou knittest — — — 
together, thou bindest sin upon sin. Loose thyself from 
sins. But I am not able, thou sayest. Cry to Him. 
Unhappy man /, ivho shall deliver me from the body of ^om. 7, 
this death? For there shall come the Grace of God, so^^* 
that righteousness shall be thy delight, as much as thou 
didst delight in iniquity ; and thou, a man that out of bonds 
hast been loosed, shalt cry out to God, Thou hast broken Ps.WQ, 
asunder my bonds. ' Thou hast broken asunder my bonds, ^ ^^' 
is what else but, ' Thou hast remitted my sins ?' Hear why- 
chains they are : the Scripture maketh answer, ivith the ^'■°^' ^» 
chains of his sins each one is bound fast. Not onlv bonds, 

but chains' also they are. Chains are those which are made ' 'c^ini. 
I ... 1 • 1 • 1 • cul.' 

by twisting in: that is, because with sins sins thou wast 

knitting together. Woe to them that draw sins like a long^^-^^^^- 

rope. Isaias crieth, Woe to them that draw sins like a 

long rope : what is it else but, Woe to them whose hands 

knit together iniquity ? And because each one with his 

sins is bound fast, as also with his sins he is smitten, 

the men that were wickedly trading in the Temple the Lord '^°^^ ^' 

drove out with a whip made of small cords. But thou wilt 

not have now thy bonds to be broken, because thou feelest 

not thy bonds, they even delight thee, and a pleasure they 

are : thou shalt feel at the end, when it shall be said. 

Bind him hands and feet, and cast him forth into outer Mat.22, 

darkness, there shall be iveeping and gnashing of teeth. 

Thou dost shudder, dost fear, dost beat the breast, thou 

sayest Evil things are sins, a good thing righteousness js. 

If truly therefore justice ye spieak, judge right things ye sons 

of men. In your life let there be found your words; in your 

deeds let there be known your lips. Do not therefore knit 

together iniquity : because unto you for a binding shall be 

applied whatsoever ye knit together. They hear not, not all 

however : and they that hear not are fore-known. 

5. Ver. 3. Alienated are sinners from the ivomb, they 

have gone astray from the belly, they have spoken false 

things. And when iniquity they speak, false things they 

speak: because deceitful is iniquity : and when justice they 

speak, false things they speak: because one thing with 



J 04 The wicked alienated from spiritual Birth. 

Psalm month they profess, another thing in heart they conceal. 

'- Alienated are sinners from the womb. Wiiat is this ? Let 

us search more diligently: for perhaps he is saying this, 
because God hath foreknown men that are to be sinners 

Gen.25, even in the wombs of their mothers. For whence when 

23 ... 

Rebecca was yet pregnant, and in womb was beanng twms, 
Mai. 1, was it said, Jacob I have loved, but Esau I have hated? 

2. . 

Rom. 9 Foi^" it was said. The elder shall serve the younger. Hidden 
^^' at that time was the judgment of God: but yet from the 
womb, that is, from the very origin, alienated are sinners. 
Whence alienated? From truth. Whence alienated ? From 
the blessed country, from the blessed life. Perchance 
alienated they are from the very womb. And what sinners 
have been alienated from the womb ? For what men would 
have been born, if therein they had not been held ? Or what 
men to-day would be alive to hear these words to no purpose, 
unless they were born ? Perchance therefore sinners have 
been alienated from a certain womb, wherein that charity 
was suffering pains, which speaketh through the Apostle, 
Gal. 4, Of whom again 1 am in labour, until Christ be formed in 
you. Expect thou therefore; be formed: do not to thyself 
ascribe a judgment which perchance thou knowest not. 
Carnal thou art as yet, conceived thou hast been: from that 
very time when thou hast received the name of Christ, by a 
sort of sacrament thou hast l)een born in the bowels of a 
mother. For not only out of bowels a man is born, but also 
in bowels. First he is born in bowels, in order that he may 
be able to be born of bowels. Wherefore it hath been said 
Matt. 1, even to Mary, For that which is born in thee, is of the Holy 
T^uke 1 *S)>'en7. Not yet of Her It had been born, but already 
35. in Her It had been born. Therefore there are born 
within the bowels of the Church certain little ones, and a 
good thing it is that being formed they should go forth, so 
that they drop not by miscarriage. Let the mother bear 
thee, not miscarry. If patient thou shalt have been, even 
until thou be formed, even until in thee there be the sure 
doctrine of truth, the maternal bowels ought to keep thee. 
But if by thy impatience thou shalt have shaken the sides of 
thy mother, with pain indeed she expelleth thee out, but 
more to thy loss than to hers. 



False sayings of Heretics against the Church. 105 

6. Alienated are sinners from the womb, they have gone Vkr. 
astray from the belly, they have spoken false things. For; 



V. 3. 

this reason therefore have ihey gone astray from the belly, 
because they have spoken false things ? Or rather have they 
not for this reason spoken false things, because they have 
gone astray from the belly ? For in the belly of the Church 
truth abideth. Whosoever from this belly of the Church 
separated shall have been, must needs speak false things : 
must needs, I say, speak false things; whoso either conceived 
would not be, or whom when conceived the mother hath 
expelled. Thence heretics exclaim against the Gospel, (to 
speak in preference of those, whom expelled we lament.) We 
repeat to them: behold Christ hath said,// behoved Chrisfi-^^li, 
to suffer, and from the dead to rise again the third day. 
" I acknowledge there our Head, I acknowledge there our 
Bridegroom : acknowledge thou also with me the Bride : 
see what followeth; That there be preached in His w«/weLuke24, 
repentance and remission of sins throughout all nations, 
beginning from Jerusalem. " Hither come, hither come." 
Behold the Church throughout all nations, beginning from 
Jerusalem. I say not, Hither come, Herself to thee doth 
come. But they making them deaf against the Gospel, and 
not permitting us to read the words of God, which they boast 
themselves to have kept from flame and would destroy with 
tongue, speak their own words, speak empty words: " Such ^ee on 
an one was a traditor, and such an one was a traditor." Aye, ^^^ ' 
I too say, " Such an one was a traditor, and such an one was 
a traditor :" and a true thing I say. But what is that to me ? 
Neither thou of those men whom thou namest to me in the 
Gospel dost read, nor I of those men whom I name in the 
Gospel do read. Let there be put aside out of the way our 
papers, let there come forth into the midst the writing of 
God : hear Christ speaking, hear the Truth speaking : That 
there be preached in His name, He saith, repentance and 
remission of sins throughout all nations, beginning from 
Jerusalem. " No," they say: " but what we say, hear thou, 
what saith the Gospel we will not hear." Alienated are 
sinners from the ivomb, they have gone astray from the belly, 
they have spoken false things. We speak true things, 
because we have heard true things; that which the Lord 



loo Heretics alien from our Spiritual Mother. 

Psalm saitl), not tliat which man sailh. It may be that man lie : 

^it cannot be that Truth He. Out of the mouth of truth I 

acknowledge Christ, the Truth itself: out of the mouth of 
truth I acknowledge the Church, the partaker of Truth. Let 
no one speak to me false things, of him that halh gone astray 
from the womb in the bowels of the Church, I should at first 
see what he would wish to teach me. I see him alienated 
from the womb, I see him to have gone astray from the belly, 
and I am to hear from him what, but false things? They 
have gone astray from the belly, they have spoken false 
things. 

7. Ver. 4. Indignation to them, after the similitude of a 
serpent. A great thing ye are to hear. Indignation to them 
after the similitude of a serpent. As if we had said, What 
is that which thou hast said ? there followeth, As if of a 
deaf asp. Whence deaf.'' And closing its ears. Therefore 
deaf, because it closeth its ears. And closing its ears. 
Which will not hearken to the voice of men charming, and 
of the medicine medicated by the wise man, A s we have heard, 
because even men speak who have learned it with such research 
as they were able, but nevertheless it is a thing which the 
Spirit of God knoweth much better than any men. For it is 
not to no purpose that of this he hath spoken, but because it 
may chance that true is even that which we have heard of 

Theasp. the asp. W'hen the asp beginneth to be affected by the 
Marsian charmer, who calleth it forth with certain peculiar 
incantations, hear what it doeth — But meanwhile unto this 
give heed, brethren, (for this thing must be first mentioned, 
lest any one should hear as it were with hesitation:) the thing 
itself, from whence a simile is taken, by the Scriptures is not 

Lukel8, commended ; but only thence a simile is drawn. For He 
did not commend the unjust judge, who would not hear that 

Lukelij^rijow, and neither feared God nor regarded men; and never- 
theless from thence a simile the Lord derived : nor did He 
commend that sluggard, who gave three loaves to one ask- 
ing him, not because of friendship, but being overcome with 
importunity; and yet from thence a simile He gave. And 
therefore from things not to be connnended are derived in a 
manr.cr a few similes. Or else if ye think Ave ought to 
countenance the Marsians, because of this thing ye_ hear in 



The deaf adder. IVilf id deafness of some. 107 

the Scripture of God; we must go also to the shows in the Ver. 
Theatre, because the Apostle saith, Nol so I box, as if —^ — - 
smiting the air. For to box is to perform the pancratium. 9, 26.' 
Now because from hence hath been taken a simile, ought 
these shows to delight us ? Or because he hath said, He 
that in a contest strivefh, in all things is abstemious : for this 
reason ought a Christian to attach himself to these vain and 
absurd contentions ? Give heed what is spoken to thee for 
a simile's sake, what is noted thee for avoidance. So there- 
fore here also there hath been given a certain simile derived 
from the Mai'sian, who maketh incantation to bring forth the 
asp from the dark cavern ; surely into light he would brii:»g 
it: but it loving its darkness, wherein coiled up it hideth 
itself, when it will not choose to come forth, nevertheless 
refusing to hear those words whereby it feeleth itself to be 
constrained, is said to press one ear against the ground, and 
with its tail to stop up the other, and therefore as much as 
possible escaping those words, it cometh not forth to the 
charmer. To this as being like, the Spirit of God hath 
spoken of certain persons hearing not the Word of God, and 
not only not doing, but altogether, that they may not do it, 
refusing to hear. 

8. This thing hath been done even in the first times of 
the faith. Stej)hen the Martyr was preaching the Truth, 
and to minds as though dark, in order to bring them forth 
into light, was making incantation : when he came to make 
mention of Christ, Whom they would not hear at all, of them 
the Scripture saith what? of them relateth what? They Acts 7 y 
shut, he saith, their ears. But what they did afterwards, ^'^• 
the narrative of the passion of Stephen doth publish. They 
were not deaf, but they made themselves deaf. For because 
ears open in heart they had not, but because the might of 
the word through the ears of the flesh rushing in, even to 
the very ears of the heart was doing violence; they closed 
even the ears of the body, and took to stones. Behold the 
deaf asps, harder than the stones wherewith their charmer 
they stoned : they heard not the voice of him charming, 
and of the medicine medicated by the wise man. What is 
' the medicine medicated by the wise man?' Perchance 
' medicine mixed' he may be calling ' medicine medicated.' 
Do we not there seek some other thing, how that if 



108 That which is most healing hated by the unwilling. 

Psalm already a medicine it be, it is also medicated? Medi- 

'- cines there were in the Prophets, medicines there were 

in the Law, all the very precepts were medicines, and 
this medicine not yet had been medicated : by the 
coming of the Lord medicated was the medicine: this thing 
they could not bear. For because they were not being 
healed by the medicine, medicated was the very medicine 
by the coming of the Lord. Now was Stephen a medicated 
medicine chanting; this they would not hear: whence the 
medicine was medicated, against this the ears they shut. 
For this thing they did at the point where was named 
Christ. The indignation of these men, was as the indig- 
nation of a serpent. Why your ears do ye shut.? Wait, 
hear, and if ye shall be able, rage. Because they chose 
not to do aught but rage, they would not hear. But if 
they had heard, perchance they would have ceased to 
rage. The indignation of them was as the indignation of a 
serpent. 
Against 9- Such men are these also whom we are suffering. 

the Do- ^^ j.|^g ^j.gj. tijg thought that they alone held the truth : 
natists. . . 

God was not inactive. He held not His peace: in His 

Church was preached the Truth, in the bowels of the 

Matt. 5 Mother were disclosed their lies : there was laid open that 

14. 15. which giveth light, there was displayed the City upon a 

See on i •/ 

Ps. 22. hill set, and the candle was placed upon a candlestick, 
which givelh light to all that are in the house. For where 
lieth hid the Church of Christ, where lieth hid the Truth of 
Dan. 2, Christ ? Is not the same the Mountain that hath grown ' out 
f°' , of a very small stone, and hath filled the whole face of the 
' crevit.' earth ? Hence they are convinced, they have nought to say 
against the Church. And what for them hath remained ? 
" Wherefore seek ye us ?" " What would ye have of us ?" 
They say, " Depart from us." But they say also to their 
own people, " Let no one with them speak, no one with 
them be united, no one hear them." The indignation of 
them is the indiguation of serpents : as of a deaf asp and 
closing Us ears ; which will not hearken to the voice of men 
charming; and of t/te medicine, that is, the voice of the 
medicine, medicated by the tvise man. Is there not from 
hence understood what sort of medicine it is, when of voice 
he speaketh ? Hath anywise medicine a voice .-^ There is 



Pleasure in past and present evil stops the ears. 109 

a certain medicine which hath voice. A medicine we carry, Ver. 

the voice of it hear ye, not after the manner of deaf asps. ll— 

If truly therefore of justice ye speak, judge right things, v. i. 

sons of men. There is a voice of medicine, and that too 

medicated by the wise man. For now hath come Christ to Matt. 5, 

17 
fulfil the Law and the Prophets, to establish the truth ' 

itself % on which two commandments the whole Law hangeth Mat.22, 

and the Prophets. 

10. Do we not perchance look for something even in the 

fact, that the asp is said so to shut the ears, as that one 

of them upon the earth it presseth, the other with its tail 

closeth up ? What meaneth this ? In the tail let the things 

behind certainly be understood ; in fact, past things, upon 

which now it behoveth us to turn our back, in order 

that we may aim at those things which are promised 

to us : therefore neitlier with our past nor with our 

present life ought we to be delighted. For to this the 

Apostle admonisheth us, saying. What fruit at any time Rom. 6, 

have ye had in those things wherein now ye blush ? He is ^^* 

weaning them from remembering with pleasure things past, 

with a certain lust for enjoyment; lest we return in heart into 

Egypt. What of things present ? How doth he bid us that 

even these things should be despised? Not regarding, he 2 Cot. 

saith, the things which are seen, but the things which are not'^' ^^' 

seen. For the things ivhich are seen are temporal : but the 

things which are not seen are eternal. Also of the present 

life, he saith. If in this life only in Christ we are hoping, 1 Cor. 

more miserable we are than all men. Forget thou there- ' 

fore things past, wherein ill thou hast lived ; despise things 

present, wherein temporally thou livest; lest by entangling 

thee, things present suffer thee not to attain unto things 

future. For if present life delighleth thee, ear upon earth 

thou hast laid : if with thy past things, even now that they 

have glided by, thou art delighted, ear with tail thou hast 

closed up. Thou oughtest therefore to go into light, to go 

forth from darkness, at hearing the voice of the medicine 

medicated by the wise man : in order that now in light 

» The construction seems imperfect, the very Truth the two commandments 
perhaps the true reading may be ' qui on which, &c.' 
veritate ipsa firmaret,' ' to estahlish by 



110 Imitate the serpent in parting with the old skin, 

FsALM walking, and exulting, thou mayest say, The things which 

Phil 3^^^ behind I have forgotten, unto the things which are before 

13. I am reaching forth. He bath not said, The things which 

are behind I have forgotten, and with things present I am 

delighted. When he saith, The things which are behind I 

have forgotten, he hath not closed up ear with tail: when he 

saith, Unto the things which are before I am reaching forth, 

with these and things present he liath not grown deaf, with 

reason hearing, with reason ])reaching, with reason exulteth 

the tongue of him, preaching the Truth in new light, the old 

service being now laid aside. For for this purpose availeth 

the subtlety of the serpent, to imitate which the Lord ex- 

Mat.io,^io''t6th us. For He saitli, Be ye subtle, as servients. What 

16. is, subtle as serpents? Offer all thy limbs to the smiter, 

1 Cor. pi'ovided only the Head thou keep entire. The Head of the 

11.3. man is Christ. But there is weighing us down soraetiiinglike 

the weight of a sort of hide, and as it were the old age of the 

Col.3 9. old man. Hear the A])ostle saying. You stripping off the 

10' old man, and pmtting on the new. And how do I put off, 

thou sayest, the old man ? Imitate the subtlety of the 

serpent. For what doth the serpent, in order to put off 

from itself the old coat ? It squeezcth itself through a 

narrow hole. And where, thou sayest, do I find this narrow 

Matt. 7 ^ole ? Hear : Strait and narrow is the icay which leadeth 

i"*- to life, and few there are that enter in through it. Dost 

thou shrink back from it, and art thou not willing to walk 

therein, because few there are? There must the old coat be 

laid aside, and at another place laid aside it cannot be. Or, 

if thou art willing with thine oldness to be impeded, weighed 

down, oppressed, do not go through the narrow way. But 

if thou art weighed down with a sort of oldness of thy sin, 

■Wisd.9, and of thy past life ; pass along it thou canst not. Because 

therefore the body, luhich is corruptible, weigheth down the 

soul: either let desires corporal not oppress thee, or let the 

lusts of the flesh be put off. Whence are they put off, 

except thou shalt have gone through the narrow way, unless 

thou shalt have been subtle as the serpent ? 

11. Ver. 6. God hath broken bitterly the teeth of them in 
their own mouth. Of whom .? Of them to whom indignation 
is as the similitude of a serpent, and of an asp closing up its 



Oia' Lord brake His enemies teeth Hn their oicn moutlt.^ Ill 

ears, so that it heaveth not the voice of men charming, and Ver. 
of medicine medicated by the wise man. The Lord hath 



done to them what ? Hath broken utterly the teeth of them 
in their own mouth. It hath been done, this at first hath 
been done, and now is being done. But it would have 
sufficed, my brethren, that it should have been said, God 
hath broken utterly the teeth of them. Wherefore, in their 
own mouth ? The Pharisees would not hear the Law, would 
not hear the precejDls of truth from Christ, being like to that 
serpent and asp. For in their past sins they took delight, 
and present life they would not lose, that is, joys earthly for 
joys heavenly. One ear they were shutting with delight in 
things past, another with delight in things present, therefore 
they would not hear. For whence is this. If we shall have 3 q\^^\\^ 
let Him go, there will come the Romans, and take away^^' 
both our place and nation ? They were unwilling indeed to 
lose their place, to earth they had pressed down their ear, 
and therefore they would not hear those words medicated by 
the wise man. It was said of them, that both covetous they 
were, and lovers of money: and all the life of them, even the 
past, was described by the Lord in the Gospel. He that 
diligently readeth the Gospel, findeth whence those men 
were closing up both ears. Let your love give heed : the 
Lord hath done what ? Hath broken utterly the teeth of 
them in their own mouth. What is, in their own mouth ? 
In such sort, that with their own mouth against themselves 
they should make declaration : He hath compelled them 
with their mouth against themselves to give sentence. They ]\iat.22 
would have slandered Him, because of the tribute : He said ^7- ^^ 
not, It is lawful to pay tribute, or, it is not lauful to pay 
tribute. And He willed to break utterly their teeth, where- 
with they were gaping in order to bite ; but in their own 
mouth He would do it. If He said. Let there be paid to 
Cffisar tribute, they would have slandered Him, because He 
had spoken evil to the nation of the Jews, by making it 
a tributary. For because of sin they were paying tribute, 
having been humbled, as to them in the Law had been 
foretold. We have Him, say they, a maligner of our nation, 
if He shall have bidden us to pay tribute: but if He say, 
Do not pay, we have Him for saying that we should not be 



112 Our Lord's answer on the Tribute. His question of St. John. 

Psalm under allegiance to Caesar. Sucli a double noose as it were 

^to catch the Lord they laid. But to whom liad they come? 

To Him that knew how to break utterly the teeth of them in 
Mat.22, their own mouth. Shew to Me the coin, He saith. Why 
tempt ye Me, ye hypocrites? Of paying tribute do ye think? 
To do justice are ye willing? the counsel of justice do ye 
seek? If truly justice ye speak, judge rigid things, ye sons 
of men. But now because in one way ye speak, in another 
way judge, hypocrites ye are: Why tempt ye Me, ye hypo- 
crites ? Now I will break utterly your teeth in your mouth : 
shew to Me the coin. And they shewed it to Him. And 
He saith not, Caesar's it is: but asketh, Whose it is? in 
order that their teeth in their own mouth might be utterly 
broken. For on His inquiring, of whom it had the image and 
inscription, they said, of Caesar. Even now the Lord shall 
break utterly the teeth of them in their own mouth. Now 
ye have made answer, now have been broken utterly your 
Mat.22, teeth in your mouth. Render unto Cmsar the things which 
are of C(Bsar, and unto God the things which are of God. 
Caesar seeketh his image; render it: God seeketh His image; 
render it. Let not Caesar lose from you his coin : let not 
God lose in you His coin. And they found not what they 
might answer. For they had been sent to slander Him : 
and tliey went back, saying, that no one to Him could make 
answer. Wherefore ? Because broken utterly had been the 
teeth of them in their own mouth. 
Mat.2l, 12. Of that sort is also the following; In ichat power doesl 
Mark Thou these things? I also will ask of you one question, 
i'>28- ansiier me. And He asked them of John, whence was the 

29, 

Baptism of John, from heaven, or of men ? so that whatever 
they might answer miglit tell against themselves. They 
would not say out, of men, fearing men, lest they should be 
stoned by them ; because John for a prophet they counted ; 
to say, from heaven, they dreaded still more, lest they should 
confess Christ Himself; because John had preached of 
Christ. Straitened on both sides, on the one hand and on 
the other, they that were preparing to lay a charge gave an 
Mark answer of ignorance : they said, We know not. For a 
^^'^^' slander they were preparing, when they said. In what power 
dost Thou these things? so that if He said, Christ I am, as 



Our Lord's enemies confounded hy their oim words. 113 

being arrogant, proud, a blasphemer, they would have assailed Ver. 
Ilim. He would not say. The Christ I am: but He enquired - — '— 



about Jolin, who had said that He was the very Christ. 
But they dared not find fault with John, fearing lest by the 
people they should be slain : they dared not to say, A true 
saying John hath spoken, lest it should be said to them. 
Believe him. They were dumb, they said that they knew 
not : now to bite they were not able. Whence were not 
able ? At once your thoughts run upon. Broken had been 
the teeth of them in their own mouth. 

1-3. The Lord displeased that Pharisee, who to dinner had 
bidden Him, because a woman that was a sinner drew near 
to His feet, and he murmured against Him, saying, If this Luke 7, 
man were a prophet. He would know what woman drew 
near to His feet. O thou that art no prophet, whence 
knowest thou that He knew not what woman drew near to 
His feet ? Because indeed He kept not the purifying of the 
Jews, which outwardly was as it were kept in the flesh, and 
was afar from the heart, this thing he suspected of the 
Lord. And in order that I may not speak at length on this 
point, even in his mouth He willed to break utterly the 
teeth of him. For He set forth to him: " A certain usurer Luke 7, 
had two debtors, one was owing five hundred pence, the 
other fifty: both had not wherewithal to pay, he forgave 
both. Which loved him the more V To this end the one 
asketh, that the other may answer: to this end he answercth, 
that the teeth of him in his mouth may be broken utterly. 
He answered confounded, shut out he was: admitted she 
was to receive mercy, she that had burst into a strange 
habitation, but had not drawn near to a strange God: The 
Lord hath broken utterly the teeth of them in their own 
mouth. 

14. The jaw-bones of lions the Lord hath broken utterly. y.Q. 
Not only of asps. What of asps } Asps treacherously desire 
to throw in their venom, and scatter it, and hiss. Most 
openly raged the nations, and roared like lions. JVhere/'orc P<s.2,i. 
hare raged the nations, and the peoples meditated empty 
things? When they were lying in wait for the Lord. Is itMat.22, 
lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or is it not lawful ? Asps 
they were, serpents they were, broken utterly were the teeth 
VOL. in. I 



114 Heretics' complaints, silenced hij their own acts, 

Psalm of them in their own mouth. Afterwards they cried out, 
LVIII. 



_ Crucify, Crucify. Now is there no tongue of asp, but roar 
23. of lion. But also the jaw-hones of lions the Lord hath 
^°^^^^' broken utterly. Perchance here there is no need of that 
which he hath not added, namely, in the mouth of them. 
For men lying in wait with captious questions, were forced 
to be conquered with their own answer : but those men that 
openly were raging, were they by any means to be confuted 
with questions ? Nevertheless, even their jaw-bones were 
broken utterly : having been crucified. He rose again, 
ascended into heaven, was glorified as the Christ, is adored 
by all nations, adored by all kings. Let the Jews now rage, 
if they are able. They rage not : Tlie jaw-bones of lions the 
Lord hath broken utterly. 
Against 15. We have also in the case of heretics this as a warning 
nadsts ^^^ precedent, because themselves also we find to be serpents 
with indignation made deaf, not choosing to hear the ' medi- 
cine medicated by the wise man :' and in their own mouth 
the Lord hath broken utterly the teeth of them. How were 
they raging against us, accusing us as being persecutors, for 
excluding them from the Basilicas ? Now question them : 
ought heretics to be excluded from the Basilicas, or ought 
they not ? Let them answer now, let them say that they 
ought not : the Maximianists demand back the Basilicas. 
But in order that the Maximianists may not recover the 
Basilicas, they say that heretics ought to be excluded. 
What is it therefore that ye were saying against us ? Are 
not your teeth utterly broken in your own mouth.? What 
have we to do with kings ? say they. What have we to do 
with emperors ? Ye on emperors do rely ! I ask also. What 
have ye to do with proconsuls, whom emperors have sent ? 
What have ye to do with laws, which against you emperors 
have given ? The emperors of our communion against all 
heretics have given laws : those men, in fact, they call 
heretics, who are not of their communion, among whom 
certainly you also are : if true are the laws, let them hold 
good even against you heretics ; if false are the laws, where- 
fore do they hold good against your heretics ? Brethren, for 
a little space give heed, and understand what we have said : 
when they were pleading their causes against the Maxi- 



in treating those icho parted from them as heretics. 1 15 

mianists, in order that they might expel those that were by Vek. 
themselves condemned, and their schismatics, from places — ^ — 
which they held of old, and where bishops had succeeded 
their predecessors; wishing to exclude these men from thence, 
they pleaded public laws, before the judges they came, said 
that they were themselves catholics, in order that they might 
be able to exclude heretics. Wherefore dost thou call thyself 
a catholic, in order to have a heretic excluded ; and wilt 
not rather be a catholic, that thou mayest not be excluded 
as a heretic? Now a catholic thou art, in order that thou 
mayest have power to exclude a heretic. For a judge could 
not judge otherwise than by his laws. They called them- 
selves catholics, they were admitted to plead : they called 
the others heretics, he enquired whereby it might be proved: 
there was read the Council of Bagai', whereby the Maxi-'Seeon 

1 1 . . 1 • 1 i Psalm 

mianists were condemned, it was inserted in the Actaxxxvii. 
Proconsularia, it was proved that they having been con-^'^''"' 
demned ought not to hold the Basilicas, and the proconsul 
gave judgment according to law. According to what law? 
That which was passed against heretics. If against heretics, 
also against thee. Wherefore, saith he, against me ? For 
I am not a heretic. If heretic thou art not, false are those 
laws : for by those emperors they were passed, that are not 
of thy communion : all that are not of their communion, by 
their laws they call heretics, I enquire not whether true 
they are, or false ; let that question be set aside, if still a 
question it is : meanwhile after thy account now I ask. True 
laws are they, or false laws are they ? If true they are, let 
them be believed : if false they are, wherefore usest ihou 
them ? Thou hast said to the proconsul, A catholic I am, 
exclude thou a heretic. He enquired whence a man should 
be proved a heretic : thou producedst thy Council, shevvedst 
that thou hadst condemned him. He, either conniving, or 
not understanding, nevertheless used the law in the capacity 
of judge ; and thou hast done by means of the judge that 
which by thyself thou art not willing to do ; for if the judge 
used the law of the emperor at thy instigation, why dost thou 
not use it for thy own correction ? Lo, he hath expelled 
thy heretic according to the law of his emperor : wherefore 
according to the same law wilt thou not have him expel thee 

I 2 



116 Tlie loicked pass away like wititer torrents. 

Psalm too ? We repeat what ye have done : behold, the Basilicas 

LVIII . 

— * were held by the Maxiinianists, now by you they are held ; 

there have been excluded from them the JMaximianists : 
there are extant the orders of the proconsuls, are extant 
the minutes of the proceedings, guards are accepted, cities 
stirred, men expelled from iheir places. Wherefore? Because 
heretics the}' are. Expelled by what law? Answer: let us see 
whether yet your teeth are not broken utterly in your mouth. 
False is the law ? let it not hold good against thy heretic. 
True is the law ? let it hold good also against thee. There 
is nothing which they can answer, God hath broken utterly 
the teeth of them in their own month. And therefore, 
wherever they cannot with slimy guile twine like asps, with 
open violence they roar like lions. There rush forth and 
rage armed bands of Circumcelliones, make havoc as much 
as they can, as much as ever they can. But also the jaw- 
hones of lions the Lord hath broken utterly. 

16. Ver. 7. They shall be despised like icater running down. 
Be not terrified, brethren, by certain streams, which are called 
torrents : with winter waters they are filled up j do not fear : 
after a little it passeth by, that water runneth down ; for a 
time it roareth, soon it will subside : they cannot hold long. 
Many heresies now are utterly dead : they have run in their 
channels as much as they were able, have run down, dried 
are the channels, scarce of them the memory is found, or 
that they have been. They shall he despised like water 
runnitig down. But not they alone ; the whole of this age 
for a time is roaring, and is seeking whom it may drag along. 
Let all ungodly men, all proud men resounding against the 
rocks of their pride as it vvei'e with waters rushing along and 
flovving together, not terrify you, winter waters they are, they 
cannot alway flow: it must needs be that they run down unto 
their place, unto their end. And nevertheless of this torrent 
of the world the Lord hath drunk. For He hath suffered 
here, the very torrent He hath drunk, but in the way He hath 

Ps. 1, 1. drunk, but in the passage over: because in way of sinners 
He hath not stood. But of Him saith the Scripture what ? 

Ps. 110, Of the torrent in the way He shall drink, therefore He shall 
lift up His Head: that is, for this reason glorified He hath 
been, because He hath died, for this reason hath risen again, 



Weakness for a time no cause for des2)ondency. 117 

because He hath suifered. If He would not have drunk in the Vbr. 
way of the torrent, He would not have died ; if He had not — '- — 
died,, He would not have risen again; if He had not risen 
again, He would not have been glorified. Therefore, Of the 
torrent in the way He shall drink, for this cause He shall 
lift np His Head. Exalted is now our Head : let His 
members follow Him. They shall be despised like water 
running down. He hath bended His bow, until they be 
made weak. The menaces of God cease not: the bow of 
God are the menaces of God. The bow is bended, not yet 
it striketh. He hath bended His bow, until they be made 
weak. And many men have been made weak, terrified by the 
bending of that same bow. For hence was made weak he 
that said, What dost Thou bid me to do? I am, He saith,Acts9, 
Jesus of Nazareth, Whom thou persecutest. He that was ' 
crying out from heaven, was bending the bow. Many men 
therefore that have been enemies, have been made weak ; 
and having been converted, would not for long lift up their 
necks against the continuance of the bended bow. For in 
like manner also was he made weak that saith, in order that 
we might not fear to be made weak. When I am made weak, 2Cor.i2, 
then mighty I am. And when he was praying that from him ' 
should be taken the thorn of the flesh, what had he for 
answer? ^^ Virtue in weakness is made perfect. ^^ He hath 2Cor.i2, 
bended His botv, until they be made weak. 

17. Ver. 8. Like loax melted they shall be taken, away. 
For thou wast about to say, all men are not so made weak, 
like myself, in order that they may believe : many men do 
persevere in their evil, and in their malice. And of the same 
fear thou nothing: Like wax melted they shall be taken 
away. Against thee they shall not stand, they shall not 
continue : with a sort of fire of their own lusts they shall 
perish. For there is here a kind of hidden punishment, Hidden 
of it the Psalm is about to speak now, to the end of it. f^jt^f 
There are but a few verses; be attentive. There is a certain dinners, 
punishment future, fire of hell, fire everlasting. For future 
punishment hath two kinds : either of the lower places it is, 
where was burning that rich man, who was wishing for him- 
self a drop of water to be dropped on his tongue off the 
finger of the poor man, whom before his gate he had spurned, 



118 Various kinds of punishment of sin. 

Psalm when he sailh, For I am tormetiled in this flame. And the 

LVIII. . 

, , ,,.' second is that at the end, vvlicreof they are to hear, that on 

Lukelb, •' _ 

24. the left hand are to be set: Go ye into Jire everlasting^ that 

^j]^ 'Itafh been j^f'^P^tf'cd for the devil and his angels. Those 
punislnnents shall be manifest at that time, when we shall 
have departed out of this life, or when at the end of the 
world men shall have come to the resurrection of the dead. 
Now therefore is there no punishment, and doth God suffer 
sins utterly unpunished even unto that day ? There is even 
here a sort of hidden punishment, of the same he is treating 
now. This the Spirit of God would commend to our notice: 
this let us understand, of this beware, this avoid, and into 
those very terrible punishments we shall not fall. Perchance 
some one will say to me, There are even here punishments, 
prisons, banishments, tortures, deaths, divers kinds of pains 
and tribulations. There are indeed even these, and by God's 
judgment they are dispensed: but to many men for pro- 
bation, to many men for condemnation. We see nevertheless 
sometimes with these punishments just men to be afflicted, 
and to these punishments unjust men to be strangers : for 
which reason did totter the feet of him that afterwards 

Ps. 73, rejoicing saith, How good is the God of Israel to men '>'ight 
~ ' in heart! But nig own feet have been almost sliaken, 
because I have been jealous in the case of sinners, be- 
holding the peace of sinners. For he had seen the felicity 
of evil men, and well -pleased he had been to be an evil 
man, seeing evil men to reign, seeing that it was well 
with them, that they abounded in plenty of all things 
temporal, such as he too, being as yet but a babe, was 
desiring from the Lord : and his feet did totter, even until 
he saw what at the end is either to be hoped for or to be 

Ps. 73, feared. For he saith in the same Psalm, This thitia is a 

1 fi 1 7 " *^ 

labour before me, until I enter into the sanctuary of God, 
and understand unto the last tilings. It is not therefore the 
punishments of the lower places, not the punishments of 
that fire everlasting after the resurrection, not those punish- 
ments which as yet in this world are common to just men 
and unjust men, and ofttimes more heavy are those of just 
men than those of unjust men ; but some punishment or 
other of the present life the Spirit of God would recommend 



The wicked wasted by their own lasts. 1 1 9 

to our notice. Give heed, hear ye me about to speak of Ver. 
that which ye know : but a more sweet thing it is when it is — '- — 
declared in a Psalm, which, before it was declared, was 
deemed obscure. For behold I bring forth that which 
already ye knew : but because these things are brought 
forth from a place where ye have never yet seen them, it 
cometh to pass that even known things, as if they were new 
things, do delight you. Hear ye the punishment of ungodly 
men : Like wax, he saith, melted they shall be taken away. 
I have said that through their lusts this thing to them is 
done. Evil lust is like a burning and a fire. Doth fire 
consume a garment, and doth not the lust of adultery 
consume the soul ? Of meditated adultery when the Scripture 
was speaking it saith. Shall one hind Jire iti his bosom, and Prov. 6, 
his garments shall he not burn up f Thou bearest in thy 
bosom live coals ; burned through is thy vest ; thou bearest 
in thought adultery, and whole then is thy soul ? 

18. But these punishments few men do see: therefore 
them the Spirit of God doth exceedingly recommend to our 
notice. Hear the Apostle saying, God hath given them up unto Rom, i, 
the lusts of their heart. Behold, the fire from the face of which 
like wax they are melting. For they loose themselves from 
a certain continence of chastity : therefore even these same 
men, going unto their lusts, as loose and melting ai'e spoken 
of. Whence melting ? whence loose ? From the fire of 
lusts. Qod hath given them up unto the lusts of their heart, 
so that they do those things which beseem not, being filled 
full of all iniquity. And he enumeniteth many things 
which are sins, and saith they are the punishments of sinners. 
For he saith that the first punishment is pride : nay, no 
punishment, but the first sin is pride. The first sin is pride: 
the last punishment is fire everlasting, or fire infernal ; for 
hereafter it will be the punishment of men condemned. 
Between that first sin and this last punishment, the things 
which are intermediate are both sins and punishments. For 
of so many things speaketh the Apostle as being done by 
them which are execrable sins ; and nevertheless punish- 
ments he calleth them ; For this cause, he saith, God hath 
given up them unto the lusts of their heart, unto uncleanness, 
so that they do those things which beseem not. And lest any 



120 Sin, and moral blindness, no small punishment. 

Psalm one might think that he is afl3icted only with those very 

'punishments wherewith now he is delighted, and that he 

should not fear that which is to come at the end ; he hath 
Rom. 1, made mention of the last punishment; Who, though they 

32 

Jiad known the justice of God, perceived not, he saith, tJiat 
they that do these things, are worthy of death, not only they 
that do them, hut also they that consent to men doing them. 
They that do those things are worthy of death. What things? 
Those that above he hath enumerated to be in the number 
of punishments. For God hath given them up, he hath said, 
unto the lusts of their heart, so that they do those things 
which beseem not. For a man to be an adulterer, is at once 
a punishment : for a man to be a liar, covetous, fraudulent, 
a man-slayer, are even now punishments. Of what sins are 
they the punishments ? Of former apostasy, of that pride. 
Ecclea. TJie beginning of the sin of a man is to apostatise from God: 
10, 12. ^i^^i ^j^Q beginning of all sin is pride. Therefore of sin itself 
Rom. I, first he hath spoken. WJio though they had known God, 
glorified Him not as God, nor gave thanks, but tvere empty in 
their thoughts, and their unwise heart was darkened. Now 
this darkening of heart is punishment. But whence doth it 
Rom. ] , chance to them ? For saying themselces to be wise men, they 
^^' became fools. Because, of themselves they used to say they 
had that, which from God they had received : or if they knew 
from whom they received it. Him they glorified not, from 
whom they knew themselves to have received: this is, saying 
themselves to be wise men, and there forthwith followed 
punishment: fools they became, and their unwise heart uas 
darkened, saying themselves to be wise, they became fools. 
Is this a small punishment ? To speak of these punishments 
alone; is darkening of heart, blindness of mind, a little 
punishment.'' If any one committing a theft, immediately 
had lost an eye: all men would say that God being present 
had taken vengeance. The eye of the heart he hath lost, 
and is God supposed to have spared him ? Like nax melted 
they shall be taken away. 

19. Ver. 7. There hath fallen upon them fire, and they 
have not seen the sun. Ye see in what manner he speaketh 
of a certain punishment of darkening. Fire hath fallen 
vpon litem, fire of ])ride, a smoky fire, fire of lust, fire of 



Original sin best conquered by early efforts. 121 

wrath. How great a fire is it? He upon whom it shall ^er. 
have fallen, shall not see the sun. Therefore hath it been 



said, Lei not the sun go down upon your urath. Therefore, Ephes. 
brethren, fire of evil lust fear ye, if ye will not to melt like^'^^' 
wax, and to perish from the face of God. For there falleth 
upon you that fire, and the sun ye shall not see. What 
sun ? Not that which together with thee see both beasts 
and insects, and good men and evil men : because He maketh Matt. 5, 

45 

His sun to rise upon good men and evil men. But there is 
another sun, whereof those men are to speak. And the sun Wisd.6, 
hath not risen to us, passed away are all those things as it 
uere a shadow. Therefore we have strayed from the ivay of 
truth, and the light of righteousness hath not shone to us, and 
the sun hath not risen to us. Wherefore, but because there 
hath fallen upon them fire, and they have not seen the sun. 
There hath conquered them the lust of the flesh. And this 
lust hath come whence ? Give heed. From propagation 
thou hast been born together with that sin which thou mayest 
conquer : do not to thyself add enemies, conquer that with 
which thou hast been born. Into the arena of this life 
with it thou hast come, engage with that which together with 
thee hath gone forward. When this same hath not been 
conquered, wherefore dost thou challenge troops of lusts .'' 
For carnal pleasure, brethren, together with man is born. 
But he that is well trained quickly seeth his enemy, and 
assaileth, and striveth, and quickly conquereth : for he is 
prepared for enemies that are not yet increasing. But he 
that maketh light of conquering that lust, with which by the 
propagation of sin he hath been born, and still stirrelh up 
and advanceth many lusts ; with difficulty overcometh them, 
and against himself being himself divided, with his own fire 
is burned up. Do not therefore hope as though there should 
be only those future punishments; see them present. There 
hath fallen upon them fire, and they have not seen the sun. 

20. Ver. 8. Before that the bramble^ bringeth forth your^Rham- 
thorns: as though living, as though in anger, it shall drink 
them uj). What is the bramble ? Of prickly plants it is a kind, 
upon which there are said to be certain of the closest thorns. 
At first it is a herb ; and while it is a herb, soft and fair it 
is: but thereon there are nevertheless thorns to come forth. 



122 Sin a trouble, that will one day bear thorns. 

Psalm Now therefore sins are pleasant, and as it were they do not 

' prick. A herb is the bramble ; even now nevertheless there 

is a thorn. Before that the hraynble hringeth forth thorns: 

is before that of miserable delights and pleasures the evident 

tortures come forth. Let them question themselves that love 

any object, and to it cannot attain ; let them see if they are 

not racked with longing : and when they have attained to 

that which unlawfully they long for, let them mark if they 

are not racked with fear. Let ihem see therefore here their 

punishments; before that there cometh that resurrection, 

1 Cor. when in flesh rising again they shall not be changed. For 

' ' all we shall rise again, but not'' all we shall he changed. For 

they shall have the corruption of the flesh wherein to be 

pained, not that wherein to die : otherwise even those pains 

would be ended. Then the thorns of that bramble, that is, 

all pains and piercings of tortures shall be brought forth. 

■Wisd.5, Such thorns as they shall suffer that are to say, These are 

they whom, sometimes we had in derision : thorns of the 

piercing of repentance, but of one too late and without fruit 

like the barrenness of thorns. The repentance of this time is 

pain healing: repentance of that time is pain penal. Wouldest 

thou not suffer those thorns ? here be thou pierced with the 

thorns of repentance ; in such sort that thou do that which 

Ps. 32, hath been spoken of, Turned I have been in sorrow, when 

' or being '^^ Morw was piercing'^: my sin I have known, and miiie 

made to iniquity I kave not covered : I have said, I will declare 

Dicrcc* 

against tne my shortcoming to the Lord, and Thou hast 

remitted the ungodliness of my heart. Now do so, now be 

pierced through, be there not in thee done that which hath 

Ps. 36, been said of certain execrable men. They have been cloven 

Against cisunder, and have not been pierced through ''. Observe them 

the Do- ti^at have been cloven asunder and have not been pierced 

natists. 11, 

through. Ye see men cloven asunder, and ye see them 
not pierced through. Behold beside the Church they are, 
and it doth not repent them, so as they should return 
whence they have been cloven asunder. The bramble here- 



» So several earlj" writers and ISIss. ^ These words are in the Vulgate, 

But the balance of autliority as well as for ' they did tear jiie, and rcased not,' 

the sense is in favour of the received but St, Aug. does not notice them iu 

reading. his comment on the Psalm, 



God punisheth in part even here. 123 

after shall bring forth their thorns. They will not now have Ver 



a healing piercing through, they shall have hereafter one 
penal. But even now before that the bramble produceth 
thorns, there hath fallen upon them fire, that suffereth them 
not to see the sun, that is the wrath of God is drinking up 
them while still living : fire of evil lusts, of empty honours, 
of pride, of their covetousness : and whatsoever is weighing 
them down, that they should not know the truth, so that they 
seem not to be conquered, so that they be not brought into 
subjection even by truth herself. For what is a more glorious 
thing, brethren, than to be brought in subjection and to be 
overcome by truth ? Let truth overcome thee willing : for 
even unwilling she shall of herself overcome thee. Therefore 
that fire of evil desires, that hath fallen upon them, so that 
they see not the sun, hath drunk up the bramble, before that 
it produceth their thorns : that is, it hideth their evil life, 
before that the same life bringeth forth evident rackings at 
the end ; but in the anger of God that fire is concealing the 
bramble. For it is no little punishment that now they see 
not the sun, nor believe that thorns of punishment out 
of this evil life hereafter shall come forth. For ye, he 
saith, are a bramble, which bramble, that is, your own 
selves, living, that is, still set in this life, before that it 
bring forth in future judgment the evident thorns of your 
punishments, now in anger it drinketh up, that is, as if by 
sucking up suffereth it not to appear. The order of these 
words then, as far as I think, more perspicuously can be 
put together thus. There hath fallen upon them Jire, and 
they have not seen the sun : which fire as though in anger ^ 
you as though living, a bramble it drinketh up, before that 
it bringeth forth your thorns: that is, you yourselves whom 
a bramble it fiudeth, it drinketh up before death, before 
that the same bramble bringeth forth your thorns, that is, 
after death in that penal resurrection. But wherefore hath 
he not spoken of living, but as though living, except because 
unreal is this life of ungodly men ? For they do not live, 
but seem to themselves to live. And wherefore not, in 
anger, but as though in anger, except because undisturbed 
God doeth this thing ,? For this also hath been written : 
But Thou, O Lord of virtues, with gentleness judgcst. He "W'isd. 

12, lo» 



124 All are born under wrath, but need not abide so. 

Psalm therefore even when He threatenelh is not ungry. For He 

^ is not perturbed, but is as though angry, because He 

punisheth and avengeth. And they that amended will not 
be, as it were live, but do not live. For the vengeance for 
the first sin, and that for those which they have added, 
abideth upon them ; and the same is called the anger of 
God, because of the judgment of God it comcth. Whence 

Johu 3, the Lord of one not believing saith, Bui the anger of God 
abideth upon him. For wiih the anger of God we mortal 

Ephes. men are born. Whence saidi the Apostle, We also have 

2 3 

' * been sometime by nature sons of wrath, as also the rest. 
What is, by nature sons of wrath, except that we bear with 
us the punishment of the first sin ? But if we turn ourselves, 
wrath is taken away, there is granted grace. Thou wilt 
not be turned, thou art adding even upon that thou wert 
born: as though in wrath thou art drunk up in the present 
time, 
•i.e. 21. Acknowledge therefore that punishment', and rejoice 

ongina ^^^^ ^,^ ^^^ ^^^j. ^^^ ^|^.^ other, all ye that are advancing and all 

ye that understand and love the truth, all ye that in your- 
selves desire more the victory of truth than your own, that 
close not against the truth your ears, because of delight in 
present things and remembrance of past things : be not ye a 

2 Pet. 2, dog returned to its own vomit. All ye that are of such sort, 
see ye the punishments of those that are not of such sort, and 
rejoice. As yet the punishments of the lower places have 
not come, as yet fire everlasting hath not come : let him 
that is growing in God compare himself now with an 
ungodly man, a blind heart with an enlightened heart: 
compare ye two men, one seeing and one not seeing in the 

Tob. 4, flesh. And what so great thing is vision of the flesh ? Did 
"■ Tobias by any means have fleshly eyes? His own son had, 
and he had not; and the way of life a blind man to one 
seeing did shew. Therefore when ye see that punishment, 
rejoice, because in it ye are not. Therefore saith the Scrip- 
ture, (ver. 9.) The Just man shall rejoice when lie shall have 
seen vengeance. Not that future punishment; for see what 
foUoweth : his hands he shall wash in the blood of the 
sinner. What is this ? Let your love attend. When man- 
slayers are smitten, ought anywise innocent u)en to go thither 



Oood men the belter for bad merCs punishment. 125 

and wash their hands? But what is, in the blood of the Veb. 
sinner he shall wash his hands? When a just man seeth ^^' 
the punishment of a sinner, he groweth himself; and the 
death of one is the life of another. For if spiritually blood 
runneth from those that within are dead, do thou, seeing 
such vengeance, wash therein thy hands ; for the future 
more cleanly live. And how shall he wash his hands, if a 
just man he is .? For what hath he on his hands to be washed, 
if just he is.? But the just man of faith shall live. Just Rom. i, 
men therefore he hath called believers : and from the time 
that thou hast believed, at once thou beginnest to be called 
just. For there hath been made a remission of sins. Even 
if out of that remaining part of thy life some sins are thine, 
which cannot but flow in, like water from the sea into the 
hold ; nevertheless, because thou hast believed, when thou 
shalt have seen him that altogether is turned away from 
God to be slain in that blindness, there falling upon him 
that fire so that he see not the sun — then do thou that now 
through faith seest Christ, in order that thou mayest see in 
substance, (because the just man liveth of faith,) observe the 
ungodly man dying, and purge thyself from sins. So thou 
shalt wash in a manner thy hands in the blood of the 
sinner. Therefore his hands he shall wash in the blood of 
the sinner. 

22. Ver. 10. And a man shall say, If therefore there is 
fruit to a just man. Behold, before that there cometh that 
which is promised, before that there is given life everlasting, 
before that ungodly men are cast forth into fire everlasting, 
here in this life there is fruit to the just man. What fruit? 
In hope rejoicinff, in tribulation enduring. W^hat fruit to Rom. 
the just man? We y lory in tribulations, knouing that iribu-^Q^y^^ 
lation worketh patience, but patience probation, but pro-^—^- 
batio/i hope : but hope confoundetli not : because the love of 
God is shed abroad in our hearts throuyh tlie Holy Spirit, 
that hath been given to us. Doth he rejoice that is a 
drunkard; and doth he not rejoice that is just? In love 
there is fruit to a just man. Miserable the one, oven when 
he maketh himself drunken : blessed the other, even when 
he hungereth and thirsteth. The one wine-bibbing doth 
gorge, the other hope doth feed. Let him see therefore the 



126 Evil state of the vncked may be seen even here. 

PsAi.M punishment of the other, his own rejoicing, and let him 

^ think of God. He that hath given even now such joy of 

faith, of hope, of charity, of the truth of His Scriptures, 
what manner of joy is He making ready against the end ? 
In the way thus He feedeth, in his home how shall He 
fill him ? And a man shall say, If therefore there is 
fruit to ike just man. Let them that see believe, and see, 
and perceive. Rejoice shall the just man when he shall 
have seen vengeance. But if he hath not eyes whence he 
may see vengeance, he will be made sad, and will not be 
amended by it. But if he seeth it, he seeth what difference 
there is between the darkened eye of the heart, and the eye 
enlightened of the heart : between the coolness of chastity 
and the flame of lust, between the security of hope and the 
fear there is in crime. When he shall have seen this, let 
him separate himself, and wash his hands in the blood of 
the same. Let him profit by the comparison, and say, 
Therefore there is fruit to the just man: therefore there is 
a God judging them in the earth. Not yet in that life, not 
yet in fire eternal, not yet in the lower places, but here in 

Lute earth. Behold, that rich man yet is clothed with purple and 
' ' fine linen, and yet feasteth every day sumptuously. Not yet 
the bramble hath brought forth thorns, not yet he saith, 
/ am tormented in this flame : but even now there is blind- 
ness of mind, even now the eye of the mind hath been 
quenched. If blind in eyes of flesh he were to sit down to 
his table, however rich it be, miserable thou wouldest call 
him: blind within, the bread of Christ he seeth not, and 
blessed is he ? This no one saith but one alike blind. 
Therefore there is fruit to the just man; therefore there is a 
Cod judging them in the earth. 

23. If somewhat too prolix we have been, pardon us. We 
exhort you in the name of Christ, to meditate profitably on 
those things which ye have heard. Because even to preach 
the truth is nought, if heai't from tongue dissenteth ; and to 
hear the truth nothing profitcth, if a man upon the rock 

Matt. 7, build not. He that buildeth upon a Rock, is the same that 
heareth and doeth : but he that heareth and doeth not, 
buildeth upon sand: he that neither heareth nor doeth, 
buildeth nothing. But in like manner as he that buildeth 



Neglect of hearing saves not. 127 

upon sand, ruin for himself buildeth ; so he that buildeth not Ver. 

. . . . 10. 

upon a rock, the flood coming, without house is carried — ^- 

away. It is not possible to do any thing without both 

building, and upon a rock building : that is, both to hear 

and to do. And let not another man say, Why do I go 

forth to the Church ? for they that daily to the Church go 

forth, do not what they hear. They do it, nevertheless, in 

order that they may hear: thus they may come so to do it, as 

both to hear and to do: but thou, how very far thou art from 

doing, that so far art fleeing from hearing ? But I, he saith, 

build not upon sand. Upon thee naked the flood will come: 

will it therefore not take thee off"? will therefore the rain not 

slay thee ? will, for this reason, the winds not sweep thee 

away ? Therefore I will come and will hear. But when thou 

shall have heard, do. For if thou shalt have heard and 

shalt not have done, thou hast builded indeed, but upon 

sand. Because therefore without building standing, naked 

we are, but in a building planted upon sand, under ruin we 

are : it remaineth that upon a Rock we build, and what we 

have heard, that we do. 



PSALM LIX. Lat. 

LVIII. 



EXPOSITION. 



Sermon I.* on the first part of the Psalm. 

1. As the Scripture is wont to set mysteries of the Psalms 
on the titles, and to deck the brow of a Psalm with the high 
announcement of a Mystery *, in order that we that are about to ' Sacra- 
go in may know (when as it were upon the door-post we have 
read what within is doing) either of whom the house is, or 
who is the owner of that estate : so also in this Psalm there 
hath been written a title, of a title. For it hath, At the end, 
corrupt not for David himself unto the inscription of tlie 
title. This is that which I have spoken of, title of Title. 

* Delivered after the discovery of the error of Pelagius. 



1-28 The ' Title' iyi the Psalms, means that on Hie Cross. 

Psalm For what tlie inscription of tliis title is, which to be 
LIX • 
^^^ corrupted he forbiddeth, the Gospel to us doth indicate. 



For when the Lord was being crucified, a title by Pilate was 
Mat. 27, inscribed and set, King of the Jews, in three tongues, 
Johnl9 Hebrew, Greek, and Latin : which tongues in the whole 
20. world mostly do prevail. Therefore, if the King of the Jews 
was crucified, the Jews their King crucified ; by crucifying 
Him, King of the Gentiles also they made Him, rather than 
slew Him. And indeed as much as in them lay, they destroyed 
the Christ, but for themselves, not for us; and He died for 
us, and with His blood He redeemed us. And now the title 
is not corrupted : because He is King, not only of the 
Gentiles, but also of the same Jews, But why ? Because 
they spake against Him, therefore were they able to over- 
throw the dominion of their King.? King He is, and above 
them. For this King an iron rod doth bear, wherewith He 
Ps. 2, both ruleth and breaketh. /, He saith, have been set a King 
~ ' by Him over His holy Mount Sion, preaching the precept of 
the Lord. The Lord hath said to Me, My Son art Thou, 
to-day J have begotten Thee : ask of Me, and I nill give 
Thee the nations for Thine inheritance, and for Thy pos- 
session the ends of the earth; Thou shall ride them icith an 
iron rod, and as it were a vessel of the potter Thou shalt 
break them in pieces. Whom shall He rule ? whom shall 
He break in pieces? Shall rule men obeying, shall break in 
pieces men resisting. Therefore corrupt not is most proper 
and prophetic ; since indeed even those Jews made sug- 
Johni9, gestion at that time to Pilate, and s>aJ\(\., Do not icrite King 
^^' of the Jeus, but write, that Himself said that He was King 
of the Jeus: for this title, say they, hath established Him 
King over us. And Pilate, JVhat / have uritten, I have 
written. And there was fulfilled, corrupt not. 

2. Nor is tliis the only Psalm which hath an inscription 
of such sort, that the Title be not corrupted. Several Psalms 
thus are marked on the face, but however in all the Passion 
of the Lord is foretold. Therefore here also let us perceive 
the Lord's Passion, and let there speak to us Christ, Head 
and Body. So always, or nearly always, let us hear the 
words of Christ from the Psalm, as that we look not onl}^ 
upon that Head, the one Mediator between God and man, 



Christ sometimes speaks for His Body. 1 29 

the Man Christ Jesus: Who also aftcM- the Divine Nalnre in Ver. 
the beginning was the Word, God with God, which Word tW— 
was made Flesh, and dwelled in us, flesh out of the seed of 2, 5, 
Abraham, out of the seed of David by Mary the Virgin : not ]°'" ' 
therefore of Him alone, Who is our Head, let us think, when 
we hear Christ speak; but let us think of Christ, Head and 
whole Body, a sort of entire Man. For to us is said. Bat ye 1 Cor. 
are the Body of Christ and members, by the Apostle Paul.^^'^gg* 
And of Him is said by the same Apostle, that He is the '.22. 
Head of the Church. If therefore He is Head, we J3ody ; j "j^g^,^" 
whole Christ is Head and Body. For sometimes thou findest 
words which do not suit the Head, and unless thou shalt 
have attached them to the Body, thy understanding will 
waver: again thou findest words which are proper for the 
Body, and Christ nevertheless is speaking. In that place we 
must have no fear lest a man be mistaken: for quickly he 
proceedeth to adapt to the Head, that which he seeth is not 
proper for the Body. Himself in a word on the Cross 
hanging in the person of the Body spake, My God^ My God, Ps.22,1. 
have regard unto Me, wherefore, hast Thou forsaken Me.? Mat. 2 7, 
For He had not forsaken Christ, by whom forsaken He had 
not been : nor in truth did He come to us in such sort as to 
have forsaken Him ; or did He so send Him, as from Him 
to have departed. But because man was deserted by God, 
that sinning Adam, who though he was wont to rejoice 
before the face of God, being terrified by the consciousness 
of sin, fled from his joy : and God did truly forsake him, 
because himself left God : since out of this Adam Christ had Gen. 3, 
received flesh, out of the person of the same flesh, this He " 
saith : because then our old man was nailed together with Rom. 6, 
Him to the Cross. 

3. Let us hear therefore what followeth : When Saul sent 
and guarded his house in order that he miyht kill him. 
This though not to the Cross of the Lord, yet to the Passion 
of the Lord doth belong. For Crucified was Christ, and 
dead, and buried. That sepulchre was therefore as it were 
the house: to guard which the government of the Jews sent, Mat.27, 
when guards were set to the sepulchre of Christ. There is " 
indeed a story in the Scripture of the Reigns, of the occasion 

VOL. 111. K 



130 The Jews watched the Tomb to make an end of Christ. 

Psalm when Saul sent to guard the house in order that he might 
—p; — - kill David : but as much as he that hath written the Psalm 

1 Sam. . - 

19, 11. hath taken thence, so much we ought to examine when of 
the title of the Psalm we are treating. Did he wish to 
intimate this only to us, that they sent to the house in order 
that it might be guarded, and he might be killed ? How 
then, if David figured Christ, to this end was the house 
guarded that Christ might be killed ; since in the Tomb 
Christ was not laid, imtil after He had been slain on the 
Cross ? liefer this therefore to the Body of Christ : that to 
kill Christ was to take away the name of Chi'ist, in order that 
men might not believe in Christ, provided that the falsehood 
of the guards might gain credit, who were bribed to say, 
Mat. 28, that while they slept His disciples came and took Him 
^^* away. This is truly to will to slay Christ, to extinguish the 
name of His Resurrection, in order that falsehood might be 
preferred to the Gospel. But in like manner as Saul effected 
not his purpose of slaying David: so this could not the 
government of the Jews effect, that the testimony of guards 
sleeping should avail more than that of Apostles watching. 
For what were the guards instructed to say? We give to 
you, they say, as much money as ye please ; and say ye, 
that while ye were sleeping there came His disciples, and 
took Him away. Behold what sort of witnesses of falsehood 
against truth and the Resurrection of Christ, His enemies, 
through Saul figured, did pi'oduce. Enquire, O unbelief, of 
sleeping witnesses, let them reply to thee of what was done 
in the Tomb. Who, if they were sleeping, whence knew it ? 
If watching, wherefore detained they not the thieves ? Let 
him say therefore what followeth. 

4. Ver. 1. Deliver vie from mine enemies^ my God, and 
from men rising up upon me, redeem Thou me. There 
hath been done this thing in the flesh of Christ, it is being 
done in us also. For our enemies, to wit the devil and his 
angels, cease not to rise up upon us every day, and to wish 
to make sport of our weakness and our frailness, by decep- 
tions, by suggestions, by temptations, and by snares of what- 
soever sort to entangle us, while on earth we are still living. 
But let our voice watch unto God, and cry out in the 



Christ, in His Body, delivered from men ofhhod. 131 

members of Christ, under the Head that is in heaven, Ver. 
Deliver me from mitw enemies, my God, and from men - 

rising up upon me, redeem Thou me. 

5. Ver. 2. Deliver me from men working iniqaitij, and, 
from men of bloods, save Thou me. They indeed were men 

of bloods, who slew the Just One, in Whom no guilt they 
found: they were men of bloods, because when the foreigner 
washed his hands, and would have let go Christ, they cried, 
Crucify, Crucify, they were men of bloods, on whom whenMat.27, 
there was being charged the crime of the blood of Christ, 
they made answer, giving it to their posterity to drink. His Mat.27, 
Hood be upon us and upon our sons. But neither against 
His Body did men of bloods cease to rise up ; for even after 
the Resurrection and Ascension of Christ, the Church 
suffered persecutions, and she indeed first that grew out of 
the Jewish people, of which also our Apostles were. There 
at first Stephen was stoned, and received that of which he Acts 7, 
* had his name. For Stephanus doth signify a crown. Lowly 
stoned but highly crowned. Secondly, among the Gentiles 
rose up kingdoms of Gentiles, before that in them was 
fulfilled that which had been foretold. There shall adore Vs.7\, 
Him all the kings of the earth, all nations shall serve Him ; ^'* 
and there roared the fierceness of that kingdom against the 
witnesses of Christ: there was shed largely and frequently 
the blood of Martyrs : wherewith when it had been shed, 
being as it were sown, the field of the Church more pro- 
ductively put forth, and filled the whole world as we now 
behold. .. From these therefore, men of bloods, is delivered 
Christ, not only Head, but also Body. From men of bloods 
is delivered Christ, both from them that have been, and 
from them that are, and from them that are to be ; there 
is delivered Christ, both He that hath gone before, and 
He that is, and He that is to come. For Christ is the 
whole Body of Christ; and whatsoever good Christians that 
now are, and that have been before us, and that after us 
are to be, are an whole Christ, who is delivered from men 
of bloods; nor is this voice void, And from men of bloods 
save Thou me. 

6. Ver. 3. For behold they have hunted my soul. They have 
been able to hold, been able to slay, they have hunted my soul. Ps. lie, 

K 2 ^* 



1 32 JVho are called * strong* in a bad sense. 

Psalm But whcio is, Thou hast broken asunder my bonds? Where is, 

T T V 

^^ — "— T]ie iron is broken, and we are delivered? Where is that 

Ps. 124, /-.I . -. 

6. 6. wherein we bless God, that hath not given us for a hunting to 
the teeth of them '^ They indeed have hunted, but in the hands 
of men hunting He leaveth not us, That guardeth Israel. 
For, behold, they have hunted my soul: there have rushed 
upon me strong men. We must not however pass on from 
these strong men : diligently we must trace who are the 
strong men rising up. Strong men, upon whom but upon 
weak men, upon powerless men, upon men not strong ? 
And praised nevertheless are the weak men, and condemned 
are the strongmen. If it would be perceived who are strong 
men, at first the devil himself the Lord hath called a strong 

Mat. 12, man : No one, He saith, i? able to go into the house of a 

on 

strong man, and to carry off his vessels, unless first he shall 
have bound the strong man. He hath bound therefore the 
strong man with the chains of His dominion : and his 
vessels He hath carried off, and His own vessels hath made 
them. For all unrighteous men were vessels of the devil, 
that believing have been made vessels of Christ: to whom 
Ephes. the Apostle saith. For ye have been sometime darkness, but 
Eoni 9 '*<'^' 1^9^'^i *^* ^''^ Lord : That maketh known His riches on 
23. the vessels of mercy. These men therefore may be under- 
stood as strong men. But there are among mankind certain 
strong men of a blameable and damnable strength, that are 
confident indeed, but on temporal felicity. That man doth 
not' seem to you to liave been strong, of whom now from the 
Lukei2, Gospel hath been read: how his estate brought forth 
abundance of fruits, and he being troubled, hit upon the 
design of rebuilding, so that, having pulled down his old 
barns, ho should construct new ones more capacious, and, 
these having been finished, should say to his soul, Thou 
hast many good things, soul, feast, be merry, be filled, 
Ps. 52, What sort of strong man seest thou? Behold a man that 
^' hath not set God for his helper, but hath hoped in the mul- 

titude of his riches. See how strong he is : And lie hath 
prevailed, he saith, in his emptiness. 

7. There are also other men strong, not because of riches, 
not because of the powers of the body, not because of any 

" Perhaps ' doth not that man.' 



Some ' strong"^ in self-righteousness. 133 

temporally preeminent power of station, but relying on their Ver. 
righteousness. This sort of strong men must be guarded '— 



against, feared, repulsed, not imitated : of men relying, I say, 
not on body, not on means, not on descent, not on honour; 
for all such things who would not see to be temporal, fleeting, 
falling, flying ? but relying on their own righteousness. 
Such strength prevented the Jews from going in through the Mat. 19, 
eye of the needle. For while on themselves they rely that " 
just men they are, and think themselves to be as it were 
whole, the medicine they refused, and the Physician Himself 
they slew. Such strong men therefore, not weak. He came 
not to call, That said, They that are whole need not a Matt. 9, 

12 13 

Physician^ but they that are sick: I am not come to call 
Just men but sinners unto repentance. These were the strong 
men that reviled the disciples of Christ, because their Master 
was going in unto sick men, and was feasting with sick men. 
Wherefore, say they, doth your Master eat with publicans Matt. 9, 
and sinners ? O ye strong men, to whom a Physician is not * 
needful ! This strength to soundness belongeth not, but to 
insanity. For even than men phrensied nothing can be 
stronger, more mighty they are than whole men: but by 
how much greater their powers are, by so much nearer is 
their death. May God therefore turn away from our imita- 
tion these strong men. For we must fear lest a man should 
desire to imitate these men. But the Teacher of humility, 
Partaker of our infirmity, giving to partake of His own Divinity, 
for this purpose coming down, that He might teach the 
way and become the Way, deigned very much to recommend 
His own humility to us; and therefore by a servant to be John u, 
baptized disdained not, in order that He might teach us to -^^^^^ g 
confess our sins, and to be made weak in order that we may 13. 
be strong ; to have rather the Apostle's voice, saying, 
When I am made weak, then mighty I am. How therefore 2 Cor. 
would he not be strong"? But these men that strong have ' 
desired to be, that is, that on their own virtue have desired 
to rely, as though being just, have stumbled upon the stone Rom. 9, 
of stumbling: and the Lamb hath seemed to them to be a^^- 
kid, and because as if He were a kid they slew Him, by the 
Lamb to be redeemed they deserved not. The same are 

" Perhaps ' quomodo' may be taken then, He chose not to be stronp.' 
for ' quodammodo;' 'In some sense, 



134 Chrht's persecutors strong in self -righteousness. 

Psalm therefore the strong men, that assailed Christ, commending 
LIX ... . 
^ their own justice. Hear ye these strong men : when certain 

men of Jerusalem wove speaking, having been sent by them 

to take Christ, and not daring to take Ilini ; (because when 

He would, then was He taken. That truly was strong :) Why 

therefore, say they, could ye not taJce Hun f And they made 

answer, No one of men did ever so speak as He. And these 

John 7, strong men. Hath by any means any one of the Pharisees 
believed 07t Him, or any one of the Scribes, but this people 
knotving not the Law ? Tl)ey preferred themselves to the 
sick multitude, that was running to the Physician : whence 
but because they were themselves strong ? and what is 
worse, by their strength, all the multitude also they brought 
over unto themselves, and slew the Physician of all. But 
He also because He was slain, of His blood made medicine 
for sick men ; Tliere have rushed upon Me strong men. To 
these mighty strong men give heed : and see whether a man 
should I'ely on any thing, when not even on righteousness he 
ought to rely. Now see where they lie that rely on riches, 
on strength of body, on nobility of family, on rank in the 
world, if whosoever on justice itself as if his own shall have 
relied, falleth. There have rushed upon me strong men. 
Out of these strong men was he that vaunted his powers. 

Lukeis, Thanks to Thee, he saith, / render, because I am not like 
the rest of men, unjust, robbers, adulterers, as also this 
Publican : I fast twice in a week, tithes I give of all things 
that I possess. Behold, a strong man vaunting his power, 

' or but on the other side observe a weak' one afar off standing, 

I jnflr- ^"<^ i^ humility drawing near. But the Publican, He saith, 

rouni' stood afar oif, and not even his eyes unto Heaven dared to 
Lukeis ././'' J 

13. ^ raise, but smote his breast, saying, God be merciful to me a 
sinner. Verily I say unto you, that Publican went down 
justified rather than that Pharisee. And observe the justice. 
For every one that exalteth himself shall be humbled ; and he 
that humbleth himself shall be exalted. There rushed on 
Rom. 10, those strong men, that is, proud men, ivho knoioing not God's 
^- righteousness, and their own righteousness wishing to set up, to 

the righteousness of God they did not submit. 

8. Ver. 3. What next ? Neither iniquity is mine, nor sin 
mine, Lord. There have rushed on indeed strong men 
on their own righteousness relying, they have rushed on, but 



How God is said to ' meet' and ' see.^ 135 

sin in me they have not found. For truly those strong men, Ver. 

that is, as it were righteous men, on what account would — - 

they be able to persecute Christ, unless it were as if a 
sinner ? But, however, let them look to it how strong they 
be, in the raging of fever not in the vigour of soundness: 
let them look to it how strong they be, and how as though 
just against an unrighteous man they have raged ". But, 
however, neither iniquity is mine, nor sin mine, O Lord. 
Without iniguity I did run, and I was guided. Those strong 
men therefore could not follow me running: therefore a 
sinner they have deemed me, because my steps they have 
not seen. 

9. Ver. 4. Without iniquity I did run, and was guided; 
rise up to meet me, and see. To God is said, Without 
iniquity I did run, and was guided; rise up to meet me, 
and see. But why ? If He meet not, is He unable to see ? 
It is just as if thou wast walking in a road, and from afar by 
some one thou couldest not be recognised, thou wouldest 
call to him and wouldest say. Meet me, and see how I am 
walking; for when from afar thou espiest me, my steps thou 
art not able to see. ' So also unless God were to meet, would 
He not see how without iniquity he was guided, and how 
without sin he was running ? This interpretation indeed we 
can also accept, namely, Rise up to meet me, as if ' help 
me.' But that which he hath added, and see, must be 
understood as, make it to be seen that I run, make it to 
be seen that I am guided: according to that figure wherein 
this also hath been said to Abraham, Now I know Ma/ Gen. 22, 
thou fearest God. God saith, Now I know : whence, but ^" 
because I have made thee to know ? For unknown to 
himself every one is before the questioning of temptation : 
just as of himself Peter in his confidence was ignorant, Mat. 26, 
and by denying learned what kind of powers he had, ~ * 
in his very stumbling he perceived that it was falsely he 
had been confident : he wept, and in weeping he earned 
profitably to know what he was, and to be what he was 
not. Therefore Abraham when tried, became known to 

'' Oxf. Mss. * and how far they were quum ssevierint). The common reading 
righteous and raging against one un- is scarcely grammatical, 
righteous,' (et quam justi contra ini- 



136 Now Our Lord became as it loerc weak. 

Psalm himself: and it was said by God, Now I know, that is, 

^-^- now I have made thee to know. In like manner as glad 

is the day because it makcth men glad; and sad is bit- 
terness because it makelh sad one tasting thereof: so God's 
seeing is making to see. Rise up, therefore, he saith, to meet 
me, and see. What is, and see? And help me, that is, in 
those men, in order that they may see my course, may follow 
me; let not that seem to them to be crooked which is 
straight, let not that seem to them to be curved which 
keepcth the rule of truth : For without iniquity I have run, 
and was guided: rise up to meet me, and see. 

10. Something else I am admonished to say in this place 
by the loftiness of our Head Himself: for He was made 
weak even unto death, and He took on Him the weakness 

Mat.23, of flesh, in order that the chickens of Jerusalem He might 
37. ... . 

gather under His wings, like a hen shewing herself weak 

with her little ones. For have we not observed this thing in 
some bird at some time or other, even in those which build 
nests before our eyes, as the house-sparrows, as swallovvs, so 
to speak, our annual guests, as storks, as various sorts of birds, 
which before our eyes build nests, and hatch eggs, feed 
chickens, as the very doves which daily we see ; and some bird to 
become weak with her chickens, have we not known, have we 
not looked upon, have we not seen.'' In what way doth a hen 
experience this weakness ? Surely a known fact I am speak- 
ing of, which in our sight is daily taking place. How her 
voice groweth hoarse, how her whole body is made languid? 
The wings droop, the feathers are loosened, and thou seest 
around the chickens some sick thing, and this is maternal 
love which is found as weakness. Why was it therefore, but 
for this reason, that the Lord willed to be a Hen, saying in 
the Holy Scripture, Jerusalem, Jerusalem, how often h<tve I 
willed to gather thy sons, even as a hen her chickens 
under her wings, and thou hast not been willing ? But He 
hath gathered all nations, like as a hen her chickens. He 
That hath been made weak for our sakes, receiving llesh 
from us, that is, from mankind, crucified, desj)ised, with 
bufiets smitten, scourged, hanged on the Tree, wounded with 
Rf>m- the spear. Therefore this belongeth to maternal weakness, 
I'Pet. riot to Majesty lost. Whereas therefoie such was Christ, and 

2, 8. * 



His great humiliations a proof of love. 1 37 

therefore despised, and therefore a stone of stumbling and a Ver. 
rock of offence, and therefore many men have stumbled — ^^ 
against Him: whereas such therefore He was, and never- 
theless flesh without sin had taken upon Him, He was made 
partaker of our own weakness, not of our own iniquity ; in 
order that even hereby, that with us He shared weakness. 
He might undo our iniquity. Therefore wiiliout iniquity I 
did run, and I ivas guided. Why, therefore, is He not to be 
acknowledged according to His Godhead, and why is that 
alone in Him to be considered, which for our sakes He was 
made, and not That whereby He made us? Evidently That 
also is to be considered : because a great proof of loving- 
kindness it is to know Who it was that for thee hath suffered, 
and what. No small one it was, it was not in behalf of 
thee some great one, but in behalf of thee weak, He the 
Highest. What ? He having been made a little one : He 
humbled Himself, having been made obedient even unto Phil. 2, 
death. Who? Hear from above: JVho when in the form p^-^] 2 
of God He uas, thought it no robbery to be equal with God.^- 
Therefore being equal with God, His own Self He emptied, 
taking the form of a servant, after the similitude of men 
having been made, and in shape having been found as a 
man : and He emptied Himself in such wise, that He took 
unto Him that which He was not, not so as to lose what He 
was. In what manner therefore emptied ? Because to thee 
of such sort He appeared, because to thee the dignity which 
with the Father He hath, He shewed not, because to thee 
now He presented weakness, reserved for the purged here- 
after brightness. He therefore that is equal to the Father 
of such sort was made : and nevertheless in the very weak- 
ness He must be acknowledged, not by sight, but by faith : 
in order that what to see we are not yet able, at least we 
may believe, and by believing that which we do not see, 
even to see we may earn. With reason, after that He rose 
again, He saith to Mary Magdalene, to whom He deigned 
first to appear: Touch Me not; for not yet I have ascended JohnlO, 
to the Father. What is this ? A little after, the women touched 
Him. For returning from the tomb, as He met them, they wor- 
shipped Him, and held His feet: the discij^les also felt nisMat.28, 
scars. What is therefore, Touch Me not, for not yet have 1 ' 



138 Our Lord would have His people know Who He is. 

Psalm ascended to the Father: but, do not believe Me to be this alone 

'- which thou seest, lest here also should abide thy seeing even as 

thy touching ? For humble to thee I seem, not yet I have 
ascended to the Father. Whence also to you I have come 
down, and thence I have not departed : not yet thither 
I have ascended, since you I have not deserted. He came 
without departing. He ascended without deserting. But 
what is it that He ascendeth to the Father ? When to us He 
is known as equal with the Father. For we ascend by 
making progress, so that we may be strong enough to see 
this, to perceive this, to receive this however it be. For this 
reason therefore He deferred touching. He put it not away, 
He repelled not, He refused not. For not yet, He saith, 
Ps.19,6. have I ascended to the Father. ' From the highest Heaven is 
the going forth ofHim,^ saith another Psalm, 'ay^cZ the meeting 
of Him even unto the highest of Heaven.'' The highest of 
Heaven, that is, the highest in all spiritual things, the Father 
is: thence the running forth of Him, and the meeting even 
unto the highest of Heaven. He meeteth even unto the 
highest, is not said but of one equal. Lastly, when some 
things unequal we compare, and something short to some- 
thing long we apply, to see how it is length to length, if 
unequal we shall have found it, then we are wont to sa}', It 
meeteth not ; but if equal it be, it meeteth. Therefore the 
meeting of Him is even unto the highest of Heaven, because 
equal He is with the Father, as such an One He would have 
Himself bo known to His faithful, Who said, Touch 3Ie not. 
This thing He would have to be granted by the Father to 
His faithful, Who was saying, Rise tip unto meeting Me, and 
see: make it known, that with Thee 1 am equal. And see: 
what is, And see? Make it to be seen that with Thee I am 
John 14, equal. How long doth Philip say to Me, Sheu^' to us the 
*' Father, and it is sufficient for us ? How long shall 1 say, 

So long a time am I with you, and the Father know ye not: 
Philip, he that hath seen 3Ie hath seen also the Father : 
dost thou not believe that I am in the Father and the 
Father is in Me? And as yet perchance he believed not 
Him to be equal. Rise up to meet Me, and see. Make Me 
to be seen, make Thyself to be seen, make known to men 
Our equality. Let not the Jews think themselves to have 



The Church is she that seemed forsaken. 139 

crucified a man. Though in Him there was crucified, only VEa. 
so much as of Man there was: nevertheless they knew not- 



Whom they crucified. For if they had known, the Lord of^ ^°^' 
Glory they never would have crucified. This Lord of glory ' 
in order that My faithful ones may know, Rise up to meet 
me and see. 

11. And Thou, Lord God of virtues, God of Lsrael. Thou 
God of Israel, that art thought to be but God of one nation, 
which worshippeth Thee, when all nations worship idols, 
Thou God of Israel, Give heed unto the visiting all nations. 
Fulfilled be that prophecy wherein Isaiah in Thy person 
speaketh to Thy Church, Thy holy City, that barren one of 
whom many more are the sons of Her forsaken than of her 
that hath a husband. To Her indeed hath been said, 
Rejoice, thou barren, that hearest not; break forth and cry out, isa. 54, 
thou that travailest not: for many more are the sons of ILer ' 
forsaken than of her that hath a husband; more than of the 
Jewish nation which hath an Husband, which hath received 
the Law, more than of that nation which had a visible king. 
For thy king is hidden, and more sons to thee there are by a 
hidden Bridegroom. Therefore to Her is said. Many more 
are the children of thee forsaken than of Her which hath an 
Husband. Secondly, the Prophet addeth, Enlarge the place Isa. 54, 
of Thy tabernacle, and Thy ^courts fix thou: there is no cause ^^ 
for thee to spare, extend further thy cords, and strong stakes setings ° 
thou again and again on the right and on the left. Upon the mss. 
right keep good men, on the left keep evil men, until there Mat.25, 
come the fan: occupy nevertheless all nations; bidden to^j' 
the marriage be good men and evil men, filled be the 12. 
marriage with guests ; it is the office of servants to bid, of the Mat.22, 
Lord to sever. Again and again on the right hand and on^- 
the left stretch forth. For Thy seed shall inherit the nations : 3. 
and cities which had been forsaken Thou shall inhabit: 
forsaken of God, forsaken of Prophets, forsaken of Apostles, 
forsaken of the Gospel, full of demons. Cities ivhich had 
been forsaken Thou shall inhabit, there is nothing for thee to 
fear. For Thou shalt prevail ; and blush not because abo- 
minable Thou hast been. Therefore though there have 
risen up upon thee strong men, blush not: when against the 
name of Christ laws were enacted, when ignominy and 



1 40 Whom God is prayed not to leave unpunished. 

Psalm infamy it was to be a Christian. Blush not because aho- 
~ minable Thou host been: for confusion for everlasting Tliou 



shalt forget, of the ignominy of Thy widowhood Thou shalt not 
he mindful. For I am the Lord that make Thee, The Lord is 
His name: and He that rescueth Thee, the Same, the God of 
Israel, shall be called the Lord of the whole earth. And 
Thou, Lord God of Virtues, God of Israel, give heed unto 
visiting all nations: give heed, I say, unto visiting all nations. 

12. Ver. 5. Have not pity upon all men that work iniquity. 
Here evidently He is terrifying. Whom would He not 
terrify ? What man falling back upon his own conscience 
would not tremble ? Which even if to itself it is conscious 
of godliness, strange if it be not in some sort conscious of 

1 John iniquity. For whosoever doeth sin, also doetli ini(][uity. 

Ps. ]30 Tor if Thou shalt have marked iniquities, Lord, what 

^- man shall abide it ? Aud nevertheless a true saying it is, 

and not said to no purpose, and neither is nor will it be 
possible to be void. Have not pity upon all men that work 
iniquity. But He had pity even upon Paul, who at first as 
Saul wrought iniquity. For what good thing did he, whence 

Acts 9, he might deserve of God ? Did he not hate His Saints unto 
death ? did he not bear letters from the chief of the priests, 
to the end that wheresoever he might find Christians, to 
punishment he should hurry them.? When bent upon this, 
when thither proceeding, breathing and panting slaughter, 
as the Scripture testified of him, was he not from Heaven 
with a mighty voice summoned, thrown down, raised up ; 
blinded, lightened; slain, made alive; destroyed, restored ? 
In return for what merit? Let us say nothing; himself rather 

iTim.i,lct us hear : / tltat before have been, he saith, a blasphemer, 
and 2^ersecutor; and injurious, but mercy I have obtained. 
Surely Thou woiddest not have pity upon all men that work 
i)iiquity: this in two ways may be understood: either that 
in fact not any sins doth God leave unpunished ; or that 
there is a sort of iniquity, on the workers whereof God hath 
indeed no pity. On these two heads briefly, as much as the 
time sufficeth for, something we would speak to your Love. 

13. All iniquity, be it little or great, punished must needs 
be, cither by man himself repenting, or by God avenging. 
For even he that repenleth jiunisheth himself Therefore, 



Such are the obstinate, and pleaders for sin. 141 

brethren, let us punish our own sins, if we seek the mercy of Ver. 
God. God cannot have mercy on all men working iniquity ^' 
as if pandering to sins, or not rooting out sins. In a word, 
either thou punishest, or He punisheth. Wilt thou that 
He punish not? Punish thou. For even that thing thou 
hast done which unpunished cannot be : but by thyself be 
it punished rather, in order that thou mayest do that which 
in the Psalm hath been written, Let us come before^ the face 'Ps.Qb^i. 
of Him in confession. What is, Let us come before the face £^ll] 
of Him ? Before that Himself giveth heed to punish, do 
thou come before Him in confession, and punish. Let not 
Him find any thing which He may punish. Because when 
thou punishest iniquity, thou doest equity. And therefore 
on thee God shall have pity, because God doth find thee 
now working equity. What is working equity ? Because 
this thing in thyself thou hatest, which He also hateth : 
so that thou mayest begin to please God, because that thing 
in thyself thou punishest which displeaseth God. For it is 
not possible for sin to be left unpunished : for true is, Have 
Thou not piiij on all hien that work iniquity. 

14. But let us see now another way in which this sentence 
may be understood. There is a certain iniquity, on the 
worker whereof it cannot be that God have mercy. Ye 
enquire, perchance, what that is ? It is the defending of sins. 
When a man defendeth his sins, great iniquity he worketh : 
that thing he is defending which God hateth. And see how 
perversely, how iniquitously. Whatever of good he hath 
done, to himself he would have it to be ascribed ; whatever 
of evil, to God. For in this manner men defend sins in the 
person of God, which is a worse sin. What is this.? No 
one there is that would dare to say, good is adultery, good is 
manslaying, good guile, good falseswearing ; no one surely 
among men. For even they that do these things, make an 
outcry when they suffer them. By no means therefore canst 
thou find a soul so perverse, so alien from the society of 
mankind and from sharing in the common blood of Adam, as 
that to him appeareth adultery to be a good thing, as I 
have said, or guile, robbery, false swearing. But how do they 
defend these things ? If God had not willed it, I should not 
have done this thing. Wilt thou have me do any thing 



1 42 Some converted ' in the evening,'' i. e. late. 

Psalm against my fate ? Then thou cnquirest, what is fate : thou 
- j'^ -- fleest to the stars. Thou inquirest who made and ordered 
Gen.], the stars: God it is. Therefore thou defendcst thy sin in 
such sort, that thou layest blame on God. So the guilty is 
excused, so that the Judge may be charged. However on 
men working iniquity God hath no pity at all. Have Thou 
no pity on all men that work iniquity. 

15. Ver. 6. Let them he converted at the evening. Of 
certain men he is speaking that were once w^orkers of iniquity, 
and once darkness, being converted in the evening. What 
is, in the evening ? Afterward. What is, at the evening ? 
Later. For before, before that they crucified Christ, they 
ought to have acknowledged their Physician. Wherefore, 
when He had been crucified — rising again, into Heaven 
ascending — after that He sent His Holy Spirit, wherewith 
were fulfilled they that were in one house, and they began to 
speak with the tongues of all nations, there feared the cruci- 
fiers of Christ: they were pricked through with their con- 
sciences, counsel of safety from the Apostles they besought, 
Acts 2, they heard, do penance, and be baptized each one of you in 
the name of our Lord Jesus Christy and your sins shall be 
remitted unto you. After the slaying of Christ, after the 
shedding of the blood of Christ, remitted are your sins. He 
so willed to die, that with His blood even the shedders of 
the same blood He redeemed. Ye have shed raging, drink 
ye confessing. With reason, let them be converted at even- 
ing, and suffer hunger as dogs. Dogs the Jews called the 
Gentiles, as if being unclean. For even the Lord Himself, 
when after Him there cried a certain woman of Canaan, not 
of Juda3a, unto the healing of her daughter desiring to pre- 
vail with His mercy — He foreseeing all things — knowing 
all things — yet since her faith He willed to shew, de- 
ferred the blessing, and kept her in suspense. And how de- 
Mat.l5,ferred? I am not. He saith, w«^ hit to the sheep which hare 
been lost of the house of Israel. Israel, sheep : Gentiles, 
what.'' // is not good to throiv the bread of sons to dogs. 
The Gentiles therefore dogs He called, because of unclean- 
ness. But what of that wom^n hungei'ing ? This moreover 
she disdained not: humbly she received reproach, and earned 
a blessing. Rut this must not be called a reproach, which 



The wicked repenting ' hunger as dogs,' 143 

by the Lord had been said. If a servant say any such thing Ver. 
to his master, a reproach it is. When the Lord saith even — - — 
any such thing to his servant, it may rather be called a con- 
descension. Even so, she saith, Lord. What is even 5o?Mat.i5, 
A true thing thou sayest, surely a true thing thou sayest, a 
dog I am. But even dogs, she saith, eat of the crumbs 
which fall from the table of their masters. And immediately 
the Lord, woman, great is thy faith. But lately a dog, 
now a woman. Whence now a woman, she that a little 
before was a dog ? By confessing humbly, by not dis- 
daining that which by the Lord had been spoken. There- 
fore the nations are dogs, and for this reason they are 
hungry. It is a good thing for Jews also to acknowledge 
themselves sinners; and though it be at evening, to be 
converted ; and to suffer hunger like dogs. For in ill sort 
had he been filled that was saying, I fast twice in a wee/:. Lukeis, 
But that publican was a dog, suffering hunger ; and thence 
for the blessing of the Lord was hungering he that was 
saying, ' Merciful be Thou to me, a sinner.^ Let these be 
converted, therefore, they also at evening, and suffer hunger 
as dogs. Let them yearn for the grace of God, perceive 
themselves to be sinners ; let those strong men be made 
weak, those rich men be made poor, those just men acknow- 
ledge themselves sinners, those lions be made dogs. Let 
them be converted at evening, and suffer hunger as dogs. 
And they shall go around the city. What city ? That 
world, which in certain places the Scripture calleth ' the 
city of standing round ' :' that is, because in all nations every ' E. V. 
w^here the world had encompassed the one nation of Jews, cjll °"^ 
where such words were being spoken, and it was called ' the ^^- ^^ 

21* 60 {)• 

city of standing round.* Around this city shall go those ibs, lo.' 
men, now having become hungry dogs. In what manner 
shall they go around ? By preaching. Saul out of a wolf 
was made a dog at evening, that is, being late converted by Acts 9, 
the crumbs of his Lord, in His grace he ran, and went 
around the city. 

16. Ver. 7. Behold, themselves shall speak in their mouth, 
land a sword is on the lips of them. Here is that sword 
twice whetted, whereof the Apostle saith. And the sword ofE\>\\. c, 
the Spirit, which is the Word of God. Wherefore twice 



144 The converted instrumetits of conversion. 

Psalm whetted ? Wliereforc, but because smitiiiff out of botli 
LTX . . . 
^ Testanicuts ? With this sword were slain those whereof it 

Actsio, \yas said to Peter, ' Slay, ovd eat.'' And a sirord is on (he 

13 ' ^ 

lips of them. For who hath heard? They shall speak in 
their mouth, Who hath heard? That is, they shall be wroth 
with men that are slow to believe. They that a little before 
were even themselves unwilling to believe, do feel disgust 
from men not believing. And truly, brethren, so it is. 
Thou seest a man slow before he is made a Christian ; thou 
criest to him daily, hardly he is converted: sup])ose him to 
be converted, and then he would have all men to be Chris- 
tians, and wondereth that not yet they are. It hath chanced 
out to him at evening to have been converted : but because 
he hath been made hungering like a dog, he hath also on 
his lips a sword; he saith, Who hath heard? What is, JVho 
Is. 53, \. hath heard? ' JVho hath believed our hearing, and to zvhom 
hath the arm of the Lord been revealed? For loho hath 
heard?"* The Jews believe not: they have turned them to 
the nations, and have preached. The Jews did not believe ; 
and nevertheless through believing Jews the Gospel went 
around the city, and they said. For xoho hath heard? 

17. Ver. 8. And Thou, Lord, shall deride them. ' Who 
hath heard?' All nations are to be Christian, and ye say, 

Who hath heard? What is, ' shall deride them?'' As nothing 
Thou shall esteem all nations. Nothing for Thee it shall be; 
because a most easy thing it will be for all nations to believe 
iu Thee. 

18. Ver. 9. My strength to Thee I will keep. For those 
strong men have fallen for this reason ; because their 
strength to Thee they have not kej^t : that is, they that 
upon me have risen up and rushed, on themselves have 
relied. But I my strength to Thee will keep : because if 
I withdraw, I fall; if 1 draw near, stronger I am made. 
For see, brethren, what there is in a human soul. It hath 
not of itself light, hath not of itself powers : but all that is 
fair in a soul, is virtue and wisdom : but it neither is wise 
for itself, nor strong for itself, nor itself is light to itself, nor 
itself is virtue to itself. There is a certain origin and foun- 
tain of virtue, there is a certain root of wisdom, there is a 
certain, so to speak, if this also must be said, region of 



iVo reliance on self. God's Jree mercy. 145 

unchangeable truth : from this the soul -withdrawing is made Ver. 
dark, drawing near is made light. Draw near to Him, and — '— 
he made light : because by withdrawing ye are made dark. 
Therefore, 7???/ strength, I will keep to Thee: not from Thee 
will I withdraw, not on myself will I rely. Mg strength, to 
Thee I will keep: because, O God, my lifter up^ Thou art. ^°^ faker 
For where was I, and where am I .'' Whence hast Thou 
taken me up? What iniquities of mine hast Thou remitted? 
Where was I lying? To what have 1 been raised up? I 
ouglit to have remembered these things : because in another 
Psalm is said, ' For myfatlier and my mother have forsaken Ps. 27, 
me, but the Lord hath taken me unto Him.^ My strength, to 
Thee I icill keep : for, O God, my taker up Thou art. 

19. Ver. 10. 31y God, the mercy of Him shall -come before'^ ox pre- 
me. Behold what is. My strength, to Thee I will keep: on 
myself I will no ways at all rely. For what good thing have 

I brought, that thou shouldest have mercy on me, and 
shouldest justify me. What in me hast Thou found, save 
sins alone ? Of Thine there is nothing else but the nature 
which Thou hast created ; the other things are mine own 
evil things which Thou hast blotted out. T have not first 
risen up to Thee, but to awake me Thou hast come : for 
His mercy shall come before me. Before that any thing of 
good I shall do, His mercy shall come before me. What 
answer here shall the unhappy Pelagius make ? 

20. My God hath shewn to me among mine enemies. What 
saith he ? How great mercy He hath put forth concerning 
me, among mine enemies He hath shewed. Let one gathered 
compare himself with men forsaken, and one elect with men 
rejected: let the vessel of mercy compare itself with the 
vessels of wrath ; and let it see how out of one lump God 
hath made one vessel unto honour, another unto dishonour. 
What is, hath shewed to me among mine enemies? For so^nm.d, 
God,ivilHng to shew wrath, and to manifest His power, hath 
brought in, in much patience, the vessels of wrath, which 
have been perfected unto perdition. And wherefore this ? 

In order that He might make known His riches upon tfie 
vessels of mercy. If therefore vessels of wrath He hath 
brought in, wherein He might make known His riches upon 
the vessels of mercy, most rightly hath been said, His mercy 

VOL. III. L 



146 The Psalmist prays for his enemies. 

Psalm shall come before me : My God hath shewed to me among 

^-^mine enemies: that is, however great mercy lie hath had 

concerning me, to me He hath shewed it among those men, 
concerning whom He hath not had mercy. For unless the 
debtor be in suspense, he is less grateful to him by whom 
the debt hath been forgiven. My God hath shewed to me 
among mine enemies. 

2] . Ver. 1 1. But of the enemies themselves what? Slay them 
not, lest sometime they forget Thy laiv. He is making request 
for his enemies, he is fulfilling the commandment. What 
is, Do not Thou have mercy upon all men that work 
iniquity ; and, Slay them not, lest sometime they forget 
Thy law. In what manner hath He not mercy upon all men 
that work iniquity ; and in what manner doth He not slay 
punct. them ? Lest they forget Thy law. But here of His enemies he 
is speaking. What then } Do His enemies work equity ? 
If any that are enemies to Him work equity, then He doth 
Himself work iniquity. But because He doth Himself work 
equity, and moreover He that worketh equity doth in fact 
suffer iniquity from enemies ; it is evident that they that are 
enemies to a just man, do work iniquity. Whence therefore 
a little above. Have not Thou mercy upon all men that work 
iniquity ; and now of his enemies, He saith, Slay not them, 
lest sometime they forget Thy law. ' Do not Thou,' there- 
fore, ' have mercy on them,' that Thou mayest slay their sins. 
Slay not them of whom the sins Tliou slayest. But what is 
it to be slain ? To forget the law of the Lord. It is real 
death, to go into the pit of sin : this indeed may be also 
understood of the Jews. Why of the Jews, Slay not them, 
lest sometime they forget Thy law ? Those very enemies of 
mine, that have slain me, do not Thou slay. Let the nation 
of the Jews remain : certes conquered it hath been by the 
Romans, certes effaced is the city of them, Jews arc not 
admitted into their city, and yet Jews there are. For all 
those provinces by the Romans have been subjugated. Who 
now can distinguish the nations in the Roman empire the 
one from the other, in as much as all have become Romans 
and all are called Romans ? The Jews nevertheless remain 
with a mark; nor in such sort conquered have they been, as 
that by the conquerors they have been swallowed up. Not 



The Jews remain as a learning and an evidence. 147 

without reason is there that Cain, on whom, when he had Ver. 

. 11. 12 

slain his brother, God set a mark in order that no one should ~ — -^ 

. Gen. 4, 

slay him. This is the mark which the Jews have : they is. 
hold fast by the remnant of their law, they are circum- 
cised, they keep Sabbaths, they sacrifice the Passover ; they 
eat unleavened bread. These are therefore Jews, they have 
not been slain, they are necessary to believing nations. 
Why so ? In order that He may shew to us among our 
enemies His merc}^ Mg God Iiath shewn to me in mine 
enemies. He sheweth His mercy to the wild-oUve grafted on 
branches that have been cut off because of pride. Behold 
where they lie, that were proud, behold where thou hast 
been grafted, that didst lie: and be not thou proud, lest thou 
shouldest deserve to be cut off. My God, slay not them, 
lest sometime they forget Thy law. 

22. Ver. 11. Scatter them abroad in Thy virtue. Now 
this thing hath been done: throughout all nations there 
have been scattered abroad the Jews, witnesses of their own 
iniquity and our truth. They have themselves writings, out 
of which hath been prophesied Christ, and we hold Christ. 
And if sometime perchance any heathen man shall have 
doubted, when we have told him tlie prophecies of Christ, 
at the clearness whereof he is amazed, and wondering hath 
supposed that they were written by ourselves, then out of 
the copies of the Jews we prove, how this thing so long time 
before had been foretold. See after what sort b}' means of 
our enemies we confound other enemies. Scatter them 
abroad in Thy virtue : take away from them ' virtue,' take 
away from them their strength. And bring them down, my 
protector, O Lord. (Ver. 12.) The transgressions of their 
mouth, the discourse of their lips: and let them be taken in 
their pride : and out of cursing and lying shall be declared 
consummations, in the anger of consummation, and they 
shall not be. Obscure words these are, and I fear lest they 
be not well instilled. Now ye are tired of hearing : there- 
fore if it please your Love ; what reraaineth let us defer 
until to-morrow. The Lord will aid us to pay to you our 
debt : for on His part we promise rather than from our- 
selves. 



l2 



148 How unbelieving Jews ' hold the Law.' 



SERMON II. 

ON THE SECOND PART OF PSALM LIX. 

1. Yesterday's sermon, though prolractetl, hath left me 
a debtor against to-day ; accordingly because the Lord 
hath willed, the time for paying hath come. But in 
proportion as we are earnest to repay, so ought yc to be 
covetous to require : that is, in such sort that what He 
giveth and we render, (for He is Lord, we are servants,) ye 
should so accept, as that there may be fruit through your 
hearing from your life. For a cultivated field, rendering no 
fi'uit, and ungrateful to the husbandman, instead of fruits 
bringing forth thorns, requireth not barn but fire. But the 
Lord om* God, as ye see Him visit this earth with wonted 
rains, in like manner deigneth to visit with His Word our 
heart, as it were His field; and from our heart requireth 
fruits, because He knoweth both what lhei*e He soweth, and 
how much rain He giveth. And because in truth without 
Him we are nothing, because also before vve were, we were 
nothing, and whosoever is now a man, and willeth to be 
without Him, will be nothing else but a sinful one : and that 
is true which here hath been said. My strength, to Thee will 
I keep: since whatever we can do, unless with Him and to 
Him we keep it, by withdrawing we lose: our mind ought 
alway to watch not from Him to withdraw, but rather if afar 
it was, more and more to approach and draw near ; not with 
the step of the feet, not in the conveyance of carriages, not 
with the speed of animals, not with the lifting up of wings, 
but with purity of affections, and the integrity of holy 
morals. 

2. Let us see therefore what rcmaincth of this Psalm. 
For we had left off at the point, when he had begun to speak 
of his enemies, saying to God, (ver. IL) Slay not them, lest 
sometime they forget Thy law. Although he had called them 
his enemies, nevertheless he asked of God that He would not 
slay them, and that they should not forget His law. To 
hold the law however, that is, not to forget the law, is not at 
once perfection, and, as it were, security about recompense. 



How unhelievitig Jews ' hold the Law.'' 149 

and no anxiety about punishment. For there are they that Ver. 

hold the law in memory, and fulfil it not in life: but they __?: 

that fulfil it in life, cannot but hold it in menioiy. There- 
fore he that in morals doelh the commandments of God, and 
in a manner by his living laketh pains that that be not wiped 
out which he holdeth in his heart, and by living calleth to 
his mind what in his heart hath been written of the law of 
God, the same doth fruitfully hold the law of God, he shall 
not be coimted an enemy. For, behold, the Jews are ene- 
mies, whom this Psalm seemeth to imply ; the law of God 
they hold, and therefore of them hath been said, Slay not 
them, lest Hometime they forget Thy law: in order that the 
nation of Jews might remain, and by it remaining the 
number of Christians might increase. Throughout all 
nations they remain certainly, and Jews they are, nor have 
they ceased to be what they were : that is, this nation hath 
not so yielded to Roman institutions, as to have lost the form 
of Jews ; but hath been subjected to the Romans so as that 
it still retaineth its own laws ; which are the laws of God. 
But what in their case hath been done ? Ye tithe mint andM.at.23, 
cummin, and have forsaken the weightier matters of the^^' ^'^' 
law, mercy, and judynient, straining a gnat, hut snallouing 
a camel. This to them the Lord saith. And in truth so 
they are ; they hold the law, hold the Prophets ; read all 
things, sing all things : the Light of the Prophets therein 
they sec not, which is Christ Jesus. Not only Him now 
they see not, when He is sitting in Heaven : but not 
even at that time saw they Him, when among them 
humble He was walking, and they were made guilty by 
shedding the blood of the Same ; but not all. This even to 
day we commend to the notice of your Love. Not all : 
because many of them were tiu'ned to Him Whom they slew, 
and by believing on Him, they obtained pardon even for the 
shedding of His blood : and they have given an example for 
men; how they ought not to despair that sin of whatsoever 
kind would be remitted to them, since even the killing of 
Christ was remitted to them confessing. Thence therefore 
hath been said, (ver. 9.) Because, O God, my taker up Thou 
art, my God, His mercy shall prevent vie: that is, before 
any good deservings of mine, there preventeth me the mercy 



150 God's mercy set forth by comparison. 

Psalm of the samc ; and if nothing in me of good He shall have 

T TV . 

'- found, He doth Himself make me good, and He doth Him- 
self justify one converted, and doth Himself admonish that 
one averted should be converted. (Ver. 10.) My God, He 
saith again, hath shewn to me a)nony mine enemies : that is, 
how much He lovcth me, and how much on me He bestoweth 
of His goodness, by comparison of mine enemies to me He 

Kom. 9,shevveth ; because while out of one lump are the vessels of 
21. 

wrath and the vessels of mercy, through the vessels of wrath 

the vessels of mercy learn how much of good on them God doth 
bestow. And secondly, (ver. 11.) Slay not them, lest sometime 
they forget Thy law: this hath been said of Jews. But what 
to them wilt Thou do ? Scatter them abroad in Thy virtue. 
Shew to them, that Thou art strong, not themselves, who, by 
relying on their own virtue, have not known Thy truth : not 
such as those strong men are, of whom hath been said, There 
have rushed upon me strong men : but such as Thou art, 
strong to scatter them abroad. And bring them down, my 
protector, O Lord : that is, scatter them abroad, in such sort 
that Thou forsake them not, lest sometime they forget Thy 
law : and in that very thing protect me, so that in the 
scattering abroad of the same, I may have the evidence of 
Thy mercy. 

3. And there followeth, (ver. 12.) The transgressions of 
their mouth, the discourse of their lips. To what is joined, 
to what is connected this sentence } The transgressions, he 
saith, of their mouth, the discourse of their lips. The fol- 
lowing words are not so connected as to teach us to what is 
joined this sentence. The transgressions, he saith, of their 
mouth, the discourse of their lips : and let them be taken in 
their pride, and out of cursing and lying shall be declared 
consummations, in anger of consummation, and they shall 
not he. This to be obscure even yesterday we had declared, 
and accordingly we had deferred the exposition for your 
minds when more fresh. Now then, since not yet fatigued 
ye are with hearing, lift up your hearts to assist me with 
attention, lest perchance on account of the seeming obscurity 
and perplexity thereof, our discourse may not be sufficient to 
win your attention : and ye ought from yourselves also to 
contribute something, in order that what we have not filled 



God sometimes slays the sin, spares the sinner. 151 

up by our word, ye may supply by intelligence. Well then, Ver. 
this sentence hath been set in such wise in the middle, that — 



we do not readily see to what it is joined: The transgressions 
of their mouth, the discourse of their lips. Let us go back 
then to words higher up. Because he had said, Slay not 
them, lest sometime they forget Thy law, them to wit whom 
he had called enemies ; he added two verses, scatter them 
abroad in Thy virtue, and bring them down, my protector, 
Lord: and immediately he hath introduced, The trans- 
gressions of their mouth, the discourse of their lips, that is, 
slay this, not themselves. Therefore, slay not them, lest 
sometime they forget Thy law; but there is something in 
them for Thee to slay, in order that thou mayest fulfil that 
which above hath been said. Do not Thou have mercy on all v. 5, 
men that work iniquity. Scatter them abroad therefore, and 
lead them down: that is, do not forsake, when Thou scatterest 
abroad ; because in not forsaking thou ha''^ something in 
them for Thee to do, though themselves Thou slayest not. 
What therefore wilt Thou slay? The transgressions of their 
mouth, the discourse of their lips. What in them wilt Thou 
slay ? The Crucify, Crucify, which they cried out, not them Matt. 
that cried out. For they willed to blot out, cut off, destroy joij^fg 
Christ: but Thou, by raising to life Christ, Whom they 6- 
willed to destroy, dost slay the transgressions of their mouth, 
the discourse of their lips. For in that He whom they cried 
out should be destroyed, liveth, they are taken with dread : 
and that He whom on earth they despised, in heaven is 
adored by all nations, they wonder: thus are there slain the 
transgressions of them, and the discourse of their lips. 

i. And let them be taken in their pride. What is, let them 
he taken in their pride? Because to no purpose have strong 
men rushed on, and it hath fallen out to them as it were to 
think themselves to have done somewhat, and they have 
prevailed against the Lord. They were able to crucify a 
man, weakness might prevail and 'virtue be slain; and they' or 
thought themselves somewhat, as it were strong men, as it^ '^^ 
were mighty men, as it were prevailing, as it were a lion 
prepared for prey, as it were fat bulls, as of them in another 

place he maketh mention : Fat bulls have beset me. But Ps. 22, 

. 12. 

what have they done in the case of Christ ? Not life, but 



152 Mercy to the Jews in defeating their icill. 

FsALM death they have slain. That is, death in Him dying having 

r TV ... 

' been effaced, and life rising again from death in Him living 



— for He did even of Himself raise again Himself to life — 
because there was in Him even that which could not die, 
they have done what ? Hear what they have done : they 
pulled down the Temple. But Himself did what ? In three 
John 2, days He raised to life again the same. J3y this means, 
therefore, were slain the transgressions of their mouth, and 
the discourse oi' their lips. And what now hath come to 
pass in those men that have been converted ? And let Ihem 
be taken in their pride. For it was told to them, that He 
Acts 1, Whom they slew rose again. They believed Him to have 
37. ' risen again, because they saw that He, being in Heaven, 
thence sent the Holy Spirit, and filled those that on Him 
believed ; and they found themselves to have condemned 
nought, and to have done nought. Their doing issued in 
emptiness, the sin remained. Because therefore the doing 
\vas made void, but the sin remained upon the doers ; they 
were taken in their pride, they saw themselves under their 
iniquity. It remained therefore for them to confess the sin, 
and for Him to pardon, That had given Himself up to 
sinners, and to forgive His death, having been slain by men 
dead, and making alive men dead. They were taken there- 
fore in their pride. 

5. And out of cursing and lying shall be declared consum- 
mations, in anger of consummation, and they shall not be. 
This too with difhculty is understood, to what is joined the 
and they shall not be. What shall they not be ? Let us 
therefore examine the context above ; when they shall have 
been taken in their pride, there shall be declared out of 
cursing and lying consummations. What are consumma- 
tions ? Perfections : for to be consummated, is to be per- 
fected. One thing it is to be consummated, another thing to 
be consumed. For a thing is consummated which is so 
finished as that it is perfected : a thing is consumed, which 
is so finished that it is not. Pride would not suffer a man to 
be perfected, nothing so much hindereth perfection. For 
let your Love attend a little to what I am saying ; and see an 
evil very pernicious, very much to be guarded against. 
What sort of evil do ye think it is } How long could I 



Pride the chief est and deadliest sin. 1 53 

enlarge upon how much evil there is in pride ? The devil Ver. 
on that account alone is to be punished. Certes he is the — ^^' 
chief of all sinners : certes he is the tempter to sin : to him 
is not ascribed adultery, not wine-bibbing, not fornication, 
not the robbing of others' goods : by pride alone he fell. 
And since pride's companion is envy, it must needs be that 
a proud man should envy : because of this vice, which doth 
necessarily follow pride, having fallen he also envied him 
that stood, and was at pains to lead man astray, lest he 
should be exalted to that place whence hiinself had been 
cast down. And therefore he earnestly endeavours to 
allure us to real sins, because we have a Judge of such 
sort as that before Him he cannot lay to our charge 
unreal sins. For if before a human judge our cause were 
to be pleaded, whom he might beguile with false accusa- 
tions, he would not have to busy much in order to make 
us to sin: because by beguiling the judge he might both 
oppress the innocent, and bring over to himself them when 
overreached by him, and make them to be condemned 
together with himself; but now because he knoweth of such 
a Judge as cannot be deceived, and because he knoweth that 
He is just, and cannot accept persons; he desireth to brino- 
before Him persons so guilty, as that it must needs be that 
He condemn them, because Just He is. He is therefore at 
pains to make us sin, of mere envy, which envy must needs 
accompany pride. Such an evil then is pride, which doth 
hinder perfection. If therefore a man vaunt himself of 
riches, vaunt himself of the beauty and of the powers of his 
body; all these things are but mortal : they are to be 
laughed at that vaunt themselves of things mortal, by which 
things ofltimes either while livfng they are forsaken, or when 
dead they must needs forsake them: it is a capital sin, when 
a man hath well advanced, that with pride he is tempted, so 
as to lose all wherein he made progress. In a word, all 
vices in evil-doings are to be feared, pride in well-doin<>s is 
more to be feared. It is no wonder then, that so humble is 
the Apostle, as to say. When J am made weak, then I am ^ Cor. 
slrony. For lest he should himself be tempted by this sin, '^' ^^' 
what sort of medicine doth he say was applied to him against 
swelling by the Physician, who knew what He was healing ? 



1 54 Sins that humble us serve toward perfection. 

Psalm Lest by the greatness, he saith, of the revelations I should be 
^-^ — —exalted, there was given to me a thorn of my flesh, the 
\2, 7-9. angel of Satan, to buffet me: wherefore thrice the Lord 
I besought, that it should depart from me : and He said to 
me. My grace is sufficient for thee, for virtue in weakness is 
made perfect. See what the consummations are. An Apostle, 
the teacher of Gentiles, father of the faithful through the 
Gospel, received a thorn of the flesh whereby he might be 
buffetted. Which of us would dare to say this, unless he 
had not been ashamed to confess this ? For if we shall have 
said that Paul had not suffered this; while to him as it were 
honour we give, a liar we make him. But because truthful 
he is, and truth he hath spoken ; it behoveth us to believe 
that there was given to him an angel of Satan, lest by the 
gi'eatness of the revelations he should be exalted. Behold 
how much to be feared is the serpent of pride. What there- 
fore hath been done to those men r In their sin they have 
been taken, for that they slew Christ, and by the very 
greatness of the sin they were the more humbled, and in 
their greater humility they merited to be raised up : this is, 
Let tliem be taken in their pride. And out of cursing and 
lying there shall be declared consummations : that is, for 
this reason they shall be made the more perfect, because in 
cursing and lying they have been overtaken. For pride did 
not allow them to be made perfect; evil-doing took away 
pride through their confession, pardon effaced evil-doing 
through the mercy of God, and out of cursing and lying 
there were declared consummations; that is, it hath been 
said to man, thou hast seen what thou art, thou hast felt 
what thou art, thou hast strayed, made blind thou hast been, 
thou hast sinned and hast fallen, thou hast acknowledged 
thy weakness, beseech the Physician, do not think thyself 
whole ; where is thy phrenzy ? Behold the Physician thou 
hast slain. Whom by slaying thou couldcst not destroy; 
nevertheless, as much as in thee lay, thou hast slain ; Out of 
cursing and lying shall be declared consummations. Ye 
21,23. have done what belonged to cursing, O Jews : for cursed is 
Gal. 3, Q^ery one that hangeth on a tree. Ye have crucified Christ, 
Mat.27, as though accursed ye have deemed Him, Add to cursing 
Mat 28 ^y'^^S • gii'ii'^^s at the sepulchre ye placed : in order tliat they 
12. * 



Some punishment is intended for mercy. 155 

might lie, ye gave money. Behold, Christ hath risen again : Ver. 
where is the curse of the Cross which ye have made ? where — '- — - 
is the lying of the guards whom ye have bribed? 

6. Ver. 12. Out of cursing and lying shall be declared 
(ver. 13.) consummations in the anger of consummation, and 
they shall not be. What is, in the anger of consmnmation 
shall be declared consummations? There is an anger of 
consummation, and there is an anger of consuming. For 
every vengeance of God is called anger: sometimes God 
avengeth, to the end that He may make perfect; sometimes 
He avengeth, to the end that He may condemn. How doth 

He avenge, to the end that He may make perfect? iy(?Heb.l2, 
scourgeth every son whom He receiveth. How doth He 
avenge, to the end that He may condemn ? When He shall 
have set ungodly men on the left hand, and shall have said 
to them, Go ye into fire everlasting, that hath been preparedM^it.^d, 
for the devil and his angels. This is the anger of con- 
suming, not that of consummation. But there shall be 
declared consummations in the anger of consummation ; 
it shall be preached by the Apostles, that where sin hath^oin,5, 
abounded, grace shall much more abound, and the weakness 
of man hath belonged to the healing of humility. Those 
men thinking of this, and finding out and confessing their 
iniquities, shall not be. ' Shall not be"" what ? In their pride. 
For above he had said, Let them be taken in their pride, and 
out of cursing and lying shall be declared consummations in 
the anger of consummation, and they shall not be, to wit in 
their pride, wherein they have been taken. 

7, And they shall know how God shall have dominion of 
Jacob, and of the ends of the earth. For before they thought 
themselves just men, because the Jewish nation had received 
the Law, because it had kept the commandments of God: it 
is proved to them that it hath not kept them, since in the 
very commandments of God Christ it perceived not, because 
blindness in part has happened to Israel. Even the Jews Rom. 
themselves see that they ought not to despise the Gentiles, of ' * 
whom they deemed as of dogs and sinners. For just as alike 
they have been found in iniquity, so alike they will attain unto 
salvation. Not only to Jews, saith the Apostle, but also even Rom 2, 
to Gentiles. For to this end the Stone which the builders set 



156 A late conversion breaks down Jewish pride. 

PsAi.M at nought, liath even been made for the Head of the corner, 
-=-?■ in order that two in Itself It misht join; for a corner doth 

J>g 1 1 g D J 

22. ' unite two walls. The Jews thought themselves exalted 
and great: of the Gentiles they thought as weak, as sinners, 
as the servants of demons, as the worshippers of idols, and 
yet in both was there iniquity. Even the Jews have been 

Ps.l4 3. proved sinners ; because i/iere is none that doetli good, there 
is not even so much as one : they have laid down their pride, 
and have not envied the salvation of the Gentiles, because 
they have known their own and their weakness to be alike : 
and in the Corner Stone being united, they have together 
worshipped the Lord. And they shall /mow that God shall 
have dominion o^ Jacob, and of the ends of the earth. Not 
only of Jews He shall have dominion, but also of the earth : 
which thing they had not known, if they had continued in 
their pride ; but in their pride they would be, if they still 
thought themselves righteous : but in order that they should 
not think themselves righteous, there were 'preached to them 
out of cvu'sing and lying consummations in anger of consum- 
mation ;' because they were taken in their pride, out of the 
curse which they made when Christ they slew. Behold what 
our Lord Jesus Christ hath done. He hath died at the 
hands of the Jews, and hath redeemed the multitude of the 
Gentiles: here was shed the blood, there it profited ; but it 
hath profited all men that have been converted ; because 
even they have acknowledged Him Whom they slew, and 
through Him for that very slaying, and for their great sin, 
they have obtained pardon. 

8. What now then of the men themselves ? The thing 
which hath been spoken of above : (ver. 14.) Thei/ shall be 
converted at evening: that is, even if late, that is, after the 
slaying of our Lord Jesus Christ : Theg shall be converted at 
evening: and hereafter theg shall suffer hanger as dogs. 
But as dogs, not as sheep, or calves : as dogs, as Gentiles, as 
sinners ; because they too have known their sin that thought 
themselves righteous. Of those of whom hath been said in 

Ps. 16.4. another Psalm, Ajter this theg made haste: the same hath 
been said herein, at evening. For in that place it is thus : 
Multiplied were the weaknesses of them, after this they 
made haste. Whence have they made haste after this ? 



Jev^ and Gentile united in mercy through Christ. J 57 

Because multiplied were the weaknesses of them : for if still Ver. 
they thought themselves whole, they never would have made — '- — - 



haste. The thing which therefore hath been implied in, 
' multiplied were the weaknesses of them :' the same hath 
been said here, Let them be taken in their pride, and out of 
cursing and lying shall be declared consummations in the 
anger of consummation. And that which there hath been 
said in, after this they made haste: the same hath been 
said here, And they shall not be, in their pride. And they 
shall know that God shall have dominion of Jacob, and of 
the ends of the world: and tJiey shall be converted at 
evening. It is a good thing therefore for a sinner to be 
humbled ; and no one is more incurable than he that 
thinketh himself whole. And they shall go around the city. 
Already, to wit yesterday, we have explained city ; i! is the see p. 
' city of standing round ;' all nations. 

9. Ver. 15. They shall be scattered abroad in order that 
they may eat ; that is, in order that they may gain others, 
in order that into their Body they may change believers. 
But if they shall not be filled, they shall murmur. Because 
above also he had spoken of the murmur of them, saying, 
For who hath heard? And Thou, O Lord, he ssath, shalt v. 7. 
deride them, saying. Who hath heard f Wherefore? Be- 
cause, as nothing Thou shalt count all nations. So also 
here. But if they shall not be filled, they shall murmur. 

10. Let the Psahn be concluded. See ye the Corner Ephes. 
exulting, now with both walls rejoicing. The Jews were^'^^- 
proud, humbled they have been ; Gentiles were despairing, 
raised up they have been : let them come to the Corner, 
there let them meet, there run together, there find the kiss of 
peace ; from different parts let them come, but with differing 

not come, those of Circumcision, these of uncircumcision. 
Far apart were the walls, but before that to the Corner they 
came : but in the Corner let them hold themselves, and now 
let the whole Church from both walls, say what? (ver. 16.) 
But I will sing of Thy power, and I will exult in the 
morning o/ Thy mercy, lu the morning when temptations 
have been o\ ercome, in the morning when the night of this 
world shall have passed away ; in the morning when no 
longer the lyings in wait of robbers and of the devil and of 



158 Mornhig of Resurrection. God's persevering mercy. 

PsAT.M his angels we dread, in the morning when no longer by the 

- 1 lamp of prophecy we walk, but Himself the Word of God as 
it were a Sun we contemplate. And I will exult in the 
morning of Thy mercy. With reason in another Psalm is 

Ts. 5, 3. said, In the morning I will stand by Tliee, and I will 
meditate. With reason also of the Lord Himself the Resur- 
rection was at dawn, that there should be fulfilled that which 

Ps.30,5, hath been said in another Psalm, In the evening shall tarry 
weeping, and in the morning exultation. For at even the 
disciples mourned our Lord Jesus Christ as dead, at dawn 
at Him rising again they exulted. / icill exult in the 
morning of lliy mercy. 

11. For Thon hast become my taker up, and my refuge in 
the day of my tribulation. (Ver. 17.) My Helper, to Thee 
I will play, because Thou, O God, art my taker up. What 
was I, unless Thou didst succour ? How much despaired of 
was I, unless Thou didst heal? Where was I lying, unless 
Thou didst come to me? Certes with a huge wound I was 
endangered, but that wound of mine did call for an Almighty 
Physician. To an Almighty Physician nothing is incurable. 
He taketh not leave of any one : it is needful that thou 
shouldest wish to be healed, it is needful that from His 
hands thou flee not. But even if thou wouldest not be 
healed, He admonisheth of thy wound that thou mayest be 
healed : and calleth thee back when turned away, and when 
fleeing as it were compelleth thee, and enticeth thee to 
return to Himself In all things He fulfdleth that which 

V. 11. hath been said. His mercy shall prevent me. Think of that 
which hath been said, shall prevent me. If any thing of 
thine thou hast first brought, and by any good thing of thine 
hast merited the mercy of God, then He hath not prevented 
thee. But when dost thou even perceive that prevented 
thou hast been, except thou perceive that which the Aposlle 

1 Cor. saith. For tchat hast thou, which thou hast not received. 
' ■ But if thou hast received, why dost thou glory, as though 
thou hast not received? That is, His mercy shall prevent 
me. Lastly, thinking of all good things whatsoever we may 
have, either in nature or in purpose, or in conversion itself, 
in faith, in hope, in charity, in good morals, in justice, 
in fear of God ; all these to be only by His gifts, he hath 



No merits before Grace. 159 

thus concluded : My God is my mercy. He being filled Ver. 
with the good things of God hath not found what he — ~ 
might call his God, save his mercy. O name, under which 
no one must despair ! 3Ty God, he saith, is my mercy. 
What is, my mercy ? If thou say, my salvation, I per- 
ceive that He givelh salvation ; if thou say, my refuge, I 
perceive that thou takest refuge in Him ; if thou say, 
my strength, I perceive that He giveth to thee strength : 
my mercy, is what? All that I am is of Thy mercy. 
But have I merited of Thee, by calling upon Thee? That 
I should be, what have I done ? That I should be one 
to call upon Thee, what have I performed ? For if I have 
done any thing that I should be, then I was, before I was. 
Moreover if nothing I was before I was, no wise I have 
deserved of Thee, that I should be. Thou hast caused that 
I should be, and hast Thou not caused that good I should 
be ? Thou hast granted to me to be, and could any one 
else grant to me that good I should be ? If Thou to me 
hast gi'anted that I should be, and another to me hath 
granted that good I should be ; better is he that to me hath 
granted that good I should be, than He that to me hath 
granted that I should be. Moreover because than Thou no 
one is better, no one than Thou more mighty, no one than 
Thou in mercy more abundant; from Whom I have received 
that I should be, from the Same I have received that good 
I should be. 3Iy God is my mercy. 



PSALM LX. Lat.' 

LIX. 

EXPOSITION. 



Sermon preached to the people a little while after the exposition of the former 

Psalm. 

1. The title of this Psalm is somewhat long: but let it 
not frighten us, because the Psalm is short. As though 
therefore we had heard a somewhat longer Psalm, thus let us 
attend thereto : forasmuch as to men fed and to be fed in 
the name of Christ we are speaking in the Church of God ; 



160 David's Victories typical of Christ. 

Psalm and to men not aliens to the savour of those writings whereto 

TV 

— "the world is alien, these things ought not alway to be new. 
For if those things which very often ye have heard, with 
pleasantness in the mouth of thought ye have ruminated, and 
have not in forgetfulness as though in belly buried them; 
that very same recollection and memory of yours will be able 
to aid us much, that we may not speak much for the purpose 
of explaining, to persons as if uneducated, those things which 
we know that you know already. Certainly we remember 
that you ofttimes have heard the thing which we are speaking 
of. Scarce is it possible in the Psalms to find any voices, 
but those of Christ and the Church, or of Christ only, or of 
the Church only, which truly in part we also are. And for this 
cause whenever we recognise our voices, without emotion 
recognise them we cannot; and by so much the more we are 
delighted, in proportion as in the same ourselves we feel to 
be. David the king was one man, but not one man he 
figui'ed ; sometimes to wit he figured the Church of many 
men consisting, extended even unto the ends of the earth : 
but sometimes One Man he figured. Him he figured that is 

1 Tim. Mediator of God and men, the Man Christ Jesus. In this 
^' ^- Psalm therefore, or rather in this Psalm's title, certain victo- 
rious actions of David are spoken of, how he had done 
mightily in defeating certain enemies, and in making them 
tributaries ; when after the death of Saul his persecutor, he 
received his kingdom openly over Israel. For even before 
that he was suffering persecution, a king he was, but to God 
alone he was known. Afterwards therefore the kingdom having 
been made known, and visibly and notably received, he 
defeated those that in this title are mentioned ; and the title 
of the Psalm is set down as followeth : To the end, in behalf 
of those men that shall be changed tinio the title's inscription^ 
unto teaching for David himself , when he burned up Me- 
sopotamia in Syria, and Syria Sobal, atid turned Joab, and 

vide smote Edom, in the valley of salt- pits ticclve thousand. We 

2 Sam.8. j.(3af] ^f these things in the books of the Reigns, that all those 

persons whom he hath named, were defeated by David, that 
is, Mesopotamia in Syria, and Syria Sobal, Joab", Edom. 

» He seems to take ' Joab' as in the name of David's officer, but of some 
accusative, as though it were not the conquered nation. 



Titlea of the Paalma adapted to Prophetic sense. 101 

These things were done, and just as they were done, so tliere Title. 
they have been written, so they are read : let him read that 
will. Nevertheless, as the Prophetic Spirit in the Psalms' 
titles is wont to depart somewhat from the expression of 
things done, and to say something which in history is not 
found, and hence rather to admonish us that titles of this 
kind have been written not that we may know things done, 
but that things future may be prefigured ; just as it was said 
that in the presence of Abimelech he ' changed his counte-Ps. 34. 
nance, and let him go, and he departed ;' whereas the Scripture 
of the Reigns sheweth that he did this thing not in the 
presence of Abimelech, but in the presence of king Achish : 2 Sam. 
so also in this title we find something whereby we are advised ' ^ ' 
of some other thing. For in that narrative of wars and mighty 
deeds of king David, where all these nations, of whom we2Sam.8. 
have made mention, were defeated, that he burned up any 
place we read not- But here this thing is inserted for this 
especial reason, that there it is not written that he burned up 
Mesopotamia in Syria, and Syria Sobal. But now let us 
begin to examine these things after the significations of things 
future, and to bring out the dimness of shadows into the light 
of the word. 

2. What is to the end ye know. For the end of the law ^Is rh 
is Christ. Those that are changed ye know. For who but l^-j^^^. 
they that from old life into new do pass? For far be it thatf^™^* 
here a blameable change should be understood. It is not like 
that whereby Adam was changed from righteousness to Gen. 3, 
iniquity, and from delights to toil: but as they are changed ^"~^'' 
to whom hath been said, For ye were sometime darkness, Ephes. 
but now Ihjht in the Lord. But they are changed into the^'^' 
iitle^s inscription. Ye know the title's inscription : a title 
was fixed upon the Cross of the Lord written, This is the Mat. 27, 
King of the Jews: they are changed into this title's ''iscrip- j^'l^^^ 
lion, who into the kingdom of Christ do pass over from the '9, '9- 
kingdom of the devil. It is well that they are changed unto 
this title's inscription. But they are changed, as followeth, 
unto teaching. For when he had said, In behalf of those that 
shall be changed unto the titles inscription : he added, for 
David himself unto teaching : that is, are changed not for 
themselves, but for David himself, and are changed unto 

VOL. III. M 



162 JVhat Christ '■ burns vp^ ' turns to flight,' S^^c. 

Psalm teaching. For Christ is not King in such sort, as if in the 
" 'g - world He were to reign ; inasmuch as openly He said, My 
36. kingdom is not of this world. Therefore into His teaching 
let us pass over, if unto the writing of the title we would be 
changed, not for ourselves, but for David himself: so that 
2CoT.5,theg which live, no longer unto themselves mag lite, but unto 
Him That for them hath died and hath risen again. When 
therefore would Christ have changed us, unless He had done 
Lukel2,that which He spake of. Fire I have come to send info the 
world ? If therefore Christ came to send into the world 
fire, to wit to its health and profit, we must inquire not how 
He is to send the world into fire, but how into the world 
fire. Inasmuch as therefore He came to send fire into the 
world, let us inquire what is Mesopotamia which was burned 
up, what is Syria Sobal ? The interpretations therefore of 
the names let us examine according to the Hebrew language, 
'Aram vvherein first this Scripture was written. Mesopotamia' 
raim. they say is interpreted, exalted calling. Now the whole 
2 Aram vv'orld by calling hath been exalted, Syria^ is interpreted 
Iqftg. But she which was lofty, burned up hath been and 
humbled. Sobal is interpreted empttj antiquity. Thanks 
to Christ that hath burned her. Whenever old bushes are 
burned up, green places succeed ; and more speedily and 
more plentifully, and more iully green, fresh ones spring out, 
when fire hath gone before them to the burning up of the 
old. Let not therefore the fire of Christ be feared, hay it 
Is,40,6. consumeth. For all flesh is hay, and all the glory of man 
as flower of hay. He burneth up therefore those things 
with that fire. And turned Joab. Joab is interpreted 
enemy. There was turned an enemy, as thou wilt under- 
stand it. If turned unto flight, the devil it is: if converted to 
the faith, a Christian it is. How unto flight ? From the 
John 1-2, iieart of a Christian: The Prince of this world. He saitb, 

31. 

now hath been cast out. But how can a Christian turned to 
the Lord be an enemy turned ? Because he hath become a 
believer that had been an enemy. Smote Edom. Edom is 
interpreted earthly. That earthly one ought to be smitten. 
For why should one live earthly, that ought to live heavenly? 
There hath been slain therefore life earthly, let there live life 
1 Cor. heavenly. For as ive har^e borne the linage of the earthly, 



Why Hioelve thousaniV smitten, lohy in ^valley of salt.'' 163 

let i(S bear also the image of Hi7n that is from Heaven. See Ver. 
it slain: Mortifu your members which are upon earth. But^zrj^ 



when he had smitten Edom, he smote twelve thousand in the 3, 5. 
valley of salt- pits. Twelve thousand is a perfect number, to 
which perfect number also the number of the twelve Apostles 
is ascribed : for not to no purpose is it, but because through 
the whole world was to be sent the Word. But the Word of 
God, which is Christ, is in clouds, that is, in the preachers of 
truth. But the world of four parts doth consist. The four 
parts thereof are exceeding well known to all, and often in 
the Scriptures they are mentioned : they are the same as the 
names of the four winds, East, West, North, and South. To Ezek. 

• . . 37 9 

all these four parts was sent the Word, so that in the Trinity ' 

all might be called. The number twelve four times three do 
make. With reason therefore twelve thousand earthly things 
were smitten, the whole world was smitten: for from the 
whole world was chosen out the Church, mortified from 
earthly life. Why in the valley of salt-pits ? A valley is 
humility: salt-pits signify savour. For many men are 
humbled, but emptily and foolishly, in empty oldness they 
are humbled. One sufFereth tribulation for money, sufTereth 
tribulation for temporal honour, suffereth tribulation for the 
comforts of this life ; he is to suffer tribulation and to be 
humbled : why not for the sake of God ? why not for the 
sake of Christ? why not for the savour of salt? Knowest 
thou not that to thee hath been said, Ye are the salt of earth, Matt. 5, 
and, If the salt shall have been spoiled, for no other thing 
will it he of use, but to be cast out ? A good thing it is 
therefore wisely to be humbled. Behold now are not heretics 
being humbled ? Have not laws been made even by men to 
condemn them, against whom divine laws do reign, which 
even before had condemned them ? Behold they are h umbled, 
behold they are put to flight, behold persecution they suffer, 
but without savour; for folly, for emptiness. For now the 
salt hath been spoiled : therefore it hath been cast out, to be 
trodden down of men. We have heard the title of the 
Psalm, let us hear also the words of the Psalm. 

3. Ver. 1. Qod, Thou hast driven us back, and hast de- 
stroyed us. Is that David speaking that smote, that burned 
up, that defeated, and not they to whom lie did these things, 

M 2 



164 God overthrmvs in mercy ^ to restore. 

Psalm that is to say, tlieir hv'wj sinitlcn and driven back, that were 

LX. . ' . 

— ^-^evil men, and again their being made alive and returning 

in order that they might be good men? That destruction 

indeed That David made, strong of hand, our Christ, whose 

figure that man was bearing ; He did those tilings, lie made 

this destruction with His sword and with His fire: for both 

L^ukel2, jjg brought into this world. Both Fire I am come to 

MsLt.10, sold into the world, thou hast in the Gospel: and, A 

sword I have come to send into the earth, ihou hast in 

the Gospel. He brought in fire, whereby might be burned 

up Mesopotamia in Syria, and Syria Sobal : He brought in 

a sword whereby might be smitten Edom. Now again this 

destruction was made for the sake of ' those that are changed 

unto the title's inscription.' Hear we therefore the voice of 

them : to their health smitten they were, being raised up let 

them speak. Let them say, therefore, that are changed into 

something better, changed unto the title's inscription, changed 

unto teaching for David himself; let them say, God, Thou 

host driven tis back, atid hast destroyed us: anyry TJiou 

hast been, and liast had mercy on us. Thou hast destroyed 

ns, in order that Thou mightest build us; Thou hast 

destroyed us that were ill builded, hast destroyed empty 

oldness ; in order that there may be a building unto a new 

man, building to abide for everlasting. Deservedly anyry 

Thou hast been, Thou hast had mercy on us. Thou wouldest 

not have had mercy, nnless Thou hadst been angry. Thou 

hast destroyed us in Thy anger: but Thy anger against our 

oldness hath been, in order that the oldness might be 

destroyed. ]>ut Thou hast had mercy nj)on us because of 

nevvness, because of those that are changed unto the title's 

2 Cor. inscription : because even if our outward man is wasted, 

' * yet our inward man is renewed from day to day. 

4. Ver. 2. IViou hast moved the earth, and hast troubled 

it. How hath the earth been troubled ? In the conscience 

of sinners. Whither go we ? whither (lee we, when this 

Matt.3, sword hath been brandished, ^ Do penance, /or near hath 

drawn the kinydom of Heaven T Thou hast moved the 

^ contri- earth, and hast troubled it. Heal the crushinys^ thereof, 

times, j.^^ moved it hath been. Unworthy it is to be healed, if 

moved it hath not been : but thou speakest, preachest, 



^ Hard things' appointed for God's oicn People. 1C5 

threatenest us with God, of coming judgment boldest not Vfr. 
thy peace, of the commandment of God thou warnest, from — _1- 
these things thou abstainest not; and be that beareth, if he 
feareth not, if he is not moved, is not worthy to be healed. 
Another hearelh, is moved, is stung, smiteth the breast, 
sheddeth tears : Heal the crushinrjs thereof^ for moved it is. 

5. After these things, the earthly one smitten, oldness 
burned up, man changed into something better, those made 
light that were darkness, there followeth that which else- 
where hath been written, My son, drawing near to the Ecdus. 
service of God, stand in righteousness and fear, and prepare ' ^' 
thy soul for temptation. The first labour is, that thou 
shouldest be displeasing to thyself, that sins thou shouldest 
battle out, that thou shouldest be changed into something 
better : the second labour, in return for thy having been 
changed, is to bear the tribulations and temptations of this 
world, and amid them to hold on even unto the end. Of 
these things therefore when he was speaking, while pointing 

out such things, he addeth what ? (Ver. 3.) Thou hast shewn 
to Thy people hard things: to Thy people now, made 
tributary after the victory of David. Thou hast shewn to 
Thy jjeople hard things. Wherein ? In persecutions which 
the Church of Christ hath endured, when so much blood of 
martyrs was spilled. Thou hast shewn to Thy people hard 
things. Thou hast given us to drink of the wine of goading. 
Of goading is what ? Not of killing. For it was not a 
killing that destroyeth, but a medicine that smarteth '. Thou » lit. 
liast given us to drink of the nine of goading. ,"™" 

6. Wherefoi-e this? (Ver. 4.) Thou hast given to men 
fearing Thee, a sign that they should Jlee from the face of 

the how. Through tribulations temporal, he saith, Thou 
hast signified to Thine own to flee from the wrath of fire 
everlasting. For, saith the Apostle Peter, Time it is that \ pet. 
Judgment begin with the House of God. And exhorting'*' ^^' 
the Martyrs to endurance, when the world should rage, 
when slaughters should be made at the hands of persecutors, 
when far and wide blood of believers should be spilled, when 
in chains, in prisons, in tortures, many hard things Christians 
should suffer, in these hard things, I say, lest they should 
faint, Peter saith to them. Time it is that Judgment begin 



166 Merciful threatening. iVliat prayer ensures a hearing. 

PsAiM tcith the House of God; and if a beginning there he with us, 

—what sort of end shall be to them that believe not the Gospel 

1 Vet. 4, of God? and if a just man scarce shall be saved, ichere shall 
the sinner and the ungodly man appear? Wliat therefore 
is to be in the Judgment? Tlie bow is bended, still in 
menacing posture it is, not yet in aiming. And see what 
there is in the bow : is there not an arrow to be shot for- 
ward? The string however is stretched back in a contrary 
direction to that in which it is to be shot ; and the more 
the stretching thereof hath gone backward, with the greater 
swiftness it starteth forward. What is it that I have said ? 
The more the Judgment is deferred, with so much the greater 
swiftness it is to come. Therefore even for temporal tribula- 
tions to God let us render thanks, because He hath given to 
His people a sign, that they should Jlee from the face of the 
bow : in order that His faithful ones having been exercised 
in tribulations temporal, may be worthy to avoid the con- 
demnation of fire everlasting, which is to find out all them 
til at do not believe these things. Tliou hast given to men 
fearing Thee a sign that they should flee from the face of the 
bow. 

7. Ver. 5. That Thy beloved may be delivered: save me 
irith Thy right hand, and hearken unto me. With Thy 
right hand save me, Lord : so save me as that at the right 
hand I may stand. Save me tcith Thy right hand: not any 
safety temporal I require, in this matter Thy Will be done. 
Rom. 8, For a time what is good for us we are utterly ignorant : for 
'what wo should pray for as we ought we know not:' but save 
me with Thy right hand, so that even if in this time I suffer 
sundry tribulations, when the night of all tribulations hath 
been spent, on the right hand I may be found among the 
Mat.25, sheep, not on the left hand among the goats. Save me icith 
Thy right hand, and hearken unto me. Because now I am 
Ps 22.2. deserving that which Thou art willing to give; not * with the 
words of my transgressions' I am crying through the day, so 
that Thou hearken not, and * in the night so that Thou 
hearken not, and that not for folly to me,' but truly for my 
warning, by adding savour from the valley ol" salt-pits, so 
that in tribulation 1 may know what to ask : but 1 ask life 
everlasting; therefore hearken unto mc, Ijccausc Thy right 



God's promise in Christ cannot fail us. 167 

hand I ask. Let therefore Your Love understand, how every Vek. 

faithful man having in heart the Word of God with fear, '- — 

fearing Judgment to come, hving commendably, so that 
because of him the holy name of his Lord be not evil spoken 
of, imploreth many things after the world's way and is not 
hearkened unto ; but for life everlasting always is hearkened 
unto. For what man would not ask for health, when he 
is sick ? And yet perchance to be sick is good for 
him. It may be that on this point thou art not hearkened 
to : nevertheless, thou art not hearkened to at thy desire, in 
order that thou mayest be hearkened to for thy profit. But 
truly when this thing thou askest, that God should give to 
thee life everlasting, that God should give to thee the king- 
dom of Heaven, that He should give to thee at the right 
hand of His Son to stand, when He shall have come to judge 
the earth, without care be thou, thou shalt receive, if now 
thou receivest not: for not yet hath come the time that thou 
shouldest receive. Thou art hearkened unto and knowest 
not : what thou askest is doing, even if thou knowest not 
wherein it is doing. In the root the thing is, not yet in fruit. 
Save me with Thy right hand, and hearken unto vie. 

8. Ver. 6. God hath spoken in His Holy One. Why 
fearest thou that there come not to pass that which God 
hath spoken ? If thou shouldest have any friend stern and 
wise, how wouldest thou say ? He hath spoken these things, 
there must needs come to pass that which he hath spoken : 
the man is stern, no levity he useth, not easily from his 
resolution is he moved aside, that which he hath promised 
is steel fast. But nevertheless a human being he is, that 
sometimes willeth to do that which he hath promised, and is 
not able. Of God there is not any thing that thou mayest 
fear; that truthful He is, is certain; that Almighty He is, is 
certain ; to deceive thee He is not able, He hath means 
whence He may perform. Why then fearest thou lest thou be 
beguiled ? It is needful that thou beguile not thine own self, 
and that thou pei'severe even unto the end, when He is to 
give that which He hath promised. God hath spoken in 
His Holy One. In what Holy One of His? God was in2CoT.5, 
Christ reconciling the ivorld to Himself. In that Holy One, 
of whom elsewhere ye have heard, " O God, in the Holy One^s. 77, 



1 (>8 The Church divideth the Gentiles, some accepting the yoke. 

rsAi.M is Thy tniy.'' Ood hath spoken in His Holy One. I will 
— ~- rejoice and will dioide Sichima. IJccaiise God hath spoken 
this thing, it will be done : the voice of the Church is, God 
hath spoken in His Holy One ; she sailh not the words which 
(Jod hath spoken, but because God hath spoken in His 
Holy One; nor can there be done any thing, except after the 
uiainier that God hath spoken ; in consequence those things 
come forth : / tvill rejoice, and I will divide Sichima, and 
the valley of tabernacles I xoill measure out. Sichima is 
inter|)reled shoulders. But according to history, Jacob 
returning from Laban his father in law with all his kindred, 
Gen. 35 ^^i*^ ^hc idols in Sichima which he had from Syria, where for 
^- a long time he had dwelled, and at length was coming from 

thence. But tabernacles he made there because of his sheep 
'Suceothand herds, and called the place Tabernacles'. And these 
I will divide, saith the Church. What is this, / will divide 
Sichima ? If to the story where the idols were hidden is the 
reference, the Gentiles it signifieth ; I divide the Gentiles. 
2 Tliess. I divide, is what? For not in all men is there J'aith. I divide, 
"^' ^* is what ? Some will believe, others will not believe : but 
nevertheless let them not fear that believe, among them that 
Mat. 25, believe not. For divided they are even now in faith, here- 
after there shall be divided in the Judgment, sheep on the 
right hand, goats on the left. Behold we find in what 
manner the Church divideth Sichima. How doth it divide 
the shoulders, according to the interpretation of the name? 
The shoulders are divided, in order that their sins may 
burthen some men, while others may take up the burden of 
Christ. For godly shoulders He was requiring when lie 
Mat. 1 1 , said. For My yoke is yentle, and My burden is liyht. Another 
burden oppresseth and loadelh thee, but Christ's burden 
relieveth thee : another burden hath weight, Christ's burden 
hath wings. For even if thou pull off the wings from a bird, 
thou dost remove a kind of weight; and the more weight 
thou hast taken away, the more on earth it will abide. She 
that thou hast chosen to disburden lieth (here : she flietli 
nut. because thou hast taken off a weight : let there be given 
back the weight, and she flieih. Such is Christ's burden; 
let men carry it, and not be idle : let them not be heeded 
lliat will not bear it; kt them bear it that will, and they 



The Church'' s ' Heap of Testimony' in her martyrs. 169 
shall find how lighi it is, how sweet, how pleasant, how Ver. 



ravishing unto Heaven, and from earth how transporting: 
/ will divide Sichima, and the valley of tabernacles I will 
measure out. Perchance because of the sheep of Jacob, the 
valley of tabernacles is to be understood of the nation of the 
Jews, and the same is divided : for they have passed from 
thence that have believed, the rest have remained without. 

9. Ver. 7. Mine is Galaad. These names are read in the 
Scriptures of God. Galaad hath the voice of an interpre- 
tation of its own and of a great Mystery: for it is interpreted 
the heap of testimony. How great a heap of testimony in 
the Martyrs? Mine is Galaad, mine is a heap of testimony, 
mine are the true Martyrs. Let others die for their ancient 
emptijiess saltless, do they belong to the heap of testimony? 
For even, if I shall have given up my body. so that I be^^or. 
burned, but have not love, it projiteth me nothing. But * 
when in a certain place the Lord was admonishing of keeping 
peace. He put salt before: Have, He saith, in your selves Maxk 9, 
salt, and peace have ye among yourselves. Therefore, mine ' 
■is Galaad ; but Galaad, that is, a heap of witness, in great 
tribulation evidently hath been made. Then meanly esteemed 
was the Church among men, then reproach on Her a Widow 
was being thrown, because Christ's She was, because the 
sign of the Cross on her brow She was wearing: not yet was 
there honour, censure there was then : when therefore not 
honour, but censure there was, then was made a heap of 
witness; and through the heap of witness was the Love 
of Christ enlarged ; and through the enlargement of the 
Love of Christ, were the Gentiles possessed. There 
followeth. And mine is Manasses; which is interpreted 
forgotten. For to Her had been said, Confusion, for ever- Ia.54,4. 
lasting Thou shall forget, and of the reproach of Thy 
tvidowhood Thou shall not be mindful. There was therefore 
a confusion of the Church once, which now hath been for- 
gotten : for of Her confusion and of the reproach of Her 
widowhood now She is not mindful. For when there was a 
sort of confusion among men, a heap of witness was made. 
Now no longer doth any even remember that confusion, when 
it was a reproach to be a Christian, now no one remembereth, 
now all have forgotten, now 3Iine is Blanassea^ and Ephraim 



170 Christ fruitful by His Death. The Church 

Psalm the strength of 3Iy head. Epliraim is interpreted fruitful- 

'- ness. Mine, he saith, is fruitfulness, and this f'ruitfulness is 

the strength of My Head. For My Head is Christ. And 
John 12, whence is fruitfulness the strength of Him ? Because unless 

24 • 

a gram were to fall into the earth, it would not be multiplied, 

alone it would remain. Fall then to earth did Christ in His 

Passion, and there followed fruit-bearing in the Resurrection. 

And Ephraim is the strength of My Head. He was hanging 

and was being despised : the grain was within, it had powers 

to draw after it all things. How in a grain do numbers of 

seeds lie hid, something abject it appeareth to the eyes, but 

' vis a power' turning into itself matter and bringing forth fruit 

2 virtus is hidden ; so in Christ's Cross virtue - was hidden, there 

appeared weakness. O mighty grain ! Doubtless weak is He 

that hangeth, Doubtless before Him that people did wag the 

Mat.27, head. Doubtless they said. If Son of God He is, let Him 

1 Cor. 1 ^ome down from the Cross. Hear the strength of Him : that 

25. which is a weak thing of God, is stronger than men. With 

reason so great fruitfulness hath followed : it is mine, saith 

the Church. 

10. Ver. 7. Juda is my king: Moab the pot of my hope. 

' Juda is my king:'' what Juda ? He that is of the tribe of 

Gen.49,Juda. What Juda, but He to whom Jacob himself said, 

^' ' Juda, thy brethren shall praise thee^ Juda is my king. 

What therefore should I fear, when Juda my king saith, 

Mat. 10, * Fear not them that kill the hodyV Juda is my king: Moab 

^^* the pot of 7ny hope. Wherefore ^?o^ ? Because tribulation. 

Wherefore uj^ my hope ? Because there hath gone before 

Juda my king. For where He halh gone before, why fearest 

thou to follow ? Where hath He gone before ? Through 

tribulations, through straits, through reproaches. Fenced 

was the way, but only before He passed along: now that He 

hath passed along, follow, now the way is open by His 

Ps. 14 1, passing along. Single 1 am. He saith, but until that I p)ass 

^^- along: single is the grain, but until it pass along: when it 

hath passed along, there will follow fruitfulness. Juda is my 

king. Therefore because Juda is my king : Moab is the pot 

of my hope. Moab is perceived in the Gentiles. For that 

Gen.U), iiation was bora of sin, that nation was born of the daughters 

^'^' of Lot, who lay with their father drunken, abusing a father. 



with Him for her King^ hopeth when tried by the wicked. 171 

Better were it to have remained barren, than thus to have Ver. 

7 
become mothers. But this was a kind of figure of them that ^— 

abuse the law. For do not heed that law in the Latin lan- 
guage is of the feminine gender: in Greek of the masculine 
gender it is : but whether it be of the feminine gender in 
speaking, or of the masculine, the expression maketh no 
difference to the truth. For law hath rather a masculine 
force, because it ruleth, is not ruled. But moreover, the 
Apostle Paul saith what? Good is the law, if any one use iti Tim. 
lawfully. But those daughters of Lot unlawfully used their ' 
father. But in the same manner as good works begin to 
grow when a man useth well the law : so arise evil works, 
when a man ill useth the law. Furthermore, they ill using 
their father, that is, ill using the law, engendered the Moab- 
ites, by whom are signified evil works. Thence the tribula- 
tion of the Church, thence the pot boiling up. Of this pot 
in a certain place of prophecy is said, A pot heated hy the 3erem. 
North wind. Whence but by the quarters of the devil, who ' 
hath said, / will set my seat at the North ? The chiefest Is. u, 
tribulations therefore arise against the Church from none 
except from those that ill use the law. What then ? Is the 
Church hence to fall off: and because of a pot, that is, abun- 
dance of offences, will She not persevere even unto the end? 
Hath not Juda Her King foretold this unto Her ! Doth He 
not say to Her, Because iniquity shall abound, the love of Ma,t.24, 
many shall grow cold? With boiling pot love groweth cold. ^' 
Wherefore the rather dost not thou, O love, against the pot 
grow warm ? Art thou ignorant that to thee hath been said, 
when of that abundance of offences Thy King was speaking. 
He that shall have persevered unto the end, the same shall 
be saved? Persevere therefore even unto the end against the 
pot of offences. The pot of iniquity is hot, but mightier is 
the flame of love. Be not conquered, but persevere even 
unto the end. Why fearest thou the Moabites, the evil 
works of them that ill use the law? For why? Did not 
Juda thy king, that hath gone before, endure such men ? 
Knowest thou not that the Jews by ill using the law slew 
Christ? Therefore hope' thou; and where thy king \\dit\\^ speed 
gone before, follow. Say, Juda is my king. And for that jjy'^^jjj.^ 
Juda is my king, Moab hath been made what? The pot of 



172 Eartldy Edomites under Chrisfsfeet. 

FsALM my hope, not of my consuming. See in tribulations the pot 
' of hope, hear the Apostle : But also we (jlory, he saith, 



3. ' ' in tribulation. The pot there is already, but attend to this 
man, and see whether he explaincth the pot of hope. 
Knowing that tribulation worketh j)o.tience, but patience 
jirobation, probation hope. If tribulation patience, patience 
probation, ])robation hope, and the pot is the tribulation 
which worketh hope : with good reason, ' Moab is the pot of 
my hope.'' ' But hope con/oundeth not.'' And why ? Dost 
thou boil against the pot ? Yea evidently. For the love of 
God hath been shed abroad in our hearts through the Holy 
Spirit that hath been given unto us. 

11. Vcr. 8. Into Idumcca I will stretch out my shoe. 
The Church speaketh, / icill come through even unto 
Idumcca. Let tribulations rage, let the world boil with 
offences, / will stretch out my shoe even unto IdumcBa, even 
unto those very persons, that lead an earthly life, (for Idumoea 
is interpreted earthly,) even unto these same, even unto 
Idumcca, I will stretch out my shoe. Of what thing the 
lioni. shoe except of the Gospel? How beautifid the feet of them 
E 'lies ^^^^ '^^^ of jjeace, that tell of good things, and the feet shod 
6, 15. unto the preparation of the Gospjcl of peace. In a word, 
Rom. 5 since tribulation worketh patience, but patience probation, 
3. &c. probation liope, the pot shall not consume me : for the love 
of God hath been shed abroad in our hearts through the 
Holy Spirit that hath been given unto us. Let us not cease 
to preach the Gospel, let us not cease to tell of the Lord. 
Eve7i unto Idumcca 1 will stretch out my shoe. Do not 
even the very earthly men serve ? Even if with earthly 
desires they are bound, yet Christ they adore. In these 
times we see, brethren, how many earthly men do perpetrate 
frauds for the sake of gain, for frauds ])cr)uries; on account 
of their fears they consult fortune-tellers, astrologers : all 
these men are Edomites, earthly; and nevertheless all these 
men adore Christ, under His own shoe they are ; now even 
unto Idumffia is stretched out His shoe. To 3Ie Allophyli 
have been made subject. Who are Allophyli? Men of 
other race, not belonging to My race. Tliey have been made 
subject, because many men adore Christ, and are not to ixign 
with Christ. To 3Ie Allophyli have been made subject. 



TTie Church longs for GocVs help amidst the world. 173 

12. Ver. 9. Who will lead Me down into the city of Ver. 
standing round? What is the city of standing round ? If ' -- 
ye remember already, I have made mention thereof in 59. Part 
another Psalm, wherein hath been said, And they shall go ^^'^^^^' 
around the city. For the city of standing round is the 
compassing around of the Gentiles, which compassing 
around of the Gentiles in the middle thereof had the 
one nation of the Jews, worshippnig one God : the rest 
of the compassing around of the Gentiles to idols made 
supplication, demons they did serve. And mystically it was 
called the city of standing round ; because on all sides the 
Gentiles had poured themselves around, and had stood 
around that nation which did worship one God. Who will 
lead me down into the city of standing around ? Who, but 
God ? This is meant to express, even as He shall lead 
down through those clouds, Avhereof hath been said, The Ps, 7; 
voice of Thy thunder is in the wheel. The wheel itself is ^^* 
the city of standing round, which hath been called a vvlieel, 
that is, the round world. Who will lead me down into the 
city of standing around? who will lead me down even unto 
IdumcBa? that is, so that I may reign even over earthly men, 
so that even they may venerate Me, that of Me are not, that 
will not learn of Me. 

13. Who will lead me down even unto Idumcoa? (Ver. 10.) 
Wilt not Thou, God, That hast driven us back? And wilt 
not Thou, O God, march forth in our powers ? Wilt not 
Thou lead us down. That hast driven us back ? But where- 
fore ' hast driven us back?' Because Thou hast destroyed v. 1 . 
us. Wherefore hast destroyed us ? Because angry Thou 
hast been, and hast had ])ity on us. Thou therefore wilt 
lead down, That hast driven back ; Thou, O God, that wilt 
not march forth in our powers, wilt lead down. What is, 
wilt not march forth in our powers^ The world is to rage, 
the world is to tread us down, there is to be a heap of wit- 
ness, builded of the spilled blood of martyrs, and the raging 
heathen are to say. Where is the God of them ? Then Thou Ps. 79 
wilt not march forth in our jwwers : against them Thou wilt ^^• 
not shew Thyself, Thou wilt not shew Thy power, such as 
Thou hast shewn in David, in Moses, in Joshua tlie son of 
Nun, when to their might the Gentiles yielded, and when the 



174 God with His Church, thouyh He shew not Himself. 

Psalm slaughter had been ended, and tl)e great laying waste re- 

^^- paired, into the land which Thou promisedst Thou leddest 

in Thy people. This thing then Thou wilt not do, T/imt 

ivilt not march forth in our powers, but within Thou wilt 

work. What is, wilt not inarch forth ? Wilt not shew 

Thyself. For indeed when in chains the Martyrs were being 

led along, when they were being shut up in prison, when 

they were being led forth to be mocked, when to the beasts 

' subri- they were exposed^, when they were being smitten with the 

fur.'*" sword, when with fire they were being burned, were they not 

despised as though forsaken, as though without helper ? In 

what manner was God working within ? in what manner 

within was He comforting! in what manner to these men 

was He making sweet the hope of life everlasting ? in what 

manner was He not forsaking the hearts of them, where the 

3 Oxf. man was dwelling- in silence, well if good, ill if evil ? Was 

f^,®^; ,, He then by any means forsaking, because He was not march- 

eth.' ing forth in the powers' of them ? By not marching forth in 

'hosts' ^^^ powers of them, did He not the more lead down the 

(virtuti- Church even unto Idumcca, lead down the Church even unto 

the city of standing round ? For if the Church chose to war 

and to use the sword, She would seem to be fighting for life 

present: but because she was despising life present, therefore 

there was made a heap of witness for the life that shall be. 

14. Thou therefore, O God, that wilt not march forth in 
our powers, (ver. 11.) Give to us aid from tribulation, and 
vain is the safety of man. Go now they that salt have not, 
and desire safety temporal for their friends, which is empty 
oldncss. Give to us aid: from thence whence Thou wast 
supposed to forsake, thence succour. Give to us aid from 
tribulation, and vain is the safety of man. 
* virdi- 15. Ver. 12. In God ice will do valour\ and Himself to 
'<^'"- nothing shall bring down our enemies. We will not do 
valour with the sworrl, not with horses, not with breast- 
plates, not with shields, not in the mightiness of an army, 
not abroad. But where? Within, where we are not seen. 
Where within ? In God we ivill do virtue: and as if abjects, 
and as if trodden down, men as if of no consideration we 
shall be, but Himself to nothing shall bring down our 
enemies. In a Avord, this thing hath been done to our 



One Christ speaketh in His wliole Body. 175 

enemies. Trodden down have been the Martyrs : by suffer- Ver. 
ing, by enduring, by persevering even unto the end, in God — : — - 
ihey have done valour. Himself also hath done that which 
followeth : to nothing He hath brought down the enemies of 
them. Where are now the enemies of the Martyrs, except 
perchance that now drunken men with their cups do per- 
secute those, whom at that time phrensied men did use with 
stones to persecute ? 



PSALM LXI. Lat. 

LX. 



EXPOSITION. 



Sermon to the Commonalty. 

1. The above Psalm with your Love we have undertaken 
to consider. Short it is, the Lord will be with us, to enable 
us to speak sufficiently and briefly upon it. As far as 
Himself shall have aided that biddeth us to speak, so will I 
be to the willing subservient, as that I be not to them that 
are dull, tedious, nor to (so) few, overmuch, nor to the 
engaged, burdensome. The title of it doth not detain us. 
For it is Unto the end, in hymns, to David himself. In 
hymns, to wit in praises. Unto the end, to wit unto Christ. 
Fo7- the end of the lata is Christ, for righteousness to every 'R.om.iQ ^ 
one that believeth. And David himself as no other ought ' 
we to understand than the same Who came out of the seed 
of David, so that He might be Man among men, and might Mat. 1, 
make men equal to angels. But the voice in this Psalm (if ^' 
we are among the members of Him, and in the Body, even as 
upon His exhortation we have the boldness to trust) we ought 
to acknowledge to be our own, not that of any foreigner. 
But 1 have not so called it our own, as if it were of those 
only that are now in presence ; but our own, as being of us 
that are throughout the whole world, that are from the East 
even unto the West. And in order that ye may know it 
thus to be our voice. He speaketh here as if one Man : but 
He is not One Man ; but even as One, the Unity is speak- 



17() Christ throughout the loorld in glory yet in trouble. 

PsAUM ing. But in Christ we all arc one man : because of this 
■ One Man the Head is in Heaven, and the members are yet 
toiling on earth : and because they are toiling see what He 
'or, saith'. 

gay' 2. Ver. 1. Hearken, Gody to my supplication, give heed 

M"-^- to my prayer. Who saith? He, as if One. See whether 
one: (ver. 1.) From the ends of the earth to Thee I have cried, 
while my heart was being vexed. Now therefore not one : 
but for this reason one, because Christ is One, of Whom all 
we are the members. For what one man crieth from the 
ends of the earth ? There crieth not from the ends of the 
earth any but that inheritance, of which hath been said to 
Ps. 2, 8. the Son Himself, Demand of Me, and 1 tvi/l give to Thee the 
nations for Thine inheritance, and for Thy possession the 
boundaries of the earth. This therefore Christ's possession, 
this Christ's inheritance, this Christ's Body, this Christ's one 
Church, this the Unity which we are, is crying from the ends 
of the earth. But is crying what.'' That whereof I have 
spoken above, Hearken, O God, to my supplication, give 
heed to my prayer: from the ends of tlie earth to Thee I 
have cried. That is, this thing to Thee I have cried : from 
the end'i of the earth, that is, every where. 

3. But wherefore have I cried this thing ? While my 
heart was being vexed. He sheweth himself to be through- 
out all nations in the whole round world, in great glory, but 
in great tribulation. For our life in this sojourning cannot 
be without temptation: because our advance is made through 
our temptation, nor does a man become known to himself 
unless tempted, nor can he be crowned except he shall 
have conquered, nor can he conquer except he shall have 
striven, nor can he strive except he shall have experienced 
an enemy, and temptations. This Man therefore is being 
vexed, that from the ends of the earth is crying, but never- 
theless He is not forsaken. For ourselves who are His Body 
He hath willed to prefigure also in that His Body wherein 
already He hath both died and hath risen again, and into 
Heaven hath ascended, in order that whither the Head hath 
gone before, tliither the members may be assured that they 
shall follow. Therefore us He did transfer by a figure into 
Himself, when He willed to be tempted of Satan. IJut now 



Christ the Rock on which the Church is exalted. 177 

there was being read in the Gospel, how the Lord Jesus Ver. 
Christ in the wilderness was being tempted of the devil. 



Christ entirely was tempted of the devil. For in Christ Matt. 4, 
thou wast being tempted, because Christ of thee had for 
Himself flesh, of Himself for thee salvation ; of thee for 
Himself death, of Himself for thee life; of thee for Himself 
revilings, of Himself for thee honours; therefore of thee for 
Himself temptation, of Himself for thee victory. If in Him 
tempted we have been, in Him we overcome the devil. 
Dost thou observe that Christ was tempted, and dost thou 
not observe that He conquered? Acknowledge thyself in 
Him tempted, and in Him acknowledge thyself conquering. 
He was able from Himself to keep away the devil: but if 
He were not tempted, to thee that must be tempted the 
lesson of conquering He had failed to give. Therefore it is 
no wonder, if that Man being set amid temptations is crying 
from the ends of the earth. But wherefore is he not being 
conquered ? On the Rock Thou hast exalted me. Now 
therefore here we perceive who is crying from the ends 
of the earth. Let us call to mind the Gospel: Upon thisMat.ie, 
Rock I irill build My Church. I'herefore She crieth from ' 
the ends of the earth, whom He hath willed to be builded 
upon a Rock. But in order that the Church might be 
builded upon the Rock, who was made the Rock ? Hear 
Paul saying: But the Rock was Christ. On Him therefore i Cor. 
builded we have been. For this reason that Rock whereon ' 
we have been builded, first hath been smitten with winds. Matt. 7, 
flood, rain, when Christ of the devil was being tempted. ^^* 
Behold on what firmness He hath willed to stablish thee. 
With reason our voice is not in vain, but is hearkened unto : 
for on great hope we have been set: On the Rock Thou 
hast exalted me. 

4. Ver. 3. Thou hast led me dou-n, because Thou hast been 
made my hope. If He had not been made our own hope, He 
would not have led us down. He leadelh down as being a 
Leader, and on Himself leadeth as being the Way, and to 
Himself leadeth home as being the Country. He leadeth 
us down therefore. Wherefore? Because He hath been 
made our hope. Whence hath been made our hope ? Be- 
hold, in the same manner as ye have heard that He was 

VOL. III. N 



1 78 Christ made our ' Hope' hy going before us. 

Psalm tempted, that He suffered, that He rose again, even so He 

T -V" T 

hath been made our hope. For what do vce say to ourselves 

when we read of these things ? God indeed will not destroy 
us for whose sake He hath sent His Son, to be tempted, to 
be crucified, to die, to rise again : for truly God doth not 

Rom. 8, despise us, for whose sake His own Son He hath not spared, 
but for us all hath delivered Him up. Thus therefore He 
hath been made our hope. In Him thou seest both thy 
labour and thy reward; labour in His Passion, reward in 
His resurrection. Thus therefore He hath been made our 
hope. For we have two lives; but one wherein we are, the 
other for which we hope. That wherein we are is known 
to us: that for which we hope is to us unknown. Endure 
that wherein thou art, and thou shalt have that which not 
yet thou hast. How dost thou endure .'' So that thou be 
not conquered by temptations. By His labours, temptations, 
sufferings, by His death, Christ hath pointed out to thee the 
life wherein thou art : by His Resurrection hath pointed out 
to thee the life wherein thou shalt be. For we had known 
man be born and die ; man rising and living for everlasting 
we had not known: He took u]3on Him that which thou 
knewest, and shewed to thee that which thou knewest not. 
For this reason therefore He was made our hope in tribula- 

Eora. 5, tions, in temptations. See the Apostle saying: Not tins 
~ * alone, hut toe glory also in tribulations, he saith, knowing 
that tribulation worketh patience, patience probation, pro- 
bation hope, but hope confoundelh not: for the lore of God 
hath been shed abroad in our hearts through the Holy Spirit 
that hath been given to us. Therefore Himself hath been 

Rom.8, niade our hope That hath given to us the Holy Spirit, and 
we walk now by hope; for we should not walk, unless we 
hoped. The Apostle Himself saith what? For that which 
a man seeth, why dot It he hope for? But if thai ichich ue 
see not we hope for, by patience we wait for it. And again, 
For by hope we have been saved. 

5. Thou hast led me down, because Thou hast been made 
my hope: a tower of strength from the face of the enemy. 
My heart is vexed, saith that Unity from the ends of the 
earth, and I toil amid temptations and offences: the heathen 
envy, because they have been conquered ; the heretics lie in 



How tojly to Christ as a Toioer of strength. 179 

wait, hidden in the cloak of the Christian name : within in Ver. 
the Church itself the wheat sufFereth violence from the chaff: — ^ 
amid all these things when my heart is vexed, I will cry 
from the ends of the earth. But there forsaketh me not the 
Same that hath exalted me upon the Rock, in order to lead 
me down even unto Himself, because even if I labour, while 
the devil through so many places and times and occasions 
lieth in wait against me, FJe is to me a tower of strength, 
to whom when I shall have fled for refuge, not only I shall 
escape the weapons of the enemy, but even against him 
securely I shall myself hurl whatever darts I shall please. 
For Christ Himself is the tower. Himself for us hath been made 
a tower from the face of the enemy, who is also the Rock where- 
on hath been builded the Church. Art thou taking heed that 
thou be not smitten of the devil.? Flee to the Tower; never 
to that Tower will the devil's darts follow tliee: there thou wilt 
stand protected and fixed. But in what manner shalt thou 
flee to the Tower ? Let not a man, set perchance in tempt- 
ation, in body seek that Tower, and when he shall not have 
found it, be wearied, or faint in temptation. Before thee is 
the Tower : call to mind Christ, and go into the Tower. 
How dost thou call to mind Christ, in order that thou mayest 
go into the tower ? Whatever thou sufferest, meditate how 
He first hath suffered, and meditate with what end He 
suffered, to wit, that He should die and should rise again. 
For such an end do thou also hope, as in Him hath gone 
before, and thou hast gone into the Tower by not assenting 
to the enemy. For if thou shalt have assented to tlie enemy, 
then unto thee hath reached tlie dart of him fighting against 
thee. Do thou rather against him hurl weapons, wherewith 
he may be smitten, wherewith he maybe conquered. These 
weapons are what ? The words of God, thy faith, that same 
hope of thine, good works. I say not, so stay in that Tower 
as to be idle there, and let it suffice for thee that the enem3'''s 
weapons reach thee not: do there something, let not thy 
hands be at rest: good works of tlnne are swords that slay 
the enemy. 

6. Ver. 4. A sojourner 1 ivill be in Thy tabernacle even 
unto arjes. Ye see how he, of whom we have spoken, is 
he that crieth. Which of us is a sojoiunier even unto ages ? 

N 2 



180 The Church's whole aajourning on earth, long. 

Psalm Por a few days here we live, and we pass away : for sojourners 
here we are, inhabitants in Heaven we shall be. Thou art 
a sojourner in that place where tliou art to hear the voice of 
the Lord thy God, " Remove." For from that Home ever- 
lasting in the Heavens no one will bid thee to remove. Here 
therefore a sojourner thou art. Whence also is said in 

Ps. 39, anotlier Psalm, A sojourner I am with Thee and a stranger, 
as all my fathers uere. Here therefore sojourners we are; 

Johni4, there the Lord shall give to us mansions everlasting : Many 
are. He saith, the mansions in My Father's house. Those 
mansions not as though to sojourners He will give, but as 
though to citizens to abide for everlasting. Here however, 
brethren, because for no small time the Church was to be on 
this earth, but because here shall be the Church even unto 

'sfficuli. the end of the world': therefore here He hath said, A 

^ seectda. dweller I ivill be in Thy tabernacle even unto ages^. Let 
the enemy rage, as he will, let him fight against me, lyings 
in wait for me let him make ready, with offences let him 
beset me, and make my heart to be vexed ; A sojourner 
I will be in Thy tabernacle even unto ages. The Church 
shall not be conquered, she shall not be rooted up, nor yield 
to temptations of whatever sort, until there come this 
world's end, and from this temporal habitation that everlast- 
ing one receive us, whereunto He shall lead us home That 
hath been made our hope. A sojourner I will he in Thy 
tabertiacle even for ages. If for a long time thou art to be 
a sojourner, (suppose to Him we were saying this,) thou must 
then toil on earth amid so great temptations: for if a few days 
were the Church's time here, speedily there would be an end 
to the tempter's lyings in wait. Well, of a few days thou 
wouldest choose that the temptations should be: but how 
would She gather together all Her sons, unless for a long time 
She were to be here, unless even unto the end She were to be 
prolonged ? Do not envy the rest of mankind that hereafter 
shall be: do not, because thou hast already passed over, wish 

»mMiy to cut down the bridge of mercy': be it here even for ever. 

oinit 01 , , „ 

mercy.' And what of temptations, which needs must abound, by how 
much the more offences comer For Himself saith, because 

y^^i-^^, iniquity hath abounded, the love of many shall wax 
cold. But that Church, which cricth from the ends of the 



Prayer keeps us under the shadow of God's IVings. 181 

earth, is in these circumstances whereof he speaketh in con- Ver. 
tinuation. But he that shall have persecered even unto the -^^— 
end, the same shall he saved. But whence shalt thou per- 
severe ? What are thy powers amid so great offences, amid 
so great temptations, amid so great fightings ? With what 
powers dost thou conquer an enemy, whom thou seest not ? 
Canst thou anywise with thine own ? Nay, and inasmuch 
as even unto ages that sojourner shall be here, what hope 
hath he that he may endure ? (Ver. 4.) / shall be covered 
up in the veiling of Thy wings. Behold the reason why we 
are in safety amid so great temptations, until there come the 
end of the world, and ages everlasting receive us ; namely, 
because we are covered up in the veiling of His Wings. 
There is heat in the world, but there is a great shade under 
the wings of God. I shall be covered up in the veiling of 
Thy wings. 

7. Ver. 5. For Thou, O God, hast hearkened to my prayer. 
What prayer.? That wherewith he beginneth: Hearken, 

God, to my supplication, give heed unto my prayer: from 
the ends of the earth to Thee I have cried. This to Thee 

1 have cried from the ends of the earth. Therefore I shall 
be covered up in the veiling of Thy wings, because Thou 
hast hearkened to my supplication. We are admonished 
therefore, brethren, not to cease praying, so long as it is the 
time of temptations. Thou hast given inheritance to men 

fearing Thy name. Let us continue therefore in the fear of 
God's name : the eternal Father deceiveth us not. Sons 
labour, that they may receive the inheritance of their parents, 
to whom when dead they are to succeed : are we not labour- 
ing to receive an inheritance from that Father, to whom not 
dying we succeed; but together with Him in the very 
inheritance for everlasting are to live? Thou hast given 
inheritance to men fearing Tliy name. 

8. Ver. 6. Days upon days of the King Thou shalt add to 
the years of Him. This is therefore the King of whom we 
are the members. A King Christ is, our Head, our King. 
Thou hast given to Him days upon days ; not only those 
days in that time that hath end, but days upon those days 
without end. / will dwell, he saith, in the house of ther^.27,4. 
Lord, for length of days. Wherefore for length of days, but 



18*2 Cfrtcratkms, viorlul and hnmortal. 

Psalm because now is the shortness of days ? For every thing 

which hath an end, is short : but of this King are days upon 

days, so that not only while these days pass away, Christ 
reigneth in His Church, but the Saints shall reign together 
with llim in those days which have no end. There one day 
there is, and many days there are. Inasmuch as there are 
many days, I have said just now, For length of days : inas- 

Ps. 2,7. much as there is one day, thus is understood, My Son Thou 
art, I this day hare begotten Thee. Of one day lie halh 
spoken as this day: but that day is not set in the middle 
between yesterday and to-morrow, nor is the beginning 
thereof the end of yesterday, nor the end thereof the begin- 
ning of to-morrow. For years of God have been also spoken 

Ps. 102, of: But Thou art the very Same^ and Thy years shall not 
fail. In the same manner as years, so days, so one day. 
Whatsoever thou wilt thou sayest of eternity. Whatever 
thou wilt thou sayest for this reason, because whatever 
thou shalt have said, it is too little that thou hast said. For 
thou must needs say somewhat, to the end that there may be 
souiething whereby thou mayest meditate on that which 
cannot be told. Days upon days of the King Thou shalt 
add to the years of Him, even unto the day of generation 
and of generation. Of this generation and of the genera- 
tion that shall be: of this generation which is compared 
to the moon, because as the moon is new, waxeth, is full, 
vvaueth, and vanisheth, so are these mortal generations; and 
of the generation wherein we are born anew by rising again, 
and shall abide for everlasting witli God, when now no 
longer we are like the moon, but like that of which saith the 

Mat. 13, Lord, Then the righteous shall shine like the sun in the 
kingdom of their Father. For the moon by a figure in the 
Scriptures is put for the mutability of this mortal state. Tliere- 

Lukeio.fore to Jericho was he going down that fell among robbers : 
because the city Jericho is a Hebrew name, and is in- 
terpreted in Latin by moon. He was going down therefore 
as though from immortality to mortality; and fittingly in the 
journey was he wounded by robbers and left half dead, even 
that Adam out of whom is the whole human race. Tlicrefore 
days upon days of the King Thou shalt add to the years of 
Ilini, even unto the day of gcneridion, of generation luortal 



God dishonoured by expecting Him to allow sin. 183 

I take it: of what other generation hath he made mention ? Vfr. 
Hear, of what. — ^-^— 

9. Ver. 7. He shall abide for everLisling in the sight of 
God; according to what, or because of what? His mercy 
and truth icho shall seek for Him? He saith also in another 
place, All the tiays of the Lord are mercy and truth, to P^. 25, 
men seeking His testament and His testimonies. Large is 
the discourse of truth and mercy, but shortness we have 
promised. Briefly hear ye what is truth and mercy: because 
no small thing is that which hath been said, All the ways of 
the Lord are mercy and truth. Mercy is spoken of, because 
our merits God regarded not, but His own goodness, in order 
that He might forgive us all our sins, and might promise life 
everlasting : but truth is spoken of, because He faileth not to 
render those things which He hath promised. Let us ac- 
knowledge it here, and let us do it ; so that, just as to us God 
hath shewn forth His mercy and His truth, mercy in forgiving 
our sins, trutli in shewing forth His promises ; so also, I say, 
let us execute mercy and truth, mercy concerning the weak, 
concerning the needy, concerning even our enemies ; truth 
in not sinning, and in not adding sin upon sin. For he that 
counteth much on the mercy of God, hath suffered to steal 
into his mind the making God unjust, and the thinking that 
if he shall have continued a sinner, and shall have chosen 
not to depart from his iniquities, He will come, and will set 
him in that place, where He setteth His servants that to 
Him are obedient. And will it be just, that He should set 
thee, continuing in sins, in that place where He is to set 
them that have departed from sins? Wilt thou be unjust in 
such sort as to make God also unjust ? Why wilt thou then 
turn God unto thy will? Do thou be turned unto the will 
of God. Who is therefore he that doeth this, save one out 
of tliose tew, of whom is said, He that shall have continued 
unto the end, the same shall be saved? With reason here 
also His mercy and truth who shall seek for Him ? Why is 
there ^for Him T Who sJiall seek, would be sufficient. Why 
hath he added, for Him, but because many men seek to 
learn His mercy and truth in His books? And when theygcor.s, 
have learned, for themselves they live, not for Him; their i^^-.,. 

. Philip. 

own things they seek, not the things which are of Jesus 2, 21. 



1 84 Christ to be served to the end, and not for self. 

Psalm Christ : they preach mercy and truth, and do not mercy and 

'- truth. But by preaching it, they know it: for they would 

not preach it, unless they knew it. But he that loveth God 
and Christ, in preaching the mercy and truth of the Same, doth 
himself seek her for Him, not for himself: that is, not in order 
that himself may have by this preaching temporal advantages, 
but in order that he may do good to His members, that is, 
His faithful ones, by ministering with truth of that which he 
2Cor.6,knoweth : in order that he that liveth no longer for himself 
may live, but for Him that for all men hath died. His mercy 
and Irulh who will seek for Him ? 

10. Ver. 8. So Iwilljjlaymusic to Thy name, that I may 
render my vow a from day unto day. If thou playest music 
to the name of God, play not for a time. Wilt thou for ever 
play .'' wilt thou for everlasting play ? Render to Him thy 
vows from day unto day. What is, render to Him thy vows 
from day unto day? From this da>^ unto that day. Con- 
tinue to render vows in this day, until thou come to that 
Mat.24, tlay: that is, He that shall have continued even unto the 

13, 

end, the same shall be saved. 



LXi. PSALM LXH. 



EXPOSITION. 



Sermon to the people. 

1, The delight of divine sayings, and the pleasantness of 
Ps. 85, understanding the Word of God, while Himself that giveth 
the sweetness aidetli our earth to give her fruit, do invite both 
us to speak and you to hear. I see that you hear without 
weariness, and I rejoice in the palate of your heart, where- 
from that which is wholesome is not rejected, but with 
eagerness it is taken in and profitably is retained. Let us 
speak therefore to you to-day also, as far as the Jjord alloweth, 
of that Psalm which but now we have sung. The title of it 
is, Unto the end, in behalf of Idithun, a Psalm to David 
p^" himself. I recollect that already ' to you hath been explained 



J2 



The advanced saint Jtiaiible iuivurd God. 185 

what Idithun is. For according to the interpretation of the Ver. 
Hebrew tongue, as to us it hath come down, in Latin — '- — 
Idithun is translated, leaping over litem. Therefore he that . 
is singing doth leap over certain men, on whom from above 
he looketh down. Let us see how far he hath leaped over, 
and whom he hath leaped over, and in what place, though 
he hath leaped over certain men, he is situate, whence as 
from a kind of spiritual and secure position he may behold 
what is below, (not so looking back as that he fall, but so 
that he that hath leaped over may stir up the indolent to 
follow,) and may extol the place, at which by leaping over 
he hath arrived. For this man that lea})eth over is above 
something in such sort as that he is under some one : whence 
first to us he hath desired to intimate the Person under 
whom he is protected, in order that his having passed over, 
may not be for pride but for advancement. 

2. He being set, I say, in a certain fortified place, doth 
say, (ver. 1.) Shall not my soul be subject to God? For]he 
had heard, He that doth exalt himself shall be humbled; a7idM.a.t.23, 

12 

he that humbleth himself shall be exalted: and fearful lest ' 
by leaping over he should be proud, not elated by those 
things which were below, but humble because of Him that 
was above ; to envious men, as it were threatening to him a 
fall, who were grieved that he had leaped over, he hath made 
answer. Shall not my sold be subject to God? Why is it 
that for me as it were leaping over ye seek for snai'es? either 
by assaulting ye would throw me down, or by leading astray 
ye would deceive me. Do I so remember what I am above, 
as that I am forgetl'ul, whom I am below? Shall not my 
soul be subject to God ? Howsoever much I may draw near, 
howsoever much 1 may ascend, howsoever much I leap over, 
under God I shall be, not against God. Safely therefore 
1 mount above other things, when He that is above all things 
doth hold me imder Him. Shall not my soul be mads sub- 
ject to God? For from Himself is my salvation. For 
Himself is my God and my salvation, my taker up, I shall 
not be moved more. I know Who is above me, I know Who 
stretchelh forth His mercy to men that know Him, I know 
under the covering of Whose wings I should hope : I shall 
not be moved more. Ye are striving indeed, he saith to 



186 None can prevail against those loho are in Christ. 
Psalm certain, leaping over those very persons to whom he speakelh 
PsTsc'," 



.-- ye indeed are striving that 1 should be moved, but let there 



not come la me the foot of pride. For, for this cause cometh 
about that which also in the same Psalm followeth, nor let 
the hand of sinners remove me: to which agreeth, I shall 
not be moved more. For to that which there hath been said, 
nor let the hand of sinners remove me, there answeretli here, 
I shall not he moved more. But to that which there hath 
been said. Let not there come to me the foot of pride, there 
answeretli here, Shall not my soul be made subject to God? 

3. Therefore, down from the higher place fortified and 
protected, he, to whom the Lord hath been made a refuge, 

Ps. 90, he, to whom is God Himself for a fortified place, hath regard 
to those whom he hath leaped over, and looking down upon 
them speaketh as though from a lofty tower : for this also 

Ps.Gi, hath been said of Him, A Tower of strength from the face 
of the enemy : he giveth heed therefore to them, and saith, 
How long do ye lay upon a man ? By insulting, by hurling 
reproaches, by laying wait, by persecuting, ye lay upon a 

' some man burthens, ye lay upon a man as much as a man can' 

^annot ^^^'^'' ^^^^ "^ Order that a man may bear, under him is He 
that hath made man. Hoio long do ye lay upon a man? If 
to a man ye look, slay ye, all of you. Behold, lay upon, rage, 
slay ye, all of you. As though a wall bowed down, and as a 
fence smitten against ; lean against, smite against, as if going 
to throw down. And where is, / shall not be moved more? 
But wherefore.? I shall not be moved more ? Because Him- 
self is God my Saving One, my taker up, therefore ye men 
are able to lay burdens upon a man; can ye anywise lay 
upon God, Who protecteth man ? 

4. Ver. 3. Slay ye, all of you. What is that size of body- 
in one man so great as that he may be slain by all.? But we 
ought to perceive our person, the person of the Church, the 
person of the Body of Christ. For one Man with His Head 
and Body is Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the Body and the 

Gen. 2, Members of the Body: two in oue Flesh, and in one voice, 

Ephes. ^"^ '" °"® passion, and, when iniquity shall have passed over, 

5, 31. in one rest. Tlic sufferings therefore of Christ are not in 

Christ alone; nay, there are not any save in Christ. For if 

Christ thou understandest to be Head and Bodv, the sufferings 



Christ's sufferings in the Body not yet complete. 187 

of Christ are not, save in Christ : but if Christ thou under- Ver. 

.3 
stand of Head alone, the sufferings of Christ are not in '— 



Christ alone. For if the sufferings of Christ are in Christ 
alone, to wit in the Head alone ; whence saith a certain 
member of Him, Paul the Apostle, In order that I may supply Coloss. 
what are loant'mg of the oppressions of Christ in my flesh ? If ' 
therefore in the members of Christ thou art, whatsoever man 
thou art that art hearing these words, whosoever thou art 
that dost not hear those words: (but however, thou dost 
hear, if in the members of Christ thou art:) whatsoever thing 
thou sufferest from those that are not in the members of 
Christ, was wanting to the sufierings of Christ. Therefore it 
is added because it was wanting; thou fillestup the measure, 
thou tausest it not to run over: thou sufferest so much as 
was to be contributed out of thy sufferings to the whole 
suffering of Christ, that hath suffered in our Head, and doth 
suffer in His members, that is, in our own selves. Unto this 
our common republic, as it were each of us according to our 
measure payeth that which we owe, and according to the 
powers which we have, as it were a quota^ of sufferings we' 'eano- 
contribute. The store-house ^ of all men's sufierings will not 2 i pari, 
be completely made up, save when the world shall have^^^o"^*' 
been ended. How long do ye lay upon man ? Whatever 
the Prophets have suffered from the blood of just Abel 
even unto the blood of Zacharias, hath been laid upon man,^^*-^^' 
because there have preceded the advent of the Incarnation 
of Christ certain members of Christ: as in the birth of a Gen. 38, 

07 28 

certain one, though not yet the head came forth, there came 

forth the hand, but yet to the head was joined even the hand. 

Do not therefore think, brethren, that all just men, that have 

suffered the persecution of ungodly men, even those that 

have come before the Lord's Advent to foretell the Lord's 

Advent, belonged not to the members of Christ. Far be it 

that he should not belong to the members of Christ, who 

belongeth to the City which for King hath Christ. That 

alone is Jerusalem heavenly, the holy City. The King of 

this City is Christ: for Himself saith to Her, ^^ Mother, -ps. si, 

Sion"" a man will say. He saith to Her, " Mother ;" but ^',, , , 
• _ _ ' ' OldLat. 

as Man. For " Mother Sion" a man will say, and Man He 
was made in Her, and Himself the Most Highest liath 



188 Christ, the Head, sent certain of His members before. 

PsAt.M founded Her. This King therefore of Her, that hath founded 

LXII 

^Her, the Most Highest, Himself, in Her was made man 

most lowly. Himself therefore, before the Advent of His 

Incarnation, halh sent before Him certain of His Members, 

after whom foreshewing Himself to come there came also 

Gen. 38, Himself, joined together with them. Reflect upon the 

'* ■ similitude of that man that was bf)rn : how hand before head 

coming forth, is both with the head and under the head. 

For in reference to Christ it was said, when the excellence 

Rom. o^ ^^^^ ^^^'^' people was being praised, and the natural branches 

11,20. broken off were grieved over: Of whom is the Adoption, he 

4. 5, ' saith, a7id the testaments, and the establishment of the laio; of 

whom are the fathers, and out of whom is Christ after the flesh. 

Who is above all, God blessed for ever. Out of whom is 

Ps.87,5. Christ after the flesh, as though out of Sion, because Man 

He was made in Her: because Christ is above all, God 

blessed for ever, because Himself hath founded Her, the 

Most Highest. Out of whom is Christ after the flesh, the 

Son of David ; Who is above all, God blessed for ever, the 

Lord of David. That whole City therefore is spealiiug, from 

Mat.23,the blood of righteous Abel even to the blood of Zacharias. 

35. 

Thence also hereafter from the blood of John, through the 

blood of the Apostles, through the blood of Martyrs, through 

the blood of the faithful ones of Christ, one City speaketh, 

one man saith, How long do ye lay upon a man? Slay ye all of 

you. Let us see if ye efface, let us see if ye extinguish, let 

us see if ye remove from the earth the name thereof, let us 

see if ye peoples do not meditate of empty things, saying, 

Ps. 2, 1. When shall She die, and when shall perish the name of 

^^•^j'j'g- Her? As thouyh She were a wall boned down, and a fence 

13. smitten against, lean ye against Her, smite against Her. 

Hear from above : (ver. 2.) My taker up, I shall not he 

moved more: for as though a heap of sand I have been 

smitten against that I might fall, and the Lord halh taken 

mc up. 

5. Ver. 4. Nevertheless, mine honour they have thought to 
drive hack : conquered while they slay men yielding, by the 
blood of the slain multiplying the faithful, yielding to these 
and no longer being able to kill ; Nevertlieless, mine honour 
they have thought to drive bach. Now because a Christian 



Spiteful thoughts against the Church when lionoured. 189 

cannot be killed, pains are taken that a Christian should be ver. 
dishonoured. For now by the honour of Christians the hearts 



of ungodly men are tortured: now that spiritual Joseph, after Gen.37, 
his selling by his brethren, after his removal from his home 20.' ' 
into Egypt as though into the Gentiles, after the humi- 
liation of a prison, after the made-up tale of a false witness, 
after that there had come to pass that which of him was said. 
Iron passed through the soul of him : now he is honoured, Ps. 105, 
now he is not made subject to brethren selling him, but corn Gen.42 
he supplieth to them hungering. Conquered by his humiUty ^• 
and chastity, uncorruplness, temptalions, sufferings, now 
honoured they see him, and his honour they think to check. 
For in their thoughts is this, The sinner shall see; for hePs. 112, 



'o 



10. 



6, 



cannot but see, since a City cannot he hid that is set upon jyj^^j 
a hill. The sinner, I say, shall see, and be angry; ivith his 14. 
teeth he shall gnash, and shall pine away. There lurketh in 
the heart and is hidden by the brow their venom, while 
they rage and are indignant. Therefore here also of the 
thoughts of them he speaketh, 3Iine honour, he saitli, they 
have thought to drive back. For they dare not in words 
to profess what they think. Let us wish for them good 
things, even if they wish' evil things. Judge them, O God,^ some 
let them fall down from their thoiighis. For what is better 4 t^ink.' 
for them, what more profitable, than that they should fall P'^-5,lo. 
from thence where they stand ill, in order that they too being 
amended may be able to say. Thou hast set my feet upon a Ps.40,2. 
Rock. 

6. Ver. 4. Nevertheless, they have thought mine honour to 
drive back. Ts it all against one man. or one man against 
all; or all against all, or one against one? Meanwhile, when 
he saith, ye lay upon a man, it is as it were upon one man : 
and when he saith, Slay all ye, it is as if all men were 
against one man : but nevertheless it is also all against all, 
because also all are Christians, but in One. But why must 
those divers errors hostile to Christ be spoken of as all 
together ? Are they also one ? Truly them also as one 
I dare to speak of: because there is one City and one city, 
one People and one people. King and king. One City and 
one city is what ? Babylon one, Jerusalem one. By what- 
soever other mystical names besides She is called, yet One 



190 The spiritual Jerusalem, and spiritual Babylon, 

Psalm Q\^y there is and one city ; over this tlie devil is king, over 
that Christ is King. For I remark the Gospel in a certain 
place, and there movctli nie that which I think doth move 

Mat. 22, you too. After that there were bidden many men to the 
marriage, good and bad, and the marriage was fdled with 
them that sat at meat: (for the servants that were sent forth, 
as had been commanded, did bid both good men and bad 
men :) and the King came in to view them that were at meat, 
and He found a man not having a marriage garment, and 
He said to him that which ye know: Friend, ivhence hast 
thou come hither, not having a marriage garment? But he was 
speechless: and He commanded him to be bound hands and 
feet, and to be cast into outer darkness. Thus there was 
removed from the banquet, and sent into punishment, some 
man or other in so great a multitude of guests. But yet the 
Lord, to shew that one man to be one body which consisteth 
of many, when He commanded him to be cast out, and to be 

Mat. 22, sent into condign punishment, hath added forthwith. For 

^^' many are called, hut few are chosen. What is this? What 
is this.? Thou hast called together crowds, there hath come 
a huge multitude. Thou hast preached, hast spoken, they 

Ps.40,5.have been ' multiplied above number,' filled is the marriage 
with guests, there is cast forth thence one man alone, and 
Thou say est. For many are called, hut few are chosen. Why 
not rather, All called, many chosen, one cast forth ? If He 
had said. For many are called, and moi'e chosen, but iew 
rejected : in the few perchance nearer the truth we should 
perceive that one man. But now he saith that one hath 
been cast forth thence, and he addeth, For many are called, 
hut few chosen. Who are chosen, but they that have con- 
tinued ? One having been cast forth, those that were chosen 
have continued. How is it that when one hath been cast 
forth out of many, few are chosen, except because in that 
one are many .'' All men that earthly things do mind, all 
men that do choose earthly felicity before God, all men that 

Philip, seek their own things, not the things which are of Jesus 

' ■ Christ, to that one city belong, which is called Babylon 

mystically, and which hath for king the devil. But all men 

who mind those things which are above, who on heavenly 

things do meditate, who with carefulness live in the world 



Tliey are mixed here, but to he parted hereafter. 191 

that they may not offend God, who are careful not to sin, "^'er« 

who if sinning are not ashamed to confess, humble, mild, 

holy, just, godly, good, all these to that one City do belong, 
which for King hath Christ. For the former on earth as it 
were is the greater in age, not by elevation, not by honour. 
For the former city was first born, the latter city was after 
born. For that began from Cain, this from Abel. These 
two Bodies, serving under two kings, to their several cities 
belonging, are opposed to one another even unto the end of 
the world, until there be made out of the mixture a severing, 
and some be set on the right, others on the left, and it be 
said to the former, Come, ye blessed of My Father, receive the Mat. 25, 
kingdom whicli for you hath been prepared from the beginning 
of the world: but to the latter. Go ye into fire everlasting, ^-Ai-^Ht 
that hath been prepared for the devil and his angels. For 
Christ saith this, Come, ye blessed of My Father, receive the 
kingdom that for you hath been prepared from the beginning of 
the ivorld, as King of His City, victorious over all things. 
But to those that are set on the left hand, as though to a 
city of unrighteous men. Go ye. He saith, intojire everlasting, 
doth He by any means sever from them their king? No. 
For He hath added. That hath been prepared for the devil and 
his angels. 

7. Give heed, brethren, give heed, 1 entreat you. For it 
delighteth me yet to speak a iew words to you of this beloved 
City. For most glorious tilings of Thee have been spoken, Ps.S7,3. 
City of God. And, if I forget Thee^ O Jerusalem, let mine^^' ^^7» 
own right hand forget me. For dear is the one Country, 
and truly but one Country, the only Country: besides Her 
whatsoever we have, is a sojoiuning in a strange land. I will 
say therefore that which ye may acknowledge, that of which 
ye may approve : I will call to your minds that which ye 
know, I will not teach that which ye know not. Not first, ^ Cot. 
saith the Apostle, that which is spiritual, but that which is ' 
natural^, afterwards that which is spiritual. Therefore the °'"' , 

' -^ -' animal 

former city is greater by age, because first was born Cain, Gen. 4, 
and afterwards Abel : but in these the elder shall serve the Gen. 25, 
younger. The former greater by age, the latter greater in 23. 
dignity. Wherefore is the former greater by age? Because 
not first that which is spiritual, but that which is natural, jg^^g 



19*2 CnirCs city on new ground, David's on old captured. 

Psalm Wherefore is the latter greater in dignity? Because the 

G 25 ^^^^^^' ^f^'^ll serve the younger . But Cain builded a city, so 

23. we have read : before there was any city, in the beginning 

17_ ' ' of things human, Cain builded a city. Doubtless thou 
wonkiest perceive that already there had been born many men 
out of those two men, and out of those whom they had be- 
gotten, so that there was a meet and convenient number, to 

' ' civi. have inipressed upon it the name of city'. Cain therefore 
builded a city where a city was not. There was builded also 
afterward Jerusalem, the kingdom of God, the Holy City, 
the City of God ; and set in the form as it were of a shadow 
signifying things future. Perceive ye therefore the great 
mystery, and bear in mind what I have quoted before. Not 
first that which is spiritual, but that which is natural, after- 
wards the spiritual; for this reason therefore Cain first 
builded a city, and in that jdace he buided where no city 
was. But when Jerusalem was being builded, it was not 
builded in a place where there was not a city, but there was 
a city at first which was called Jebus, whence the Jebusites. 
This having been captured, overcome, made subject, there 
was builded a new city, as though the old were thrown 

Josh.18, (Jq^^jj . jjj^j \^ ^y^g called Jerusalem, vision of peace, Cit}- of 
God. Each one therefore that is born of Adam, not yet 
doth belong to Jerusalem: for he beareth with him the off- 

2 ' tra- shoot^ of iniquity, and the punishment of sin, having been 
consigned to death, and he belongeth in a manner to a sort of 
old city. But if he is to be in the people of God ; his old self 
will be thrown down, and he will be builded up new. For this 
reason therefore Cain builded a city where there was not a 
city. For from mortality and from naughtiness every one 
setteth out, in order that he may be made good hereafter. 

Rom. 5, For as by the disobedience of one man many were made 
sinners, so by the obedience of One Man many shall be 

1 Cor. made Just. And all we in Adam do die: and each one of 

' ■ us of Adam was born. Let him pass over to Jerusalem, he 

shall be thrown down old, and shall be builded new. As 

though to conquered Jebusites, in order that there may be 

3, 9. 10, builded up Jerusalem, is said. Put ye off the old man, and 

m^'q/' ^"^ ^'' '^^^ ^^^' "^"^ "°^ *° them builded in Jerusalem, 
Ephes. and shining bv the light of Grace, is said, Ye have been 

5, 8. 



Present intermixture of Jerusalem and Babylon. 193 

sometime darkness, but now light in the Lord. The evil city Veil 

therefore from the beginning even unto the end doth run on, '- — 

and the good City by the changing of evil men is builded 

up- 

8. And these two cities are meanwhile mingled, at the end 
to be severed ; against each other mutually in conflict, the 
one for iniquity, the other for the truth. And sometimes 
this very temporal mingling bringeth it to pass that certain 
men belonging to the city Babylon, do order matters be- 
longing to Jerusalem, and again certain men belonging to 
Jerusalem, do order matters belonging to Babylon. Some- 
thing difficult I seem to have propounded. Be ye patient, 
until it be proved by examples. For all things in the old ^ ^o''- 
people, as writeth the Apostle, in a figure used to befall them: ' 
but they have been written for our amendment, upon lohoin 
the end of the world hath come. Regard therefore that 
people as also set to intimate an after people ; and see then 
what I say. There were * great kings in Jerusalem: itisa'Magni, 
known fact, they are enumerated, are named. They allpQ^^*]* 
were, I say, wicked citizens of Babylon, and they were ' Mali,' 
ordering matters of Jerusalem: all men from thence to be 
dissevered at the end, to no one but to the devil do belong. 
Again we find citizens of Jerusalem to have ordered certain 
matters belonging to Babylon. For those three children, 
Nabuchodonosor, overcome by a miracle, made the ministers Dan. 2, 
of his kingdom, and set them over his Satraps; and so there 3^' ^' 
were ordering the matters of Babylon citizens of Jerusalem. 
Observe now how this is being fulfilled and done in the 
Church, and in these times. All they of whom hath been 
said, What things they say do ye, but what things they c/o, Mat.22, 
do not, are citizens of Babylon, ordering the commonwealth^' 
of the City Jerusalem. For if they were ordering nothing of 
the City Jerusalem, whence What things they say do ye ? 
Whence, In the chair of Moses they sit? Again, if citizens 
they are of Jerusalem Herself, that shall reign for everlasting 
with Christ, whence. What things they do, do not ye, ex- 
cept because they too are to hear. Depart from Me, all ye ^^^^^'^^ 
that work iniquity? It is therefore a thing known to you,^'* 
that the citizens of the evil city do order certain doings of 
the good City. Let us see if now also citizens of the good 
VOL. III. o 



194 Citizens of Heaven may have to serve in the World. 

Psalm City do order certain doings of the evil city. Every earthly 

'- commonwealth, sometime assuredly to perish, whereof the 

kingdom is to pass away, when there shall come that kingdom, 
Matt. 6, whereof we pray. Thy kingdom come; and whereof hath 
Luke 1 been foretold, And of His kingdom shall he no end: an 
33. earthly commonwealth, I say, hath our citizens conducting 
the affairs of it. For how many faithful, how many good 
men, are both magistrates in their cities, and are judges, 
and are generals, and are counts, and are kings ? All that 
are just and good men, having not any thing in heart but the 
Ps. 87,3. most glorious things, which of Thee have been said, City of 
> anga- Qod. And as if they are doing bond-service' in the city 
which is to pass away, even there by the doctors of the Holy 
City they are bidden to keep faith with those set over them, 
i'Pet.2, whether with the king as supreme^ or with governors as 
though sent by Qod for the 'punishment of evil men., hut for 
Ephes. the praise of good men: or as servants, that to their masters 
' ■ they should be subject, even Christians to Heathens, and 
the better should keep faith with the worse, for a time to 
serve, for everlasting to have dominion. For these things do 
P8.57,l. happen until iniquity do pass away. Servants are com- 
manded to bear with masters unjust and capricious: the 
citizens of Babylon are commanded to be endured by the 
citizens of Jerusalem, shewing even more attentions, than if 
they were citizens of the same Babylon, as though fulfilling the. 
Matt. 5, He that shall have exacted of thee a mile, go with him other 
angvru twain. This whole city dispersed, spread abroad, mingled, 
averif, jj^^ addressetli in these words, and saith, (ver. 3.) How long 
do ye lay upon a man ? Slay all ye, both ye that are with- 
out as though thorns in the hedges, or as though trees un- 
fruitful in the woods, and ye that are within as though tares, 
or as though chaff, all ye as many as ye are, severed, mingled, 
to be endured, to be severed, slay all ye, as though against 
a wall bowed down, and a fence smitten down. (Ver. 4.) 
Nevertheless, mine honour they have thought to drive back. 
They have not spoken, but yet they have thought. Have 
thought to drive back mine honour. 

9. I have run in thirst". For they were rendering evil 
Ps. 35, things for good things: for them was I thirsting: mine 
» Thus Septuag. ; E. V. ' Their delight is in lies' 



The Church, like Christ, thirsteth for converts. 195 

honour they thought to drive back : I was thirsting to bring Vkr. 
them over into my body. For in drinking what do we, but '— 



send into our members liquor that is without, and suck it 
into our body ? Thus did Moses in that head of the calf. Exod. 

. 32 20. 

The head of the calf is a great sacrament. For the head of ' 
the calf was the body of ungodly men, in the similitude ofPs. 106, 
a calf ealing hay, seeking earthly things: because all flesh isjg^'^o e. 
hay. It was therefore, as I have said, the body of ungodly 
men. Moses being angered cast it into the fire, ground it to 
powder, in water scattered it, to drink to the people he gave 
it ; and the anger of the Prophet became handmaid to a 
prophecy. For that body is thrown into the fire of tribula- 
tions, and by the word of God is ground to powder. For 
little by little they relinquish the unity of that body. For 
like as it were a garment, so by time it is wasted. And each 
one that is made a Christian is severed from that people, and 
as it were from the lump he is ground off. Combined they 
hate, broken off they believe. And what now is more 
evident, than that into that City Jerusalem, of which the 
people Israel was a type, by Baptism men were to be made 
to pass over ? Therefore in water it was scattered, in order 
that for drink it might be given. For this even unto the end 
this man thirsteth ; he runneth and thirsteth. For many 
men He drinketh, but never will He be without thirst. For 
thence is, / thirst, woman, give 3Ie to drink. That Samaritan John ■*, 
woman at the well found the Lord thirsting, and by Him 
thirsting she was filled : she first found Him thirsting, in order 
that He might drink her believing. And when He was on the 
Cross, I thirst, He said, although they gave not to Him that John 19, 
for which He was thirsting. For for themselves He vvas^j^jj.g 
thirsting: but they gave vinegar, not new wine, wherewith 17. 
are filled up the new bottles, but old wine, but old to its loss. 
For old vinegar also is said of the old men, of whom hath 
been said, For to them is no cJianging ; namely, that the Ps. 55, 
Jebusites should be overthrown, and Jerusalem be builded. is' 
10. So also the Head of this body even unto the end from 9- 
the beginning runneth in thirst. And as if to Him were 
being said, Why in thirst.? what is wanting to Thee, O Body 
of Christ, O Church of Christ ? in so great honour, in so 
great exaltation, in so great height also even in this world 

o 2 



196 Many honour the Church but outwardly. 

PsAi.M established, what is vvantinc: to Thee? There is fulfilled 
LXII 
Pg >.g ' that which hath been foretold of Thee, There shall adore 

II. Him all kings nf the earth, all nations shall serve Him. For 
what therefore dost Thou thirst ? for what dost Thou thirst? 
with so many peoples art Thou not satisfied ? Of what 
peoples dost Thou speak ? With their mouth, they were 
M&t.'i'ijliessing, with their heart they uere cursing. ^ 3Iany called, 
Mark 5, hut few chosen.'' A woman suffering with an issue of blood 
'^'^' touched the border of His garment, and was made whole : 
and when the Lord was admiring her touching, because He 
had perceived from Himself virtue to have gone forth, to wit 
for healing the woman, He said. Who hath touched 3Je? 
And the wondering disciples. Multitudes throng Thee, and 
TJiou sayesf, Who hath touched Me? And He, Some 
one hath touched 3Je? As though He were saying. One 
woman hath touched, multitudes throng. They that at 
Jerusalem's festivals fill up the Churches, at Babylon's 
festivals fill up the theatres : and for all they serve, honour, 
obey Her — not only those very persons that bear the Sacra- 
ments of Christ, and hate the commandments of Christ, but 
also they, that bear not even the mere Sacraments, Heathen 
though they be, Jews though they be, — they honour, praise, 
proclaim, but with their mouths they were blessing. I heed 
not the mouth. He knoweth That hath instructed me, with 
their heart they were cursing. In that place they were 
cursing, where mine honour they thought to drive back, 

11. What dost Thou, O Idithun, Body of Christ, leaping 
over them ? What dost Thou amid all these things ? AVhat 
wilt Thou ? wilt faint ? wilt Thou not persevere even unto 
Mat. 10, the end? wilt Thou not hearken. He that shall have per- 
severed even unto the end, the same shall be saved, though for 
Mat.24, that iniquity aboundeth, the love of many shall wax cold? 
And where is it that Thou hast leaped over them ? where is 
Philip, it that Thy conversation is in Heaven ? But they cleave 
' ^'^' unto earthly things, as though earthborn they mind the 
Gen. 3, earth, and are earth, the serpent's food. What dost thou 
^ • amid these things? liowbeit although they do these things, 
although they think of these things, although they smite 
against, although they bear against me as if bowed down, 
although they perceive me now erect, and mine honour they 



Gold mid chaff in the furnace together. 197 

think to drive back, although with their mouth they bless, and Ver. 
with their heart curse, although they lie in wait where they — '—^— 
can, slander where they can: (ver. 5.) Nevertheless, to God 
my soul shall be made subject. And who would endure so 
great things, either open wars, or secret lyings-in-wait ? 
Who would endure so great things amid open enemies, amid 
false brethren ? Who would endure so great things? Would 
a man? and if a man would, would a man of himself? I 
have not so leaped over that I should be lifted up, and fall : 
To God my soul shall be made subject: for from Himself is 
my patience. What patience is there amid so great scandals, 
except that if for that ichich we do not see we hope, through Rom. 8, 
patience we look for it ? There cometh my pain, there will ^^* 
come my rest also; there coraeth my tribulation, there will 
come my cleansing also. For doth gold glitter in the furnace 
of the refiner? In a necklace it will glitter, in an ornament 
it will glitter : let it suffer however the furnace, in order that 
being cleansed from dross it may come into light. This is 
the furnace, there is there chaff, there gold, there fire, into 
this blovveth the refiner: in the furnace burnetii the chaff, 
and the gold is cleansed; the one into ashes is turned, of 
dross the other is cleansed. The furnace is the world, the 
chaff unrighteous men, the gold just men ; the fire tribu- 
lation, the refiner God: that which therefore the refiner 
willeth I do; wherever the Maker selteth me I endure it. I 
am commanded to endure. He knoweth how to cleanse. 
Though there burn the chaff to set me on fire, and as if to 
consume me: that into ashes is burned, I of dross am 
cleansed. Wherefore? Because to God my soul shall be 
made subject: for from Himself is my patience. 

12. What to thee is He, from whom is thy patience. 
(Ver. 6.) For Himself is my God and My Saving One, my 
Taker up, I will not remove hence. Because Himself is my 
God, therefore He calleth me: and my Saving One, therefore 
He justifieth me: and my Taker up, therefore He glorifieth 
me. For here I am called and am justified, but there I am 
glorified ; and from thence where I am glorified, / will not 
remove. For a sojourner I am with Thee on earth as all my 
fathers were. Therefore from my lodging I shall remove, 
from my Heavenly home I shall not remove. 



128 All true good has its source in God. 

PsAi.M 13. Ver. 7. In God is mij salvation and my glory. Saved 
'- I shall be in God, dorioiis 1 shall be in God : for not only 

Rom. 4, ° . 

2. saved, but also glorious, saved, because a just man I nave 

been made out of an ungodly man, by Him justified ; but 

glorious, because not only justified, but also honoured. For 

Rom. 8, iJiose whom He hath predestinated, those also He hath called. 
30. 

Calling them, what hath He done here? Wliom He hath 

called, the same also He hath justified ; but whom He hath 
justified, the same also He hath glorified. Justification there- 
fore to salvation belongeth, glorifying to honour. How 
glorifying to honour belongeth, it is not needful to discuss. 
How justification belongeth to salvation, let us seek some 
proof. Behold there cometh to mind out of the Gospel : 
there were some who to themselves were seeming to be just 
men, and they were finding fault with the Lord because He 
admitted to the feast sinners, and with publicans and sinners 
was eating; to such men therefore priding themselves, strong 
men of earth very much lifted up, much glorying of their 
own soundness, such as they counted it, not such as they 
Matt,9,ija,cl, the Lord answered what? They that are whole need 
not a Physician, hut they that are sick. Whom calleth He 
whole, whom calleth He sick ? He continueth and saith, 
Matt. 9, / have not come to call just men, hut sinners unto repentance. 
He hath called therefore ' the whole' just men, not because the 
Pharisees were so, but because themselves they thought so 
to be ; and for this reason were proud, and grudged sick 
men a physician, and being more sick than those, they slew 
the Physician. He hath called whole, however, righteous 
men, sick, the siimers. My being justified therefore, saith 
that man that leapeth over, from Himself I have: my being 
glorified, from Himself I have: For God is my salvation 
and my glory. My salvation, so that saved I am : my glory, 
so that honoured I am. This thing hereafter: now what? 
God of my help, and my hope is in God ; until I attain unto 
Rom. 8, perfect justification and salvation. For by hope we are 
saved: but hope which is seen, is not hope. Until I shall 
Mat. 13, come to that glorifying, when the righteous shall shine in 
the kingdom of their Father as the sun; meanwhile now 
amid temptations, amid iniquities, amid scandals, amid open 
assaults and crafty talkings, amid them that with their 



Hope in God in spite of adverse appearances. 199 

mouth bless, and with then* heart curse, amid them that Ver. 

. . . 8 

' mine honour think to drive back,' here is what ? God of '- — 

my help: for He giveth help to men striving. To men 
striving against whom ? Our wrestli?ig is not against Jlesh Ephes. 
and blood, but against principalities and powers. God 
therefore is of my help, and my hope is in God. Hope it 
is, so long as that is not yet which hath been promised, and 
that is believed which is not yet seen : but when it shall 
have come, there shall be salvation and glorifying : while 
these things are deferred, however, we are not forsaken : for 
God is of my help, and my hope is in God. 

14. Ver. 8. Hope ye in Him, all the council of the people. 
Imitate ye Idithun, leap over your enemies ; men fighting 
against you, stopping up your way, men hating you, leap ye 
over: Hope in Him all the council of the people: pour out 
before Him your hearts. Do not yield to them that say to 
you, Where is your God ? My tears, he saith, have been Ph. 42, 
made for me bread day and night, while it is said to me, ' ' 
day by day. Where is thy God ? Upon these things I have 
meditated, and have poured out over me my soul. I have 
called to mind what I hear, Where is thy God? I have 
remembered these things, and have poured out over me my 
soul, seeking my God, ' I have poured out over me my soul,' 

that to Him I might attain, not within myself did I abide. 
Therefore, hope in Him all the council of the people. Pour 
out before Him your hearts, by imploring, by confessing, by 
hoping. Do not keep back your hearts within your hearts : 
Pour out before Him your hearts. That perisheth not 
which ye pour out. For He is my Taker up. If He taketh 
up, why fearest thou to pour out ? Cast upon the Lord thy Ps. 65, 
care, and hope in Him. What fear ye amid whisperers, j^q^^ j 
slanderers hateful to God, where they are able openly 29. 30. 
assailing, where they are unable secretly lying in wait, 
falsely praising, truly at enmity, amid them what fear ye ? 
God is our Helper. Do they anywise equal God ? Are they 
anywise stronger than He ? God is our Helper, be ye with- 
out care. ' If God is for its, who is against usf Pour out Rom. 8, 
before Him your hearts, by leaping over unto Him, by lifting ^^" 
up your souls : God is our Helper. 

15. And now having been set in a fortified place, in a 



200 The false and wicked sometimes named as one man. 

PsAf.M tower of strength from the face of the enemy, have pity on 

'■ those of whom ye were afraid : for ye ought to run in thirst : 

look down therefore upon them, now that ye are in that place 
stablished, and sa}' ye, 

Ver. 9. Nevertheless, vain are the sons of men, and liars 

Ps. 4, 2. are the sons of men. " Sons of men, how long are ye heavy 
in heart {''" Sons of men vain, sons of men liars, sons of men 
nherefore do ye love vanity and seek lying? With pity 
say these things, and be wise. If ye have leaped over, if 

Luke 6, ye love your enemies, if ye desire to throw down in order 

35. J J 7 J 

Ps. 110, that ye may build up, if Him ye love That ' judgeth in 

^- the nations, and filleth up places that are fallen:' so to them 

Ilom.l2, say ye these things, not haling them, not rendering evil for 
evil. 

Liars are the sons of tnen in the balances, in order that 
they may deceive, being at one because of vanity. Certainly 
many men there are : behold there is that one man, that one 

Mat.22, man that was cast forth from the multitude of guests. They 
conspire, they all seek things temjioral, and they that are 
carnal things carnal, and for the future they hope them, who- 
soever do hope: even if because of variety of opinions they 
are in division, nevertheless because of vanity they are at 

Mat.l2, one. Divers indeed are errors and of many forms, and the 
kingdom against itself divided shall not stand : but alike in 

Mat.25, all is the will vain and lying, belonging to one king, with 
whom into fire everlasting it is to be thrown headlong — these 
men because of vanity are at one. 

IG. And for them see how He thirsteth, see how He runneth 
in thirst. He turnelh therefore Himself to them, thirsting 
for them : (ver. 10.) Do not hope in iniquity. For my hope 
is in God. Do not hope in iniquity. Ye that will not draw 
near and pass over, do not hope in iniquity. For I that have 

Rom. 9, leapt over, my hope is in God : and is there anywise iniquity 
with God } Do not hope in iniquity. This thing let us do, 
that thing let us do, of that thing let us think, thus let us 
adjust our lyings in wait; Because of vanity being at one. 
Thou thirstcst: they that think of those things against thee are 
given up by those whom thou drinkest. Do not hopein vanity. 
Vain is iniquity, nought is iniquity, mighty is nothing save 
righteousness. Truth may be hidden for a time, conquered it 



Riches not to he coveted, nor trusted in. 201 

cannot be. Tniqnity may flourish for a time, abide it cannot. Ver. 
Do not hope upon iniquity : and for robbery be not covetous. — 



Thou art not rich, and wilt thou rob? What findest thou? 
What losest thou ? O losing gains ! Thou findest money, 
thou losest righteousness. For robbery be not covetous. 
Poor I am, I have nothing. Therefore wilt thou rob ? What 
thou robbestthou seest: by whom thou art robbed seest thou 
not ? Knowest thou not thine enemy goeth about, like a 
roaring lion, and seeketh what he may rob ? That prey l Pet. 6, 
which thou desirest to rob is in a trap : thou seizest and art 
seized. For robbery therefore be not covetous, O poor man, lTim.6, 
but fix thy desires upon God, That giveth to us all tilings 
abundantly for enjoyment. He shall feed thee That hath 
made thee. Shall He That feedeth a robber not feed an 
innocent man ? He shall feed thee That niaketh His sun to Matt. 6, 
rise upon good men and evil men, and raineth upon just men ' 
and vnjust men. If He feedeth men that are to be con- 
demned, shall He not feed men that are to be delivered ? 
Therefore for robbery be not covetous. This hath been said 
to a poor man, that perchance will rob somewhat out of 
necessity. Let the rich man come forth : I have no necessity, 
he saith, to rob : to me nothing is wanting, all things 
abound. And do thou too hear : if riches flow, upon them 
set not the heart. The former hath not, the latter hath : let 
not the former seek to rob that which he hath not, let not the 
latter set heart upon that which he hath. If riches flow , that 
is, if they overflow, run as though from a fountain, upon them 
set not the heart : do not on thyself rely, do not in that place 
fix thyself: certainly even this fear thou, namely, if riches 
flow. Seest thou not that if there the heart thou shalt have 
set, thou also wilt flow ? Rich thou art, and behold no 
longer thou covetest further to have, because many things 
thou hast : hear, Charge the rich men of this world not to be iTim.6, 
highminded. And what is, upon them set not the Jieart? Nor 
hope in the uncertainty of riches. Therefore if riches flow, set 
tiot upon them the heart, \n riches do not trust, rely not, hope 
not, lest it be said. Behold a man that hath not set God for his Ps.52,8. 
Helper, but hath hoped in the multitude of his riches, and 
hath prevailed in his vanity. Therefore, vain sons of men, 
lying sons of men, neither rob, nor, if there flow riches, set 



202 How ' God hath spoken once. 

Psalm heart upon them : no longer love vanity, and seek lying. 
•s-V/T-: For blessed is the mati who hath the Lord God for his hope, 

Ps.40,4. •' ^ ' 

and who hath not had regard tmto vanities, and lying follies. 
Ye would deceive, ye would commit a fraud, what bring ye 
in order that ye may cheat. Deceitful balances. For lying, 
he saith, are the sons of men in the balances, in order that 
they may cheat by bringing forth deceitful balances. By a 
false balance ye beguile men looking on : know ye not that 
one is he that weigheth, Another He that judgeth of the 
weight? He seeth not, for whom thou weighest, but He 
seeth That weigheth thee and him. Therefore neither fraud 
nor robbery covet ye any longer, nor on those things which 

Lukei2, ye have set your hope: I have admonished, have foretold, 

S. Aug. saith this Idithun. 

« 'habet: 17. What followeth ? (Ver. 11,12.) Once hath God spoken, 
these tico things 1 have heard, that power is of God, and to 
Thee, O Lord, is mercy, for Thou shall render to each one 
after his works. There hath spoken Idithun, he hath 
sounded from the high place, to which he hath leapt over, 
he hath heard there somewhat, and hath spoken to us : but 
I am somewise troubled in that thing which he hath said to 
us, brethren, and until with you I share either the trouble 
or, it may be, my breathing again, I would have you atten- 
tive. For we have brought the Psalm to an end by the help 
of the Lord : after these words which we are about to say, 
there remaineth nothing further for us to explain of this. 
Therefore strive with me, that we may be able to understand 
this : and if I shall not have been able, and any one of you 
understandeth that which 1 am not able ; I shall rejoice 
rather than envy. Truly it is difficult to trace out in what 
way hath been placed first: Once hath God spoken: and 
secondly, when once He hath spoken, how I tico things 
hate heard. For if he had said, ' Once hath God spoken, this 
one thing I have heard:' he would seem to have cut off" half 
of this inquiry, so that we should simply inquire what is 
Once hath God spoken. But now we are going to inquire 
both what is, Once hath God spoken : and what is. These 
two things I have heard, though once He hath spoken. 

18. Once hath God spoken. What sayest thou, Idithun ? 
If thou that hadst leapt over them art saying, Once He hath 



yet the Pnahrnist ' hath heard two things.' 203 

spoken; I turn to another Scripture and it saith to me. In Ver. 
many quarters and in many ways formerly God hath spoken 



Heb. 1, 
to the fathers in the prophets. What is, Once hath God i. 

spoken? Is He not the God that in the beginning of man- Gen. 3, 

kind spake to Adam? Did not the Selfsame speak to Cain, ^''^^^ ^ 

to Noe, to Abraham, to Isaac, to Jacob, to all the Prophets, «. &c. 

and to Moses? One man Moses was, and how often to him 

spake God? Behold even to one man, not once but ofttimes 

God hath spoken. Secondly, He hath spoken to the Son 

when standing here, Tliou art My beloved Son. God hath Matt. 3, 

spoken to the Apostles, He hath spoken to all the Saints, 

even though not with voice sounding through the cloud, 

nevertheless in the heart where He is Himself Teacher '.' Magis- 

ter 
Whence that one saith, / ivill hear what speaheth in me the Fs.86,8. 

Lord God, for He shall speak peace to His people. What 
is therefore, Once hath God spoken? Much hath that man 
leapt over in order to arrive at that place, where once God 
hath spoken. Behold briefly I have spoken to your Love. 
Here among men, to men ofttimes, in many ways, in many 
quarters, through creatures of many forms God hath spoken : 
by Himself once God hath spoken, because One Word God 
hath begotten. This Idithun, therefore, leaping over them, 
had leapt over with the glance of the mind, mighty and 
potent and surpassing, had leapt over the earth, and what- 
ever in the earth there is ; air, all the clouds out of which 
God hath spoken many things, and ofttimes, and to many 
men: had leapt over also all Angels with the glances of 
Faith. For this man leaping over was not held fast by earthly 
things, but like a flying eagle was borne beyond all the 
mist'^ whereby is covered the whole earth. For the Wisdom^ nebu- 
saith. And with mist I have covered the uhole earth: he ^^i^g^ 
arriveth at something clear, leaping over the whole creation, 24, 3. 
and seeking God, and pouring out over himself his soul, he 
arriveth at the Beginning, and at the Word, God with God ; 
and he findeth of One Father, One Word ; and he liath seen 
how once God hath spoken, hath seen the Word by whom 
have been made all things, and in whom at the same time 
ai'e all things, not diverse, not severed, not unequal. For it John i, 
could not be but that God did Himself know that which by 
the Word He made : but if that which He made He knew. 



204 * God spake once,'' in His One Word. 

Psalm in Him there was that wliich was made before it was made. 

^ For if in Him was not that which was made before it was 

made, how knew He that which He made ? For thou canst 
not say that God made things He knew not. God therefore 
hath known that which He hath made. And how knew He 
before He made, if there cannot be known any but things 
made ? But by things made there cannot be known an}- but 
things previously made, by thee, to wit, who art a man made 
in a lower place, and set in a lower place : but before that 
all these things were made, they were known by Him by 
Whom they were made, and that which He knew He made. 
Therefore in that Word by Which He made all things, 
before that they were made, were all things; and after they 
have been made there are all things ; but in one way here, 
in another there, in one way in their own nature wherein 
they have been made, in another in the art by which they 
have been made. Who could explain this ? We may 
endeavour : go ye with Idithun, and see. 

19. Now therefore as we have been able, we have said in 
what way God halli spoken once: let us see in what way 
' these two things he hath heard!' These two things I have 
heard. Perchance it is not a consequence, that he should 
have heard these two things alone ; but, these two things, he 
saith, / have heard; certain two things which to us must 
needs be said, he hath heard. He hath heard perchance 
many other things, but it is not needful that they be said to 

.7ohni6, us. For even the Lord saith, Man>/ things I have to say to 
you, but ye cannot bear them noiv. What is therefore. These 
two things 1 have heard? These two things which to you 
I am about to say not of myself to you I say, but what 
things 1 have heard I say. Once hath God spoken: One 
Word hath He, the Only-begotten God. In that Word are 
all things, because by the Word were made all things. One 

Coloss. Word hath He, in Wliom all the treasures of wisdom and 

2 3. 

' ■ knowledge are hidden. One Word He hath, once hath God 

spoken. These two things, which to you 1 am about to say, 

these I have heard : not of myself I speak, not of myself I 

John 8, say : to this belongeth the / have heard. But the friend of 

^^- the Bridegroom standeth and hearelh Him, that he may 

John 8, speak the truth. For he hearelh Him, lest by speaking a 

44. 



The ' two thinfjs' are Power and Mercy. 205 

lie, of his own he should speak : lest thou shouldest say, Ver. 
Who art thou that sayest this thing to me ? whence dost ^^' ^^' 
thou say this to me ? I have heard these two things, and I 44. ' 
that speak to thee that I have heard these two things, am 
one who also doth know that once God hath spoken. Do 
not despise a hearer saying to thee certain two things for 
thee so necessary; him, I say, that by leaping over the 
whole creation hath attained unto the Only-begotten Word 
of God, where he hath learned that once God hath spoken. 

20. Let him therefore now say certain two things. For 
greatly to us belong these two things. (Ver. 11, 12.) For power 
is of God, and to Thee, O Lord, is mercy. Are these the two 
things, power and mercy ? These two evidently : perceive ye 
the power of God, perceive ye the mercy of God. In these 
two things are contained nearly all the Scriptures. Because of 
these two things are the Prophets, because of these two, the 
Patriarchs, because of these the Law, because of these Him- 
self our Lord Jesus Christ, because of these the Apostles, 
because of these all the preaching and spreading of the word 
of God in the Church, because of these two, because of the 
power of God, and His mercy. His power fear ye. His 
mercy love ye. Neither so on His mercy rely, as that His 
power ye despise: nor so the power fear ye, as that of mercy 
ye despair. With Him is power, with Him mercy. This Ps.75,7. 
man He humbleth, and that man He exaltelh : this man He 
humbleth with power, that man He exalteth in mercy. -For Rom. 9, 
if God, willing to shew ivrath and to 'prove His power, hath ^^' 
in. much patience borne 'with the vessels of wrath, 'which 
have been perfected unto perdition — thou hast heard of 
power: inquire for mercy — and that He might make known. 
He saith, His riches unto the vessels of mercy. It belongeth 
therefore to His power to condemn unjust men. And to 
Him who would say, What hast thou done? For thou, ORom. 9, 
man, who art thou that should make answer to God? Fear * 
therefore and tremble at His power: but hope for His mercy. 
The devil is a sort of power; ofttimes however he wisheth to 
hurt, and is not able, because that power is under power. 
For if the devil could hurt as much as he would ; no one of 
just men would remain, nor could any one of the faithful be 
on earth. The same through his vessels sraiteth against, as 



206 Evil is controlled. Justice abides U'ith God. 

Psalm it were, a wall bowed down : but he only smitelh against, so 

-f"^ far as he receiveth power. But in order that the wall may 
not fall, the Lord will suj)])ort: for He that giveth power to 
the tempter, doth Himself to the tempted extend mercy. 
For according to measure the devil is permitted to tempt. 

Ps.80,6. And, Thou wilt give us to drink in tears in a measure. Do 
not therefore fear the tempter permitted to do somewhat: 
for thou hast a most merciful Saviour. So much he is per- 
mitted to tempt as is profitable for thee, that thou mayest be 
exercised, mayest be proved ; in order that by thyself thou 
mayest be found out, that knowest not thyself. For where, 
or from whence, ought we to be secure, except by this power 

1 Cor. and mercy oi God ? After that Apostolic saying. Faithful is 
' ■ God, that doth not suffer you to he tempted above that which 
ye are able. 

Rom. 21. Therefore power is of God: ''for there is nopoiver but 
of God."" Do not say, 'And \y\\y doth He give to him a 
great power?' And, * let Him not give power. Hath He 
justice that giveth power ?' Unjustly thou canst murmur, 

Rom. 9, He cannot lose justice. Is there anywise ifijustice loilh 
God? Far be it. This thing fix in heart, this thing from 
thy thought let not the enemy chase awa}-. God may do 
something so as that thou mayest not know wherefore 
He doelh it: unjustly however He cannot do, with Whom 
iniquity there is not. For behold thou censurest God as if 
it were for injustice : (I am discussing with thee a question, 
attend to me a little:) thou couldest not censure injustice, 
except it were by seeing justice. Censurer of iniquity he 
cannot be that discerneth not justice, wherewith when com- 
pared he censureth iniquity. For whence knowest thou that 
this thing is unjust, unless thou know what is just ? For what 
if this also is just, which thou callest unjust? " Far be it," 
thou sayest, " unjust it is:" and thou criest out as if with 
seeing eyes, seeing this thing to be unjust, by some rule 
indeed of justice, with which comparing that which thou 
seest to be crooked, and perceiving it not to tally with the 
straightness of the rule, thou fmdest fault ; like an artizan, 
severing straight from crooked. Therefore I ask thee, this 
thing to be just, whence seest thou ? Where, f say, seest 
thou this just thing, after seeing which, thou censurest an 



Our very notions of Justice come from God. 207 

unjust thing? Whence is that something, wherewith thy Ver. 
soul is imbued, (though in many ways being in the rlark,) iLl^ 
that something which gleameth upon thy mind, whence this 
thing is pronounced just ? Is it possible that it hath not its 
fountain ? From thyself hast thou that which is just, and 
canst thou to thyself give justice ? No one giveth to himself 
that which he hath not. Therefore when thou art unjust, 
thou canst not be just, except by turning thee to a certain 
abiding justice, wherefrom if thou withdrawest, thou art 
unjust; to which if thou drawest near, thou art just. If thou 
withdraw. It decreaseth not, if thou draw near, It increaseth 
not. Where is therefore that justice ? Seek in earth: far be 
it. For not gold or precious stones thou art seeking, when 
thou art seeking justice. Seek in the sea; seek in the 
clouds, seek in the stars : seek in Angels, thou findest it in 
them, but themselves also from the Fountain drink it. For 
the justice of Angels is in them all, but from One it is 
received. Look back therefore, mount over, go to that place 
where once God hath spoken, and there thou wilt find the 
Fountain of justice, where is the fountain of life. For ivithFa.36,9. 
Thee is t lie fountain of life. For if out of a little dew thou 
wouldest judge what is just and what is unjust; is there any- Rom. 9, 
wise iniquity with God, from Whom to thee as it were from 
a fountain floweth justice, in so far as thou tastest of what 
is just, because in many ways unjustly thou dost but mis- 
taste ? God hath therefore the fountain of justice. Do 
not there seek iniquity, whore is light without shadow. But 
plainly the reason may escape thee. If the reason escapeth 
thee, consider thy ignorance, see what thou art: attend to 
these two things, For poicer is of God, and to Thee, O Lord, 
is mercy. Seek not things too mighty for thee, and things Ecdus. 
too high for thee examine not, but what things the Lord^'^^' 
hath commanded tliee, on those thing?, think ahcay. Be- 
cause to these two things which God hath commanded thee 
belong those two things. For power is of God, and to Thee, 
O Lord, is mercy. Fear not the enemy: so much he doeth 
as he hath received power to do. Him fear thou That hath the 
chief power : Him fear, That doeth as much as He willeth, 
and That doeth nothing unjustly, and whatever He shall have 
done, is just. We might suppose something or other to be 



208 What men do unjustly, God permits justly. 

Psalm unjust: inasmuch as God hath done it, believe it to be 
LXlI. just. 

22. Therefore, thou sayest, if any one slay an innocent 

man, doeth he justly or unjustly ? Unjustly certainly. 

Wherefore doth God permit this ? See first that thou owe 

Is. 58,7. not this debt: break to the hungry thy hi-ead, and the 

homeless needy man take thou into thy house: if thou shall have 

seen a naked man^ clothe him. For this is thy justice, for 

Isa. 1, this thing the Lord hath commanded thee: Wash you, he ye 

' clean, take away 7iaughtinesses from your hearts, and from 

the sight of Mine eyes: learn to do good, judge for the fatherless 

and the widow: and come and let us dispute, saith the Lord. 

Thou desirest to dispute before that thou doest any thing in 

consideration whereof thou mayestbe worthy to dispute, why 

God hath permitted this. The counsel of God to tell to thee, 

O man, I am not able : this thing however I say, both that 

the man hath done unjustly that hath slain an innocent person, 

and that it would not have been done unless God permitted it : 

and though the man hath done unjustly, yet God hath not 

unjustly permitted this. Let the reason lie concealed in that 

person whoever it be, for whose sake thou art moved, whose 

innocence doth much move thee. For to thee speedily I might 

make answer. He would not have been slain unless he were 

guilty: but thou thinkest him innocent. I might speedily say 

this to thee. For thou couldestnot examine his heart, sift his 

deeds, weigh his thoughts, so that thou couldest say to me, 

unjustly he was slain. I might easily therefore make answer : 

but there is forced upon my view a certain Just One, without 

dispute just, without doubt just. Who had no sin, slain by 

sinners, betrayed by a sinner ; Himself Christ the Lord, of 

P8.69,4. Whom we cannot say that He hath any iniquity, for those 

things which Me robbed not He paid, is made an objection 

to my answer. And why should I speak of Christ? ' With thee 

I am dealing,' thou sayest. And I with thee. About Him thou 

proposes! a question, about Him I am solving the question. 

For therein the counsel of God we know, which except by 

His own revealing we should not know: so that when thou 

shalt have found out that counsel of God, whereby He hath 

permitted His innocent Son to be slain by unjust men, and 

such a counsel as pleaseth thee, and such a counsel as cannot 



God just, men unjust, in Our Lord's Passion. -209 

displease thee, if thou art just, thou mayest believe that in Vf.r. 
other things also by His counsel God doeth the same, but ^^' ^^' 
it escaped thee. Ah! brethren, need there was of the blood 
of a just one to blot out the handwriting of sins; need there 
was of an example of patience, of an example of humility ; 
need there was of the Sign of the Cross to beat down the 
devil and his angels ; need for us there was of the Passion of 
our Lord ; for by the Passion of the Lord i-edeemed hath been 
the world. How many good things hath the Passion of the 
Lord done ! And yet the Passion of this Just One would not 
have been, unless unrighteous men had slain the Lord, 
What then ? is this good thing which to us hath been granted 
by the Lord's Passion to be ascribed to the unjust slayers 
of Christ? Far be it. They willed, God permitted. They 
guilty would have been, even if only they had willed it : 
but God would not have permitted it, unless just it had been. 
They willed to slay: suppose that they had not been able: 
unjust they would have been, man -slayers they would have 
been; who would doubt it? For the Lord quest ionelh ///ePs.11,5. 
just and the ungodly man : and in the thoughts of the ungodly "vvisd. \ 
man questioning shall he. God doth scrutinize what each^* 
man hath willed, not what he was able to do. Therefore 
if they had willed, and had not been able and had not slain, 
unjust they would have continued, to thee Christ's Passion 
would not have been given : an ungodly man therefore willed 
to do it to complete his condemnation ; he was permitted, in 
order that to thee it might be granted: that he willed, is ascribed 
to the iniquity of the ungodly man ; that he was permitted to 
do, is ascribed to the power of God. He therefore unjustly 
willed, God justly permitted. Accordingly, my brethren, 
both Judas the foul traitor to Christ, and the persecutors of 
Christ, malignant all, ungodly all, unjust all, are to be con- 
demned all : and nevertheless the Father His own proper Son 
hath not spared, but for the sake of us all He halh delivered Rom. 8 
Him up. Order if thou art able ; distinguish if thou art able^^* 
(these things) : render to God thy vows, which thy lips have 
uttered : see what the unjust hath here done, what the Just 
One. The one hath willed, the Other hath permitted : the 
one unjustly hath willed, the Other justly hath permitted. 
Let unjust will be condemned, just permission be glorified. 
VOL. HI. p 



210 Christ not really harmed by His enemies. 

Psalm For what evil thing hath befallen Christ, in that Christ hath 

^ died ? Both evil were they that evil willed to do, and yet 

nothing of evil did He suffer on Whom they did it. Slain 

was mortal flesh, slaying death by death, giving a lesson of 

patience, sending before an example of Resurrection. How 

great good things of the Just One were wrought by the evil 

> ' mag- things of the unjust ! This is the great mystery ' of God : that 

I reg. even a good thing which thou docst He hath Himself given it 

°"°>>' to thee, and by thy evil He doelh good Himself. Do not 

royal therefore wonder, God permitteth, and in judgment permitteth : 

power, Jje permitteth, and in measure,number, weight, He pennilteth. 

Rom. 9, With Him is not iniquity : do thou only belong to Him ; on 

Himself thy hope set thou, let Himself be thy Helper, thy 

P9-61, Salvation : in Him be there the fortified place, the tower of 

1 Cor. strength, thy refuge let Himself be, and He will not suffer 

10, 13. ^jjgg ^Q ]3g tempted above that which thou art able to bear, 

but will make with the temptation also an escape, that thou 

mayest be able to support it : so that His suffering thee 

to bear temptation, be His power; His suffering not any 

more on thee to be done than thou art able to bear, be His 

mercy : for power is of God^ and to Thee, Lord, is mercy, 

because Thou wilt render to each one after his works. 

After treating of the Psalm, when an astrologer was pointed 
out among the people about him, he added: 

23. That thirst of the Church, would fain drink up that 
man also whom ye see. At the same time also, in order 
that ye may know how many in the mixed multitude of 
Christians with their mouth do bless, and in their heart 
curse, this man having been a Christian and a believer re- 
turneth as a penitent, and being terrified by the power of the 
Lord, turneth him to the mercy of the Lord. For having been 
led astray by the enemy when he was a believer, long time he 
hath been an astrologer, led astray, leading astray, deceived, 
deceiving, he hath allured, hath beguiled, many lies he 
hath spoken against God, Tiiat hath given to men power 
of doing that which is good, and of not doing that which 
is evil. He used to say, that one's own will did not adul- 
tery, but Venus; one's own will did not manslaying, but 
Mars; and God did not what is just, but Jupiter; and many 



A penitent Astrologer in the Congregation. 211 

other blasphemous things, and not light ones. From how Ver. 
many Christians do ye think he hath pocketed money ? Hil?i 
How many from him have bought a lie, to whom we used to 
say, Sons of men, how long are ye dull of heart, wherefore Vs. 4, 2. 
love ye vanity, and seek a. lie ? Now, as of him must be 
believed, he hath shuddered at his lie, and being the allurer 
of many men, he hath perceived at length that by the devil 
he hath himself been allured, and he turneth to God a penitent. 
We think, brethren, that because of great fear of heart it hath 
come to pass. For what must we say } If out of a heathen 
an astrologer were converted, great indeed would be the joy: 
but nevertheless it might appear, that, if he had been con- 
verted, he was desiring the clerical office in the Church. 
A penitent he is, he seeketh not any thing save mercy alone. 
He must be recommended therefore both to your eyes and 
hearts. Him whom ye see in hearts love ye, with eyes 
guard ye. See ye him, mark ye him, and whithersoever he 
shall have gone his way, to the rest of the brethren that now 
are not here, point him out : and such diligence is mercy ; 

lest that leader astray drag back' his heart and take it bv'^l-''"^- 
^ 1 1 ■ , 1 1 . turn to.' 

storm. Guard ye him, let there not escape you his con- 
versation, his way : in order that by your testimony it may 
be proved to us that truly to the Lord he hath been turned. 
For report will not be silent about his life, when to you he 
is thus presented both to be seen and to be pitied. Ye know 
in the Acts of the Apostles how it is written, that many lost -Acts 19, 
men, that is, men of such arts, and followers of naughty 
doctrines, brought unto the Apostles all their books ; and 
there were burned so many volumes, that it was the writer's 
task to make a valuation of them, and write down the sum 
of the price. This truly was for the glory of God, in order 
that even such lost men might not be despaired of by Him 
that knew how to seek that which had been lost. Therefore 
this man had been lost, is now sought, found, led hither, he Lukeis, 

32 

bringeth with him books to be burned, by which he had ' 
been to be burned, so that when these have been thrown 
into the fire, he may himself pass over into a place of re- 
freshment. Know ye that he, brethren, once knocked at the 
Church door before Easter : for before Easter he began to 
ask of the Church Christ's medicine. But because the 

p2 



212 The Psalms ivritten by inspiration before Christ. 

Psalm art wherein he had been practised is of such sort as that it 
LXII . 

— - — - was suspected of lying and deceit, he was put off that he 

might not tempt; at length however he was admitted, 

that he might not more dangerously be tempted. Pray for 

him through Christ. Straightway to-day's prayer pour out 

for him to the Lord our God. For we know and are sure, 

that your prayer effaceth all his impieties. The Lord be 

with you. 



lat. psalm LXIIL 

LXII. 

EXPOSITION. 



Sermon to the Commonalty. 

1. For the sake of those that perchance are as yet un- 
skilled in the name of Christ ; for as much as from every 
quarter He doth gather men together, Who for all men hath 
given His Blood, we must say in few words something which 
both they gladly may hear that know, and thej- may learn 
that know not. Those Psalms which we sing, before that 
our Lord Jesus Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, by the 
dictation of the Spirit of God were spoken and written 
down. For David was king among the nation of the Jews, 
which nation alone did worship One God, that hath made 
Heaven and earth, the sea and all things which in them are, 
whether the things which are seen, or the things which 
are not seen. But the rest of the nations either did worship 
idols, which with their hands they had made, or the creation 
of God, not the Creator Himself, that is, either sun, or moon, 
or stars, or sea, or momitains, or trees. For all these things 
God hath made ; and would have Himself to be praised in 
them, not them to be worshipped instead of Himself. In 

Eom. i,this same nation of Jews, I say, David was king, of whose 
seed was born our Lord Jesus Christ of the Virgin Mary ; 
because from him the Virgin Mary derived her lineage, who 

Luke 2, (lid i)ear Christ: and so were these Psalms spoken: and 
there was prophesied in them Christ to come after many 
years : and there was spoken of by those Prophets, that 
lived before our Lord Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary, 



What is fulfilled proves uJiat is yet to come. 213 

whatsoever was to be in our times, which now we read of Title. 
and see: and much we rejoice, that our Hope hath been 
foretold by holy men, who saw not that thing fulfilled, but 
in the Spirit saw it as future : and we now read, and hear 
from readers, we discourse of those things ; and as they are in 
the Scriptures, so we see them now fulfilled throughout the 
whole world. For this who would not rejoice ? Who would 
not hope for those things to come which not yet have come, 
because of those things which being now so many, have 
been fulfilled? For now, brethren, ye see, how the whole 
world, the whole earth, all nations, all regions run unto the 
name of Christ, and believe in Christ. Truly ye see this 
thing, after what sort every where are overthrown the 
vanities of the heathen, ye see this thing, evident it is to you. 
Is this too a thing we have read to you from a book, and not 
one that is doing before your eyes .'' This whole thing 
therefore which ye see come to pass before your eyes, was 
written of, countless revolutions of years before, by those 
men whom now we read, when already we see those things 
fulfilled. But forasmuch as those things also have been 
written which have not yet come ; how our Lord Jesus 
Christ is to come to judge. Who at first came that He might 
be judged ; (for He came at first humble, hereafter He is to 
come exalted ; He came that He might shew an example of 
patience, hereafter He is to come that He may judge all 
men according to their deserts, whether good men, or evil 
men ;) because, I say, not yet hath come this thing which we 
hope for, namely, that Christ is to come as the Judge of 
quick and of dead, we ought to believe it. The small part 
which remainelh let us believe is to come, when already we 
see so many things which then were future, now completed. 
For fool is he that will not believe the few things which 
remain, when he seeth so many things to be fulfilled, which 
then were not, when they were being foretold. 

2. This Psalm therefore is spoken in the Person of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, both Head and Members. For that One Person 
that was born of Mary, and suff'ered and was buried, and rose 
again, and ascended into Heaven, and at the right hand of the 
Father now sitteth and intercedeth for us, is our Head. If 
He is the Head, \vc are the members : the whole Church of 



214 Christ suffers in His people, and they in Him. 

Psalm Him which every where is spread abroad, is the Body of the 

-^ ' Same, whereof He is Himself the Head. For not only the 

believers that now are, but they also that have been before us, 
and that after us are to be even unto the end of the world, 
do all belong to His Body : of which Body Himself is the 
Head, That hath ascended into Heaven. Because therefore 
Coloss. now we know Head and Body, He is Head, we Body. When 
1, 18. y.Q \^QQ^ t]jtj voice of the Same, both from the Head we ought 
to hear it, and from the Body too: because whatever He hath 
suffered, therein we also have suffered : because that which 
we also suffer in ourselves. Himself also suffereth. In like 
vide manner as if the head suffer any thing, is the hand able to 
12 26 ^^y ^^^'^^ ^* suffereth not ? or if the hand suffereth any thing, 
is the head able to say that it suffereth not ? or if the foot 
suffereth any thing, is the hand able to say that it suffereth 
not? Whenever one member of ours suffereth any thing, 
all the members haste to succour the member which is 
suffering. If therefore when He suffered, we in Him did 
suffer, and He now hath ascended into Heaven, and sitteth 
on the right hand of the Father : whatever His Church 
suffereth in the tribulations of this world, in temptations, 
in necessities, in difficulties, (for thus She must needs be 
instructed, in order that with fire like gold She may be 
purged,) Himself suffereth. We prove this thing, how we in 
Coloss. Him have suffered, by the Apostle saying, Bui if dead ye 
^' * are with Christ, why yet as though living about this world 
Rom. 6, c?o ye decree? Also he saith, that our old man hath been 
^' crucijied together uilh Him, that the body of sin might be 

made void. If therefore in Him we are dead, in Him also we 
Coloss. have risen again. For the same Apostle saith. But if ye have 
' ^' risen again with Christ, taste those tilings which are above, 
those things which are above seek ye, where Christ is on the 
right hand of Qod sitting. If therefore in Him we are dead, and 
in Him have risen again, and if Himself in us dieth, and in 
us riseth again ; (for Himself is the Oneness of Head and 
Body ;) not without reason the voice of the Same is our voice, 
and our voice is also the voice of the Same. Let us hear there- 
fore the Psalm, and Christ speaking therein let us perceive. 

3. This Psalm hath the Title, For David Himself, when 
he uas in the desert of Idumaa. By the name of Idumaja 



Hunger and thirst of the soul, Sleep and Watching. 215 

is understood this world. For Idumsea was a certain nation Veb. 
of men going astray, where idols were worshipped. In no '- 



good sense is put this Idumaea. If not in a good sense it is i Sam. 
put, it must be understood that this life, wherein we suffer so gee on 
great toils, and wherein to so great necessities we are made P^- ^2. 
subject, by the name of Idumaea is signified. Even here is 
a desert where there is much thirst, and ye are to hear 
the voice of One now thirsting in the desert. But if we 
acknowledge ourselves as thirsting, we shall acknowledge 
ourselves as drinking also. For he that thirsteth in this 
world, in the world to come shall be satisfied, according to 
the Lord's saying. Blessed are they that hunger and thirst Matt. 5, 
after righteousness, for the same shall be satisfied. There- 
fore in this world we ought not to love fulness. Here we 
must thirst, in another place we shall be filled. But now in 
order that we may not faint in this desert, He sprinkleth 
upon us the dew of His word, and leaveth us not utterly to 
dry up, so that there should not be in our case any seeking 
of us again, but that we may so thirst as that we may drink. 
But in order that we may drink, with somewhat of His Grace 
we are sprinkled : nevertheless we thirst. And what saith 
our soul to God ? 

4. Ver. 1. God, my God, unto Thee from the light I 
watch. What is to watch ? It is, not to sleep. What is to 
sleep ? There is a sleep of the soul ; there is a sleep of the 
body. Sleep of body we all ought to have : because if sleep 
of body is not taken, a man fainteth, the body itself fainteth. 
For our frail body cannot long sustain a soul watching and 
on the stretch on active works ; if for a long time the soul 
shall have been intent on active pursuits, the body being- 
frail and earthly holdeth her not, sustaineth her not for ever 
in activity, and fainteth and falleth. Therefore God hath 
granted sleep to the body, whereby are recruited the mem- 
bers of the body, in order that they may be able to sustain 
the soul watching. But of this let us take heed, namely, 
that our soul herself sleep not: for evil is the sleep of the 
soul. Good is the sleep of the body, whereby is recruited 
the health of the body. But the sleep of the soul is to 
forget her God. Whatsoever soul shall have forgotten her 
God, sleepeth. Therefore the Apostle saith to certain persons 



216 Christ, our Light, should keep us watching. 

Psalm that forgot their God, and being as it were in sleep, did act 

'the follies of the worship of idols — (For so are they that 

worship idols, as they that see in slumbers empty visions : 
but if the soul of the same persons do wake up, she under- 
standeth by whoui she halh been made, and worshippeth 
not that which herself hath made) — The Apostle, I say, saith 

Ephes. to certain persons. Rise, thou that slecpest, and rise up from 
' * the dead, and Christ shall enlighten thee. Was the Apostle 
waking up one sleeping in body? Nay, but he was waking 
a soul sleeping, in as much as he was waking her, in order 
that she might be lightened by Christ. Therefore as to these 
same watchings sailh this man, God, my God^ iinto Thee 
from the light I icatch. For thou wouldest not watch of 
thyself, unless ther^ should arise thy Light, to wake thee 
from sleep. For Christ lightenelh souls, and maketh them 
to watch: but if His light He taketh away, they slumber. For 

Ps.13,3. for this cause to Him there is said in another Psalm, Lighten 
mine eyes, that I may never slumber in death. Or if from 
Him being turned away they slumber. He is a present light 
to them, and they are not able to see, because they sleej). 
In like manner also is he that sleepeth in body during the 
day ; now the sun hath arisen, now is the day grown hot, and 
he is as it were in the night, because he watcheth not that 
he may see the day that is already risen ; so in certain men, 
when Christ is now present, when the truth hath now been 
preached, there is yet a sleep of the soul. To those men 

Ephes. therefore, if ye watch, ye will be saying daily. Else, thou that 

^' ^*' sleepest, and rise up from the dead, and Christ shall 
enlighten thee. For your life and your manners ought to 
watch in Christ, in order that those Heathen men sleeping 
may perceive, and at the sound of your watchings may be 
awakened, and may themselves shake off sleep, and may 
begin in Christ with you to say, God, my God, unto Thee 
from the light 1 watch. 

5. Ver. 2. My soul hath thirsted for Thee. Behold that 
desert of Iduma;a. See how here he thirsteth : but see what 
good diing is here, Hath thirsted for Thee. For there are 
they that thirst, but not for God. For every one that willeth 
any thing to be granted to him, is in the heat of longing ; 

1 quanta the lougiiig itsell is the thirst ol the soul. And see ye what ' 



The soul Ihintsfor Rigid eousness, the flesh for Resurrection. 217 

longings there are in the hearts of men : one longeth for Veb. 

gold, another longeth for silver, another longeth for posses- —^ 

sions, another inheritance, another abundance of money, 
another many herds, another a wife, another honours, another 
sons. Ye see those longings, how they are in the hearts of 
men. All men are inflamed with longing, and scarce is 
found one to say, My soul hath thirsted for Thee. For men 
thirst for the world: and perceive not themselves to be in 
the desert of Idumgea, where their souls ought to thirst for 
God. Say we therefore, 3Iy soul hath thirsted for Thee: 
say all we, because in the harmony of Christ all were one 
soul : let this same soul thirst in Idumaea. 

6. Hath thirsted for Thee, he saith, my soul: in how many 
ways for Thee 7ny flesh also? A small thing it is that my 
soul hath tliirsted, \uy flesh also hath thirsted. Consider if 
the soul thirsteth for God, in what manner doth the flesh 
also tliirst for God ? For when the flesh thirsteth, for water' i Oxf. 
it thirsteth : when the soul thirsteth, for the Fountain of ^l*'^-'^"'' 

this 

Wisdom it thirsteth. From that ver}-- Fountain shall be water* 
made drunken our souls, as saith another Psalm, They shall p^, gg g 
be made drunken with the fruitfulness of Thy House, and 
with the flood of Thy delights Thou shall give thein to drink. 
Wisdom therefore must be thirsted after, righteousness must 
be thirsted after. With it we shall not be satisfied, with it 
we shall not be filled, save when this life shall have been 
ended, and we shall have come to that which God hath 
promised. For God hath promised equality with Angels :t , „q 
and now the Angels thirst not as we do, they hunger not as 36. 
we do ; but they have the fulness of truth, of light, of im- 
mortal wisdom. Therefore blessed they are, and out of so 
great blessedness, because they are in that City, the Heavenly 
Jerusalem, afar from whence we now are sojourning in a 
strange land, they observe us sojourners, and they pity us, 
and by the command of the Lord they help us, in order that 
to this common country sometime we may return, and there 
with them sometime with the Lord's fountain of truth and 
eternity we may be filled. Now therefore let our soul thirst : 
whence doth our flesh also thirst, and this in many ways.? 
1)1 many ways for Thee, he saith, my Jlesh also. Because 
to our flesh also is promised Resurrection. As to our soul 



218 In what sort we hope to rise again in thejlesh. 

Psalm is promised blessedness, so also to omr flesh is promised 

1 resurrection. Resurrection of the flesh of such sort is 

promised to us : hear ye, and learn, and hold fast what is 
the hope of Christians, on account of which we are Christians. 
For not to this end ai*e we Christians, that we may seek for 
ourselves earthly felicity, which ofttimes both robbers and 
wicked men have. For the sake of another felicity we are 
Christians, which then we shall receive, when that whole life 
of this world shall have passed away. Therefore is promised 
to us resurrection of the flesh also ; and such a resurrection 
of the flesh is promised, as that this flesh which now we 
bear, shall rise again at the last. And let it not seem to 
you a thing incredible. For if God hath made us that were 
not, is it a great thing for Him to make again us that 
were ? Therefore let not this seem to you to be incre- 
dible, because ye see dead men as it were decaying, 
and passing into ashes and into dust. Or if any dead 
man be burned, or if dogs tear him in pieces, do ye think 
that from this he will not rise again ? All things which are 
dismembered, and into a sort of dust do decay, are entire with 
God. For into those elements of the world they pass, whence 
at first they have come, when we were made : we do not see 
them ; but yet God will bring them forth. He knoweth whence, 
because even before we were. He created us from whence He 
knew. Such a resurrection of the flesh therefore to us is 
promised, as that, although it be the same flesh, that now we 
carry, which is to rise again, yet it hath not the corruption 
which now it hath. For now because of the con-uption of 
frailty, if we eat not, we faint and are hungry ; if we drink 
not, we faint and are thirsty ; if long time we watch, we faint 
and sleep ; if long time we sleep, we faint, therefore we watch ; 
if long time we eat and drink, though for refreshment we may 
eat and drink, the very prolonged refreshment is a cause 
of fainting ; if long time we stand, we are wearied, therefore 
we sit ; and if long time we sit, there also are we wearied, 
and therefore we rise up. Secondly, see how without any 
standing is our flesh : for infancy passeth away into boyhood, 
and thou seekest infancy, and infancy is not, for now instead 
of infancy isboyhood: again this same also passeth into youth, 
thou seekest boyhood and findest not: the young man becometh 



Thejlesh in its needs should seek to God. 219 

a middle aged man, thou seekest the young man and he is "^eb. 

not : the middle aged man becometh an old man, thou seekest '- — 

a middle aged man and findest not : and an old man dieth, 
thou seekest an old man and findest not: our age therefore 
standeth not still : every where is weariness, every where 
faintness, every where corruption. Observing what a hope of 
resurrection God promiseth to us, in all those our manifold 
faintings we thirst for that incorruption : and so our flesh 
manifoldly doth thirst for God. In this Idumsea, in this 
desert, manifoldly as it toileth, so manifoldly doth it thirst; 
manifoldly as it is wearied, so manifoldly doth it thirst for 
that unwearying incorruption. 

7. Nevertheless, my brethren, the flesh of a good Christian 
and a believer even in this world for God doth thirst : for if 
the flesh hath need of bread, if it hath need of water, if it hath 
need of wine, if it hath need of money, if this flesh hath need 
of a beast, from God it ought to seek it, not from demons 
and idols and I know not what powers of this world. For 
there are certain who when they suffer hunger in this world, 
leave God and ask Mercury or ask Jove to give unto them, 
or her whom they call ' Heavenly %' or any the like demons: 
not for God their flesh thirsteth. But they that thirst for God, Oxf. 
every where ought to thirst for Him, both soul and in flesh : for < Deo.> 
to the soul also God giveth His bread, that is the Word of 
Truth : and to the flesh God giveth the things which are neces- 
sary, for God hath made both soul and flesh. For the sake of 

thy flesh thou askest of demons: hath God made the soul, and 
the demons made the flesh? He that hath made the soul, the 
Same hath made the flesh also : He that hath made both of 
them, the Same feedeth both of them. Let either part of us thirst 
for God, and after labour manifold let either simply be filled. 

8. But where thirsteth our soul, and our flesh manifoldly, 
not for any one but for Thee, O Lord, that is our God ? it 
thirsteth where ? In a land desert, and without way, and 
ivithout water. Of this world we have spoken, the same is 
Idumsea, this is the desert of Idumaea, whence the Psalm 
hath received its title. In a land desert. Too little it is to 

» Ed. Ben. refers to TertuUian Apol. same goddess is mcDtioned as worship- 

xxiii. where ' Virgo C'«;lestis' is re- ped together with Berecynthia, the 

preseDted as 'promising rain,' and mother of the gods. 
St. Aug. de Civ. Dei, ii. 4. where the 



220 Our consolations in the loorld are not of the world. 

PsAi.M say desert^ where no man dwellelh; it is besides, both without 
■ M'fl'y, and ivifhout ?eater. O that the same desert had even 

a way : O that into this a man running, even knew where he 
might thence get forth ! He seeth no man to his comfort, he 
seeth no way vrhereby he may be free from the desert place. 
Therefore in that place he taketh lodging. O that there were 
even water, whence he might be refreshed, that from thence 
cannot get forth. Evil is the desert, l)orrible, and to be feared : 
and nevertheless God hath pitied us, and hath made for us a 
John 14, way in the desert. Himself our Lord Jesus Christ: and hath 
^* made for us a consolation in the desert, in sending to us 

preachers of His Word : and hath given to us water in the 
John 4, desert, by fulfilling with the Holy Spirit His preachers, in 
order that there might be created in them a well of water 
springing up unto life everlasting. And, lo! we have here all 
things, but they are not of the desert. Therefore what pro- 
perly belongs to the desert this Psalm hath first noticed, in 
order that when thou too hadst heard in what evil case thou 
wast, whatever consolations thou mightest have here, either 
of associates, or of way, or of water, thou shouldest not ascribe 
to the desei't, but to Him That hath deigned to visit thee in 
the desert. 

9. Ver. 3. Thus in a holy thing I have appeared to Thee, 
that I might see Thy power and Thy glory. At first ' my 
soul thirsted, and my flesh manifoldly for Thee in a desert, 
and in a land without way, and without water,' and tlius in a 
holy thing I have appeared to Thee that I might see Tliy 
power and Thy glory. Unless a man first thirst in that 
desert, that is in the evil wherein he is, he never arrivelh at 
the good, which is God. But / have appeared to Thee, he 
saith, in a holy thing. Now in a holy thing is there great 
consolation. / have appeared to Thee, is what .? In order 
that Thou mightest see me : and for this reason Thou hast 
seen me, in order that I might see Thee. / have appeared 
to Tfiee, that I might see. He hath not said, I have appeared 
to Thee that Thou mightest see: but, / have appeared to 
Thee, that I might sec Thy power and Thy glory. Whence 
Gal. 4, also the Apostle, But now, he saith, knowing Ood, nay 
having been known of Ood. For first ye have appeared to 
God, in order that to you God might be able to appear. That 



God Himself the refreshment of the perfected. 221 

/ might see Thy power mid Thy glory. In truth in that Vkb, 
forsaken place, that is, in that desert, if as though from — '- — 
the desert a man striveth to obtain enough for his sus- 
tenance, he will never see the power of the Lord, and the 
glory of the Lord, but he will remain to die of thirst, and will 
find neither way, nor consolation, nor water, whereby he 
may endure in the desert. But when he shall have lifted up 
himself to God, so as to say to Him out of all his inward 
parts. My soul hath thirsted for Thee ; how manifoldly for 
Thee also my Jtesh ! lest perchance even the things neces- 
sary for the flesh of others he ask, and not of God, or else 
long not for that resurrection of the flesh, which God hath 
promised to us : when I say, he shall have lifted up himself, 
he will have no small consolations. 

10. Behold, brethren, in like manner as our flesh, so long 
as it is mortal, so long as it is frail, before that resurrection 
hath those comforts whereby we live, as bread, water, fruits, 
wine, oil : (if all these comforts and succours forsake us, even 
to continue we are unable ;) though not yet this flesh 
hath received that perfect soundness, wherein it will suffer 
no difficulty, no need : so also our soul, while here it is in 
this flesh, amid the temptations and dangers of this world, 
is still weak ; but hath moreover those same comforts of the 
Word, comforts of prayer, comforts of discourse : these 
things are to our soul as those to our flesh. But when our 
flesh shall have risen again, so that no longer of these we 
have need, it will have a kind of position and condition of 
its incorruption : so also our soul will have to its food 
Himself the Word of God, by Which were made all things. John i, 
Nevertheless, thanks to God, Who now in this desert for- 
saketh us not, either in giving to us what is necessary for the 
flesh, or in giving to us what is necessary for the soul : and 
when by any necessities He instructeth us. He willeth that 
we should love Him the more ; lest perchance through 
fulness we be corrupted, and forget Him. He withdraweth 
from us sometimes the things which are necessary, and 
grindeth us down ; in order that we may know that Father 
and Lord He is, not only when comforting, but also when 
chastening. For He is preparing us for a certain inheritance i Oxf, 
incorruptible and great. If one cask, or one vesseP of thine, ^^^• 

'chair.' 



222 Man appears to God in holiness through Christ. 

Psalm or whatever thou hast in thy house, thou art intending to 

LXIII . . 

— 'leave to thy son, and that he may not lose it, thou instioict- 

est him, and if with the whip for correction thou chastenest 
him, that 'he may not lose that nothing of thine, which he 
is himself also to leave here, even as thou dost ; wilt thou 
not have our Father also to instruct us with the whippings 
even of necessities or tribulations. Who is going to give us 
such an inheritance as cannot pass away ? For as our inherit- 
ance God will give us Himself, so that Himself we may pos- 
sess, and by Himself we may be possessed for everlasting. 

11. Thei'efore in a holy thing let us appear to God, that 
He may appear to us : let us appear in holy longing, that 
He may appear to us in the power and glory of the Son of 
God. For to many He hath not appeared : let them be 
in the Holy One, that He may appear to them also. 
For many think Him to have been only man ; because He 
is preached as having been born of man, crucified and 
dead, as having walked on earth, having eaten and having 
drunk, and as having done all other things that are human ; 
and they think Him to have been such an one as are the rest 
of men. But ye have heard but now when the Gospel was 
Johnio, being read in what terms He hath notified His Majesty : / 
and My Father are One. Behold how great a Majesty and 
how great an Equality with the Father hath come down to 
the flesh because of our infirmity. Behold how greatly 
beloved we have been, before that we loved God. If before 
that we loved God, so much by Him we were beloved, as 
that His Son, Equal with Himself, He made a Man for our 
sake, what doth He reserve for us now loving Him ? There- 
fore many men think it to be a very small thing that the Son 
of God hath appeared on earth ; because they are not in the 
Holy One, to them hath not appeared the power of the Same 
and the glory of the Same : that is, not yet have they a heart 
made holy, whence they may perceive the eminence of that 

virtue, and may render thanks to God, nor that to which for 
1 The . 

con- their own sakes so great an One came, unto what a nativity, 

struction jjj^jQ what a Passion, they are not able to see, His glory 

seems and His power'. 

fS!"^' ^^" ^^er. 4. For belter is Thy mercy than^ lives. Many are 

*Lat. the lives of men, but one life God promiseth: and He giveth 

above. 



The life God gives in mercy better than all ours. 223 

not this to us as if for our merits but for His mercy. For Ver. 
what good thing have we done, to merit this ? Or what good — '—^ 
deeds of ours have gone before, that God should give to us 
His Grace ? Hath He found righteousnesses to crown and 
not transgressions to forgive ? Nay, it would not have been 
unjust if He had willed to punish the transgressions which 
He hath forgiven. For what is so just a thing, as that a 
sinner should be punished? Though a just thing it be, that 
a sinner should be punished ; it hath belonged to the mercy 
of Him not to punish a sinner but to justify him, and of a 
sinner to make a just man, and of an ungodly man to make 
a godly man. Therefore His mercy is better than lives. 
What lives ? Those which for themselves men have chosen. 
One hath chosen for himself a life of business, another a 
country life, another a life of usury, another a military life ; 
one this, another that. Divers are the lives, but better is 
Thy life than our lives. Better is that which Thou givest to 
men amended, than that which perverse men choose. One 
life Thou givest, which should be preferred to all our lives, 
whatsoever in the world we might have chosen. For better 
is Thy mercy than lives: my lips shall praise Thee. My 
lips would not praise Thee, unless before me were to go Thy 
mercy. By Thy gift Thee I praise, through Thy mercy 
Thee I praise. For I should not be able to praise God, 
unless He gave me to be able to praise Him. For better is Thy 
mercy titan lives: my lips shall praise Thee. 

13. Ver. 5. So I will speak good of Thee in my life, and in 
Thy name I will lift up my hands. ' So I will speak good of 
Thee in my life.' Now in my life which to me Thou hast 
given, not in that which I have chosen after the world with 
the rest among many lives, but that which Thou hast given 
to me through Thy mercy, that I should praise Thee. So I 
will speak good of Thee in my life. What is so ? That to 
Thy mercy 1 may ascribe my life wherein Thee I praise, not 
to my merits. And in Thy name I will lift up my hands. 
Lift up therefore hands in prayer. Our Lord hath lifted 
up for us His hands on the Cross, and stretched out were 
His hands for us, and therefore were His hands stretched 
out on the Cross, in order that our hands might be stretched 
out unto good works : because His Cross hath brought us 



224 Lift up pure hands to Qod, and riot for vain things. 

PsAi.M mercy. Behold, He hath lifted up hands, and hath offered 

^for us Himself a Sacrifice to God, and through that Sacrifice 

have been effaced all our sins. Let us also lift up our 
hands to God in prayer : and our hands being lifted up to 
God shall not be confounded, if they be exercised in good 
works. For what doth he that lifteth up hands .? Whence 
hath it been commanded that with hands lifted up we should 

1 Tim. pray to God .? For the Apostle saith. Lifting up pure hands 
uithout anger and dissension. It is in order that when thou 
liftest up hands to God, there may come into thy mind thy 
works. For whereas those hands are lifted up that thou 
mayest obtain that which thou wilt, those same hands thou 
thinkest in good works to exercise, that they may not blush 
to be lifted up to God. In Thy name I ivill lift up my 
hands. Those are our prayers in this Iduma;a, in this 
desert, in the land w ithout water and without way, where for 

Johni4,us Christ is the Way, but not the way of this earth. 

14. And what shall 1 say, when I shall lift up my hands'" 
in Thy name ? what shall I require ? Ah ! brethren, when 
ye lift up hands, ask what ye are to require ! For from the 
Almighty ye require. Some great thing require ye, not such 
things as they require that not yet have believed. Ye see 
what sort of things are given even to ungodly men. Art 
thou to require from thy God money? Doth He not give it 
even to wicked men, that in Him believe not ? Wliat great 
thing therefore art thou to require, which He giveth to evil 
men also ? But let it not displease thee that those things 
which He giveth to evil men also, are so trifling that even to 
evil men they are worthy to be given : in order that those 
things which can be given even to evil men may not seem to 
thee as if they were great things. God's indeed are all 
earthly gifts: but see, how those things which He giveth 
even to evil men, are not to be esteemed as any thing great. 
There is another thing which He reserveth lor us. But let 
us think of those things which He giveth even to evil men, 
and hence let us perceive what thing He reserveth for good 
men. What things He giveth to evil men see ye : He 
giveth to them this light, see ye that both good men and evil 
men see it ! the rain which cometh down upon the earth ; 
^ Oxf. Mas. add, ' and what shall I say when I lift them up P 



With what fatness toe ask of God to he filled. 225 

and from hence how great good things do spring? and Ver. 
thence is made distribution both to evil men and to good — '—^ 



men, according to the Gospel saying, That maketh His sun Matt. 5, 
to rise upon good men and evil men, and raineth upon just 
men and unjust men. Those gifts therefore which do spring 
either from rain, or from the sun, from our Lord indeed we 
ought to require, forasmuch as they are things necessary; but 
not those things alone, because those things are given both 
to good men and to evil men. What therefore ought we to 
require, when we lift up hands ? For as best it could, the 
Psalm hath spoken this. What is it that I have said, as best 
it could? As best could human mouth unto human ears. 
For by means of human mouths these words have been 
spoken, and in certain figures they have been spoken, as 
all the weak, as all the babes could receive them. What 
hath he said? What hath he required? In Thy name, he 
ssiith, I will lift up my hands. As going to receive what? 
As though with marrow and fatness my soul should be filled. 
Do ye think that this soul hath longed for any fatness of 
flesh, my brethren ? For he hath not longed for this as if it 
were some great matter, namely, that fat rams or fat hogs 
for him should be killed, or that he should come to some 
tavern, where he might find choice meats wherewith to fill 
himself. If we shall have supposed this, we ai-e ' worthy to ' Some 
hear those words. Therefore something spiritual we ought ^^*f^f"" 
to perceive. Our soul hath a sort of fatness. For the souls 
which lack that wisdom, do grow thin ; and become so 
utterly attenuated, as that in all good works they speedily 
fall short. Why do they speedily fall short in all good 
works ? Because they have not the fatness of their fulness. 
Hear the Apostle, speaking of a fat soul, giving command- 
ment that every one should work well. He saith what ? 
A cheerful giver God loveth. Whence could a fat soul be 2 Cor. 9 
fat, except by the Lord it were filled ? And nevertheless ''• 
howsoever fat here it be, what will it be in the world to 
come, where God will feed us ? Meanwhile in this sojourning, 
what we shall be then, cannot even be told. And perchance 
that fulness we desire here when we lift up our hands, at the 
time of which with fatness we shall be so filled, that all our 
want shall utterly perish, and for nothing we shall long : 
VOL. III. Q 



Q26 All we can desire is to be found in God. 

Psalm forasmuch as the whole will be before us, whatever we long 

~ ^for here, whatever as a great matter we love here. Already 

our fatlicrs are dead, but God liveth : here we could not 
always have fathers, but there we shall alway have one living 
Father, when we have our father-land : whatever is our 
earthly land, there we cannot alway be ; and others must 
needs be born, and sons of elder citizens are born, to shut 
out from thence their fathers. For to this end a boy is born, 
to say to his elder, What doest thou here ? It must needs 
be that they that succeed and are born should shut out 
them that have gone before them. There all we alike shall 
live : there will be no successor, because there will be no 
predecessor. What sort of country is that ? But thou lovest 
here riches. God Himself shall be to thee thy riches. But 
thou lovest a good fountain. What is more passing clear than 
that wisdom } What more bright ? Whatsoever is an object 
of love here, in place of all thou shall have Him that hath made 
all things, an Ihomjli with marrow and fatness my soul should 
be filled: and lips of exultation shall praise TJiy name. In 
this desert, in Thy name I will lift up my hands : let my 
soul be filled as though with marrow and fatness, and my lips 
with exultation shall praise Thy name. For now is prayer, 
so long as there is thirst : when thirst shall have passed away, 
there passeth away praying and there succeedeth praising. 
And lips of exultation shall praise Thy name. 

15. Ver. 7. //'/ have remembered Thee upon my bed, in the 
dawnings I did meditate on Thee : (ver. 8.) because Thou 
hast become my helper. His ' bed' he calleth his rest. When 
any one is at rest, let him be mindful of God ; when any one 
is at rest, let him not by rest be dissolved, and forget God: 
if mindful he is of God when he is at rest, in his actions on 
God he doth meditate. For the dawn he hath called actions, 
because every man at dawn beginnelh to do something. 
What therefore hath he said ? //" mindful I have been of 
Thee on my bed, in the dawn in ys also I was meditating on 
Thee. If therefore I was not mindful on my bed, in the dawn 
also I did not meditate on Thee. Can he that thinketh not 
of God when he is at leisure, in his actions think of God ? 
But he that is mindful of Him when he is at rest, on 
the Same doth meditate when he is doing, lest in action 



Our works in Christ must he those of Light. 227 

he should come short. Therefore he hath added what ? Ver. 
And in the dawnings I was meditating on Thee : because — ^— 
Thou hast become my helper. For unless God aid our good 
works, they cannot be accomplished by us. And worthy things 
we ought to work : that is, as though in the light, since by 
Chiist shewing the way we work. Whosoever worketh evil 
things, in the night he worketh, not in the dawn ; according to 
the Apostle, saying, They that are drunken^ in the night are J The«. 
drunken; and they that sleep .,in the night do sleep: let us that ' 
are of the day, be sober. He exhorteth us that after the day 
we should walk honestly : As in the day, honestly let us walk. Rom.is, 
And again, Ye, he saith, are sons of light, and sons of day ; we j xhess. 
are not of night nor of darkness. Who are sons of night, and ^j ^• 
sons of darkness ? They that work all evil things. To such 
a degree they are sons of night, that they fear lest the things 
which they work should be seen : and the evil things which 
openly they work, for this reason openly they work, because 
many men work those things : the things which few men 
work, in secret they work : but they that work such things 
openly, are indeed in the light of the sun, but in the darkness 
of the heart. No one therefore in the dawn worketh, except 
him that in Christ worketh. But he that while at leisure is 
mindful of Christ, on the Same doth meditate in all his 
actions, and He is a helper to him in a good work, lest 
through his weakness he fail. 

16. And in the covering of Thy wings I will exult. I am 
cheerful in good works, because over me is the covering of 
Thy wings. If thou protect me not, forasmuch as I am 
a chicken, the kite will seize me. For our Lord Himself 
sailh in a certain place to that Jerusalem, a certain city, 
where He was crucified: Jerusalem, He saith, Jerusalem, how Mat. 23, 
often I have willed to gather together thy sons, as though a 
hen her chickens, and thou wouldest not ? Little ones we 
ate : therefore may God protect us under the shadow of 
His wings. What when we shall have grown greater ? A 
good thing it is for us that even then He should protect us, 
so that under Him the greater, alvvay we be chickens. For 
alway He is greater, however much we may have grown. 
Let no one say, let Him protect me while I am a little one : 
as if sometime he would attain to such magnitude, as should 

q2 



228 IVe must keep dose to God, humbly following. 

Psalm be sclf-sufficient. Without the protection of God, nought 

^thou art. Alway by Him let us desire to be protected: then 

alway in Him we shall have power to be great, if alway under 
Him little we be. And in the coverittf/ of Thy wings I will 
exult. 

17. Ver. 9. Mg soul hath been glued on behind J7iee. 
See ye one longing, see ye one thirsting, see ye how ho 
cleaveth to God. Let there spring up in you this affection. 
If already it is sprouting, let it be rained upon and grow : 
let it come to such strength, that ye also may say from the 
whole heart, My soul hath been glued on behind Thee. 
Where is that same glue? The glue itself is love. Have 
thou love, wherewith as with glue thy soul may be glued on 
behind God. Not with God, but behind God; that He 
may go before, thou mayest follow. For he that shall have 
willed to go before God, by his own counsel would live, and 
will not follow the commandments of God. Because of this 
even Peter was rebuked, when he willed to give counsel to 
Christ Who was going to suffer for us. For as yet Peter was 
weak, and knew not how great profit there was for mankind 
in the blood of Christ. Now the Lord, That had come to 
redeem us, and to give His blood a ransom for us, began to 
proclaim His Passion. Peter was alarmed for His Lord, as 
if He were about to die, Whom he would have had here 
alway to live just as he then saw Him : because being given 
lip to his carnal eyes, by carnal affection about the Lord he 
Mat. 16, was held fast ; and he saith to Him, Fa?' be it from Thee, 
22. 23. Q i^Qy.^^ ^g Thou merciful to Thyself. And the Lord, Go 
back behind Me, Satan : for thou savourest not the things 
iHe which are of God, but the things which are of men. Where- 
mean by fore, the things which are of men? Because to go before Me 

*^'^ thou desirest, go back behind Me, in order that thou mavest 
phrase ' " ' _ •' 

to attri- follow me: so that now following Christ he might say. My 

twofoki *''''^ hath been (jlued on behind Thee. With reason he 

person- addeth, Me Thy right hand hath taken up. My soul hath 

our been glued on behind Thee, me TJiy right hand hath taken 

Lord, as ^^„ This Christ hath said in us: that is in the Man 'Which 

appears . 

from his He was bcaruig for us. Which He was offering for us. He 

Retrac ^^^^^ g^id this. The Church also saith this in Christ, slie 
tations ' 

on Ps.i. saith it in Her Head: for she too hath suffered here great 
1. 



Persecutors seek in vaiyi to destroy the Church. 229 

persecutions, and by Her individual members even now he Ver. 

suifereth. For what man belonging to Christ is not vexed '■ — 

with divers temptations, and do not the devil and his angels 
daily strive with him, in order that he may be led astray by 
some lust, by some suggestion, either by promise of gain or 
fear of loss, or by promise of life or fear of death, either by 
the enmity of some great man, or the friendship of some 
great man ? By every means the devil striveth in what way 
he may throw down : and in persecutions we live, and we 
have for our perpetual enemies, the devil and his angels: but 
let us not fear. The devil and his angels are as it were kites: 
under the wings of that Hen let us stay, and he is not able 
to touch us. For the Hen which protecteth us, is strong. 
Weak She is for our sake : but strong She is in Herself; 
our Lord Jesus Christ, the very Wisdom of God. Therefore 
the Church also saith this: My soul hath been glued on 
hehind Thee, Thy right hand hath taken me up. 

18. Ver. 9. But themselves in vain have sought my soul. 
What have they done to me that have sought to destroy my 
soul ? O that they were seeking my soul, so that they might 
believe with me : but they have sought my soul to destroy 
me. For they were not going to carry off the glue, wherewith 
my soul hath adhered behind Thee. For who shall separate 'Rom. 8, 
us from the love of Christ ? shall tribulation, or distress, or^^' 
persecution, or hunger, or nakedness, or sword? Thy right 
hand hath taken me up. Therefore because of that glue, and 
because of Thy right hand most mighty, in vain they have 
sought my soul. As many as have persecuted or desire to 
persecute the Church, of them this may be understood: 
chiefly, however, let us take this of the Jews, who sought to 
destroy the Soul of Christ, both in Himself our Head Which 
they crucified, and in His disciples whom afterwards they 
persecuted. They have sought my soul. They shall go 
unto the lower places of the earth. Earth they were unwilling 
to lose, when they crucified Christ : into the lower places of 
the earth they have gone. What are the lower places of the 
earth ? Earthly lusts. Better it is to walk upon earth, than 
by lust to go under earth. For every one that in prejudice 
of his salvation desireth earthly things, is under the earth: 
because earth he hath put before him, earth upon himself 



230 The Jews chose earth he/ore Christ to their ruin. 

Psalm he hath put, and himself beneath he hath laid. They there- 
LXIII. • . • 
'fore fearing to lose earth, said what of the Lord Jesus Christ, 

when they saw great multitudes go after Him, forasmuch as 

John 11, He was doing wonderful things ? If we shall have let Him 

go alice, there will come the Romans, and will take away 

from us both place and nation. They feared to lose earth, 

and they went under the earth : there befel them even what 

they feared. For they willed to kill Christ, that they might 

not lose earth ; and earth they therefore lost, because Christ 

they slew. For when Christ had been slain, because the 

Mat.2l,Lord Himself had said to them, The kingdom shall be taken 

fromyou^ and shall be givenup to a nation doing righteousness: 

there followed them great calamities of persecutions : there 

conquered them Roman emperors, and kings of the nations: 

they were shut out from that very place where they ciiicified 

Christ, and now that place is full of Christian praisers : it 

hath no Jew, it hath been cleared of the enemies of Christ, 

it hath been fulfilled with the praisers of Christ. Behold, 

they have lost at the hands of the Romans the place, because 

Christ they slew, who to this end slew, that they might not 

lose the place at the hands of the Romans, Therefore, 

They shall enter into the loner places of the earth. 

19. Ver. 10. They shall be delivered unto the hands of the 

sword. In truth, thus it hath visibly befallen them, they have 

been taken by storm by enemies breaking in. Portions of 

foxes they shall be. Foxes he calleth the kings of the world, 

that then were when Judaea was conquered. Hear in order 

that ye may know and perceive, that those he calleth foxes. 

Lukeis Herod the king the Lord Himself hath called a fox. Go ye, 

32' He saith, and tell that fox. See and observe, my brethren : 

Christ as King they would not have, and portions of foxes 

they have been made. For when Pilate the deputy governor 

in Judaja slew Christ at the voices of the Jews, he said to 

John 19 *^^ same Jews, Tour King shall I crucify? Because He was 

15. called King of the Jews, and He was the true King. And 

they rejecting Christ said. We have no king but Ccesar. 

They rejected a Lamb, chose a fox : deservedly portions of 

foxes they were made. 

^ ^ Rex 20. Ver. IJ. Tlie King in truth^, is so written, because 

they chose a fox, a King in truth they would not have. The 



vera' 



Christ the true King. His enemies silenced. 23 1 

Khig in truth : that is, the true King, to whom the title was Ver. 

inscribed, when He suffered. For Pilate set this title in '- — 

scribed over His Head, The King of the Jews,m the Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin tongues : in order that all they that should 
pass by might read of the glory of the King, and the infamy 
of the Jews themselves, who, rejecting the true King, chose 
the fox Caesar. The King in truth shall rejoice in God. 
They have been made portions of foxes: The King ifi truth 
shall rejoice in Qod. He Whom they seemed to themselves as 
if to overcome, when they crucified Him, at the time when 
He was crucified did shed the ransom, wherewith He bought 
the round world. The King in truth shall rejoice in God : 
every one shall be praised that sweareth in the Same. 
Why shall every one be praised that sweareth in the Same ? 
Because for himself he hath chosen Christ, not a fox : 
because when those Jews insulted, then He gave that whence 
they might be redeemed. To Himself therefore we belong, 
that hath redeemed us, that for us hath conquered the world, 
not with armed soldiery, but with despised Cross. The 
King in truth shall rejoice in God : every one shall be praised 
that sweareth in the Same. Who sweareth in Him ? He that 
promiseth to Him his life, that voweth to Him and payeth, 
he that becometh a Christian : this is what he saith in, Every 
one shall be praised that sweareth in the Same. For stopped 
up is the mouth of men speaking unjust things. How many 
unjust things have the Jews spoken ? How many evil things 
have spoken, not only the Jews, but also all men that for 
the sake of idols have persecuted the Christians } When they 
were raging against the Christians, they were thinking that 
they could make an end of Christians: while they were 
thinking that they could make an end, the Christians grew, 
and they themselves have been made an end of. Stopped 
up is the mouth of men speaking unjust things. No one 
dareth now openly to speak against Christ, now all men fear 
Christ. For stopped up is the mouth of men speaking unjust 
things. When in weakness the Lamb was, even foxes were 
bold against the Lamb. There conquered the Lion of the Rev. 5, 
tribe of Judah, and the foxes were silenced. For stopped^' 
up is the mouth of men speaking unjust things. 



Lat. psalm LXIV. 

LXIII. 



EXPOSITION. 



Sermon to the Commonalty. 

While keeping to-day the festival of the holy Martyrs' 
Passion, in the recollection of them let us rejoice, calling to 
mind what they suffered, and perceiving unto what they 
looked. For so great tribulations in the flesh they never 
would have endured, unless they had perceived with the 
mind a great rest. Over this Psalm, therefore, as beseemeth 
the aforesaid celebration, let us hastily pass. For yesterday 
many things your Love heard, and yet not even to-day have 
we been able to withhold our service from this festivity. 
Therefore though chiefly the Lord's Passion is noticed in 
this Psalm, neither could the Martyrs have been strong, 
unless they had beheld Him, That first suffered ; nor such 
things would they have endured in suffering, as He did, 
unless they had hoped for such things in the Resurrection 
as He had shewed of Himself: but your Holiness knoweth 
that our Head is our Lord Jesus Christ, and that all that 
cleave unto Him are the members of Him the Head ; and ye 
now have the voice of Him very well known to you, for- 
asmuch as not from Head alone, but also from Body He 
speaketh, and the voices of Him either signify or foretel not 
only Himself the Lord Jesus Christ, that hath now ascended 
into Heaven, but also the members of Him about to follow 
their own Head : let us acknowledge here not only His 
voice, but also our own. And let no one say, that novv-a- 
days in tribulation of passions we are not For alway ye 
have heard this fact, how in those times the whole Church 
together as it were was smitten against, but now through 
individuals she is tried. Bound indeed is the devil, that he 
may not do as much as he could, that he may not do as 
.much as he would : nevertheless, he is permitted to tempt as 
much as is expedient to men advancing. It is not expedient 
for us to be without temptations : nor should we beseech 



Those loko yield to fear are ' swalioived alive.'' 233 

God that we be not tempted, but that we be not ' led into Ver 
temptation.' 



Matt. 6 

9. Ver. 1. Say we, therefore, ourselves also: Heaiken y 13, 
God, to my prayer, ivhile I am troubled ; from fear of the 
enemy deliver my soul. Enemies have raged against the 
Martyrs : for what was that voice of Christ's Body praying ? 
For this it was praying, to be delivered from enemies, and 
that enemies might not have power to slay them. Were 
they not therefore hearkened to, because they were slain; 
and hath God forsaken His servants of a contrite heart, and 
despised men hoping in Him } Far be it. For who hath Ecclus. 
called upon God, and hath been forsaken ; who hath hoped ' 
in Him, and hath been deserted by Him ? They were 
hearkened to therefore, and they were slain ; and yet from 
enemies they were delivered. Others being afraid gave 
consent, and lived, and yet the same by enemies were 
swallowed up. The slain were delivered, the living were 
swallowed up. Thence is also that voice of thanksgiving. 
Perchance alive they would have swallowed us up. Many Ps. 124, 
men were swallowed up, and alive they were swallowed up, 
many dead were swallowed up. They that thought the 
Christian faith to be vain, dead were swallowed up: but 
they who, knowing the preaching of the Gospel to be truth, 
knowing Christ to be the Son of God ; and believing this, 
and holding this inwardly, nevertheless yielded to the pains, 
and to idols did sacrifice, alive were swallowed up. Those 
were swallowed up, because they were dead : but these 
because they were swallowed up are dead. For being swal- 
lowed up they could not live, although alive they were 
swallowed up. Therefore for this prayelh the voice of the 
Martyrs, From fear of the enemy deliver Thou my soul: 
not so that the enemy may not slay me, but that 1 may not 
fear an enemy slaying. For that to be fulfilled in the Psalm 
the servant prayeth, which but now in the Gospel the Lord 
was commanding. What but now was the Lord commanding ? 
Fear not them that kill the body, but the soul are not able Matt. 
to kill ; hut Him rather fear ye, that hath power to kill both ^^' ^^' 
body and soul in the hell of fire. And He repeated. Yea, I Luke 
say unto you, fear Him. Who are they that kill the body ? ^^' ^' 
Enemies. What was the Lord commanding ? That they 



234 Christ really protected from His enemies. 

Psalm should not be feared. Be prayer offered, therefore, that He 

' may grant what He hath commanded. From fear of the 

enemy deliver my soul. Dchver me from fear of the enemy, 
and make me submit to the fear of Thee. I would not fear 
him that killeth the body, but I would fear Him that hath 
power to kill both body and soul in the hell of fire. For 
not from fear would I be free : but from fear of the enemy 
being free, under fear of the Lord a servant. 

3. Ver. 2. Thou hast protected me from the gathering to- 
gether of malignants, and from the multitude of men working 
iniquity. Now upon Himself our Head let us look. Like 
things many Martyrs have suffered : but nothing doth shine 
out so brightly as the Head of Martyrs ; in Him rather let us 
behold what they have gone through. Protected he was 
from the multitude of malignants, God protecting Himself, 
1 Homi-the Son Himself and the Manhood 'which He was carrying 
onPs.]. protecting His flesh : because Son of Man He is, and Son of 
Ketrs. Qq^ He is; Son of God because of the form of God, Son of 
John 10, Man because of the form of a servant: having in His power 
to lay down His life : and to take it again. To Him what 
could enemies do? They killed body, soul they killed not. 
Observe. Too little therefore it were for the Lord to exhort 
the Martyrs with word, unless He had enforced it by example. 
Ye know what a gathering together there was of malignant 
Jews, and what a multitude there was of men working iniquity. 
What iniquity ? That wherewith they willed to kill the Lord 
Johnio, Jesus Christ. So many good ivorks, He saith, I have shewn 
to you, for which of these tvillye to kill Me? He endured all 
* Oxf. their in firm'', He healed all their sick, He preached the 
'irifir- Kingdom of Heaven, He held not His peace at their vices, so 
mities.' ^i^^t these same should have been displeasing to them, rather 
than the Physician by whom they were being made whole : 
for all these His remedies being ungrateful, like men delirious 
in high fever raving at the physician, they devised the plan of 
destroying Him that had come to heal them ; as though 
therein they would prove whether He were indeed a man, that 
could die, or were somewhat above men, and would not suffer 
Himself to die. The word of these same men we perceive 
\Visd.2, in the wisdom of Solomon: with death most rile, sav thev, 
let us condemjt Him ; lei us question Him, for there will be 



The Jews guilty of His death through their words. 235 

regard in the discourses of Him ; for if truly Son of God He Ver. 
iSf let Him deliver Him. Let us see therefore what was . . ' . 
done. 

4. Ver. 3. For they have whet like a sword their tongues. 
* Sons of men ; their teeth are arms and arrows, and their Ps.57,4. 
tongue is a sharp sword^ which saith another Psahn also ; 
so also here, They have whet like a sword their tongues. 
Let not the Jews say, we have not killed Christ. For to this 
end they gave Him to Pilate the judge, in order that they 
themselves might seem as it were guiltless of His death. For 
when Pilate had said to them, kill ye Him ; they replied, For^^°^^^^^ 
us it is not lawful to kill any one. The iniquity of their deed 
upon a human judge they wished to lay : but did they 
deceive God the Judge ? With regard to what Pilate did, in 
the very fact that he did it, he was somewise an accomplice, 
but in comparison with them he is himself much less guilty. 
For he strove as far as he could to deliver Him out of their 
hands. For to this end he scourged Him, and led Him forth John 19, 
to them. Not in persecution he scourged the Lord, but 
wishing to satisfy their fury, that even so they might at length 
be appeased, and might cease to wish to kill, when they 
saw Him scourged. He did this also. But when they 
persisted, ye know how he washed his hands, and said, that 
he himself did it not ', that he was pure of the blood of that > Oxf. 
Man. He did it nevertheless. But if he is guilty because ,^^^'1^^ 
he did it though unwillingly, are they innocent who com- did it 
pelled him to do it ? By no means. But he gave sentence Mat.27, 
against Him, and commanded Him to be crucified : and in '^'^• 
a manner himself killed Him ; ye also, O ye Jews, killed Him. 
Whence did ye kill Him ? With the sword of the tongue : 
for ye did whet your tongues. And when did ye smite, 
except when ye cried out, Crucify, Crucify? Luke23, 

5. But on this accoimt we must not pass over that which 
hath come into mind, lest perchance the reading of the 
Divine Scriptures should disquiet any one. One Evangelist 
saith that the Lord was crucified at the sixth hour, and John 19, 
another at the third hour: unless we understand it, we are ^'ark 
disquieted. And when the sixth hour was already beginning, i^' 25. 
Pilate is said to have sat on the judgment-seat : and in 
reality when the Lord was lifted up upon the tree, it was the 



236 Secret devices of the Jews against Christ. 

Psalm sixth hour. But another Evangelist, looking unto the mind 

^' of the Jews, how they wished themselves to seem guiltless of 

the death of the Lord, by his account proveth them guilty, 
saying, that the Lord was crucified at the third hour. But 
considering all the circumstance of the history, how many 
things might have been done, when before Pilate the Lord 
was being accused, in order that He might be crucified ; we 
find that it might have been the third hour, when they cried 
out. Crucify, Crucify. Therefore with more truth they 
killed at the time when they cried out. The ministers of 
the magistrate at the sixth hour crucified, the transgressors 
of the law at the third hour cried out : that which those did 
with hands at the sixth hour, these did with tongue at the 
third hour. More guilty are they that with crying out were 
raging, than they that in obedience were ministering. This 
is the whole of the Jews' sagacity, this is that which they 
sought as some great matter. Let us kill and let us not kill: 
so let us kill, as that we may not ourselves be judged to have 
killed. They have tvhetted like a sword their tongues. 

6. They have bended the how, a hitter thing. The bow 
he calleth lyings in wait. For he that with sword fighteth 
hand to hand, openly fighteth : he that shooteth an arrow 
deceiveth, in order to strike. For the arrow smiteth, before 
it is foreseen to come to wound. But whom could the lyings 
in wait of the human heart escape ? Would they escape our 
Lord Jesus Christ, Who had no need that any one should bear 

John 2, witness to Him of man? For Himself kiievo what was in man^ 
as the Evangelist testifieth. Nevertheless, let us hear them, 
and look upon them in their doings as if the Lord knew not 
what they devise. They have bended the bow, a deadly thing, 
(ver. 4,) in order that they may shoot in secret One unspotted. 
The expression he used, they have bended the bow, is the same 
as, m secret: as if they were deceiving by lyings in wait. For 
ye know by what artifices they did this, how with money 

Mat.26, they bribed a disciple that clave to Him, in order that He 
might be betrayed to them, how they procured false witnesses; 
with what lyings in wait and artifices they wrought, i)i order 
that they might shoot in secret one unspotted. Great iniquity ! 
Behold from a secret place there cometh an arrow, which 
striketh One unspotted, who had not even so much of spot as 



They confirm their evil words against themselves. 237 

could be pierced with an arrow. A Lamb indeed He is un- Ver. 
spotted, wholly unspotted, alway unspotted ; not one from ^'^' 
whom spots have been removed, but that hath contracted not 
any spots. For He hath made many unspotted by forgiving 
sins, being Himself unspotted by not having sins. That 
they may shoot in secret One unsjjotted. 

7. Suddenly they shall shoot Him, and shall not fear. O 
heart hardened, to wish to kill a Man that did raise the dead! 
Suddenly : that is, insidiously, as if unexpectedly, as if not 
foreseen. For the Lord was like to one knowing not, being 
among men knowing not what He knew not and what He knew: 
yea,knowing not that there was nothing that He knew not, and 
that He knew all things, and to this end had come in order that 
they might do that which they thought they did by their own 
power. Suddenly they shall shoot Him^ and shall not fear. 

8. Ver. 5. They have confirmed to themselves malignant 
discourse. ' Have confirmed c"" there were done so great 
miracles, they were not moved, they persisted in the design 
of the evil discourse. He was given up to the judge : trembleth 
the judge, and they tremble not that to the judge have given 
Him up : trembleth power, and ferocity trembleth not: he 
would wash his hands, and they stain their tongues. But 
wherefore this ? They have confirmed to themselves malig- 
nant discourse. How many things did Pilate, how many 
things that they might be restrained ! What said he ? what 
did he ? But they have confirmed to themselves malignant 
discourse : " Crucify, crucify.''^ The repetition is the con- Luke23 
firmation of the malignant discourse. Let us see in what^^* 
manner they have confirmedto themselves malignant discourse. 

" Your King shall I crucify f' They said," IVe have no /ci7ig johnW, 
but Ccesar aloneT They have confirmed to themselves ma- ^^' 
lignant discourse. He was offering for King the Son of God: 
to a man they betook themselves : worthy were they to have 
the one, and not have the Other. Further hear, in what manner 
they confirmed inalignant discourse. " I find not any thing 
in this Man,^'' saith the judge, " wherefore He is worthy of^^^^^^, 
deathJ''' And they that confirmed malignant discourse, said, 22. 
" His blood be upon us and upon our sons.'''' TJiey confirmed^j^^-^'^ > 
to themselves malignant discourse. Confirmed malignant 
discourse, not to tiie Lord, but to themselves. For how not 



238 Mans reed da)i(jer Is from enemies tvithin. 

Psalm to themselves, when they say, Upon ns and upon our sons ? 

■ '- That which therefore they confirmed, to themselves they 

confirmed : because the same voice is elsewhere, They dug 
before my face a ditch, and fell into it. Death killed not the 
Lord, but He death : but them iniquity killed, because they 
would not kill iniquity. 

9. Doubtless, brethren, certain it is, that either thou 
killest iniquity, or art killed of iniquity. But do not seek to 
kill iniquity as though it were something without thee. To 
thyself look, see what fighteth with thee, and take heed lest it 
defeat thee : thy iniquity, thy enemy will not be slain : for 
it is without thyself, and against thyself thy soul rebelleth, 
not any other thing. With some part thou adherest to God, 
with some part thou pleasest thyself in the world. That 
wherewith thou pleasest thyself in the world fighteth against 
the mind which adhereth to God. Let it adhere, let it adhere, 
let it not faint, let it not give way, great help it hath. It con- 
quereth that which in it rebelleth against itself, if it per- 
severeth in fighting. There is sin in thy body, but let it not 

Kom.6> reign. Let not tlicrefore, he saith, sin reign in your mortal 

^^* body, to obey the lasts thereof. But if thou shalt not have 
obeyed; even if there be that which may persuade, that 
which may allure unto evil, by not obeying thou bringest it 
about that there reign not that which is, and thus it will 
come to pass hereafter that there be not that which was. 

1 Cor. When.'* When death shall be swallowed up into victory, 
' ' when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, in that 
case there shall not be that which may fight against thee, 
there shall not be any other thing which may delight thee 
but God. Therefore also those Jews hated the Lord, sove- 
reignty did delight them. Certain men saw that by Him 
sovereignty was being taken away from them, and because 
of their delight they rebelled against the Lord : whereas, if 
they had rebelled against their evil delight, the very hatred 
they would have conquered, and they would not have been 
conquered by it, and the Lord would have been to them a 
Saviour, Who had come to make them whole. But now they 
fostered the fever : they fought against the Physician : what- 
soever the fever suggested, they did : whatsoever on the other 
hand the Physician commanded they neglected. Therefore 



Fain devices of the Jews to escape guilt. 239 

they rather were killed, not the Lord : for in the Lord death Vek. 
was killed, in them iniquity lived : but because iniquity lived -^' ^' 
in them, they were dead. 

10. Ver, 5. T/iey fold, in order thai they might hide 
traps: they said^ Who shall see them? They thought they 
would escape Him, Whom they were killing, that they would 
escape God. Behold, suppose Christ was a man, like the 
rest of men, and knew not what was being contrived for 
Him : doth God also know not ? O heart of man ! wherefore 
hast thou said to thyself, Who seeth me ? when He seeth That 
hath made thee ? They said, Who shall see them^ ? God did ' ' ^«* 
see, Christ also was seeing : because Christ is also God. traps ) 
But wherefore did they think that He saw not ? Hear the ^,''^' 
words following. < 7/4*' 

IL Ver. 6. They have searched out iniquity, they have 
failed, searching searchings : that is, deadly and acute de- 
signs. Let Him not be betrayed by us, but by His disciple : 
let Him not be killed by us, but by the judge : let us do all, 
and let us seem to have done nothing. And where is the Luke 
cry of the tongue, Crucify, Crucify ? So blind ye are, as deaf j^^^h 
also to be. Feigned innocence is not innocence ; pretended 6. 
equity is not equity, but double iniquity ; because both 
iniquity it is and pretence. Therein therefore those men 
failed searching searchings. By how much the more acutely 
they seemed to think it out for themselves, so much the more 
they failed ; because from the light of truth and equity into 
the depths of evil designs they were sunk. Justice hath a 
certain light of its own, it bedeweth and lighteneth a soul 
adhering to itself: but a soul turning away itself from the 
light of justice by how much the more it seeketh what it 
may find against justice, by so much the more from light it 
is thrust back, and in darkness it is sunk down. With reason 
therefore those men also, while searching out what they 
designed against the Just One, from justice were departing: 
and by how much the more from justice they were departing, 
by so much the more they were failing in searching searchings. 
Deep is their counsel for innocence : when Judas himself 
repented that he had betrayed Christ, and he threw down 
before them the money which they had given, they would 
not cast it into the treasury, and said, Money of blood it is^ Mat. 27, 

6. 



240 Christ knew all He 'permitted to he done agaist Him. 

Psalm let US not cast it into the treasury. What is the treasury ? 

~ ' The chest of God into which were gathered those things 

which were cast for the need of the servants of God. O man, 
let thy heart be rather the chest of God, where may dwell 
the riches of God, where may be the coin of God, thy mind, 
I say, having the image of thy Emperor. If it be so, what a 
pretence of innocence was that, not to cast into the chest 
the money of blood ; and the blood itself to cast upon the 
conscience ! 

12. But what befel them ? They failed searching search' 
ings. Whence? Because he saith, Who shall see them? that 

1 Oxf. is, that no one saw ' them. This they were saying, this among 
<^^iii themselves they thought, that no one saw them. See what 
see.' befalleth an evil soul : it departeth from the light of truth, 

and because itself seeth not God, it thinketh that itself is not 
seen by God. So also those men by departing went into 
darkness, in order that themselves might not see God : and 
they said, Who seeth us ? He also saw whom they were 
crucifying : they in their failing neither saw that Son nor the 
Father. If therefore He also saw, why did He suffer Him- 
self to be held by them, to be killed by them ? Wherefore, if 
He saw, willed He that their counsels should prevail against 
Him.f* Wherefore? Because man He was for the sake of man, 
and being God hid in man, that had come to give an example 
of patience to men knowing not, therefore Himself knowing 
He endured all things. 

13. For what foUoweth .'' Ver. 6. There shall draw near 
a man and a deep heart, and God shall he exalted. They 
said. Who shall see us .'' They failed in searching scarchings, 
evil counsels. There drew near a man to those same counsels, 
He suffered Himself to be held as a man. For He would not 
have been held except He were man, or have been seen 
except He were man, or have been smitten except He were 
man, or have been crucified or have died except He were man. 
There drew near a man therefore to all those sufferings, which 
in Him would have been of no avail except He were Man. 
But if He were not Man, there would not have been deliverance 

Philip, for man. There hath drawn near a Man and a deep heart. 

2 G • 

' ■ that IS, a secret heart : presenting before human faces Man, 

keeping within God: concealing \\\e form of Goc?, wherein 



Godhead hidden in the Heart of Christ. 24 1 

He is equal with the Father, and presenting the form of a Vek. 
servant, wherein He is less than the Father. For Himself——^ — 

, rnuip. 

hath spoken of both : but one thing there is which He saith 2, 6. 

in the form of God, another thing in the form of a servant. 

He hath said in the form of God, I and the Father are o??e.- Jolmio, 

30 

He hath said in the form of a servant, For the Father e-9johni4, 
qreater than I. Whence in tlie form of God saith He, /^s. 

•^ . Philip. 

and the Father are one ? Because when He was m the torm 2, 6. 
of God, He thought it not robl)cry to be equal with God. 
Whence in the form of a servant saith He, For the Father 
is greater than I? Because He emptied Himself, taking the Philip, 
form of a servant. There drew near therefore a Man, and a ' 
deep heart, and God was exalted. Slain is the Man, and 
exalted is God, For His being slain was of human weakness, 2 Cor. 
His rising again and ascending was of power divine. There ' 
shall draw near a Man and a deep heart, heart secret, heart 
hidden : not shewing that which it knew, not shewing what 
it was. They thinking that it was the whole which was 
seen, kill a Man in deep heart, and there is exalted God in 
heart divine : for by the power of His Majesty exalted He 
was. And whither went He exalted ? To that i)]ace from 
whence He withdrew not humbled. 

14. There shall draw near a Man and a deep heart, and 
God shall be exalted. For this reason now attend ye, my 
brethren, to the deep heart of the Man. Of what Man ? 
3Iother Sion, a 3Ian shall say ; and Man He tvas made in Ps.87,5. 
Her, and Himself the Most Highest hath founded tier. In that 
very city He was made Man, which He founded Himself, the 
same Most Highest that in Her was made Man. Ilierefore 
tliere hath drawn near a man and a deep heart. ]3ehold 
Man in a deep heart : sec, as much as thou art able, if tliou 
art able, God also in a deep heart. There drew near a Man : 
and because God He was, and because He was about to suffer 
willingly, and because He was about to give an example to 
the weak, as though God were about to suffer, but in man, 
but in the flesh, there followeth what? (Ver. 7.) Arrows of 
infants have been made the strokes of them. Where is that 
savageness ? where is that roar of the lion, of the people 
roaring and saying, Crucify, Crucify? Where are the lyings Lukc'23, 
in wait of men bending the bow? Have not tlie strokes o/johuio 

VOL. III. R 6. 



242 Malice seemed to triumph, yet was powerless. 

Psalm them been made the arrows of infants ? Ye know in what 

LXIV . 

— ^ ^manner infants make to themselves arrows of little canes. 

What do they strike, or whence do they strike ? What is the 

hand, or what the weapon ? what are the arras, or what the 

limbs ? Arrows of itifants have been made the strokes of 

them. 

15. Ver. 8. And the tongues of them have been made 

weak upon them. Let them whet now their tongues like 

a sword, let them confirm to themselves malignant discourse. 

'or, Deservedly to themselves they have confirmed' it, because 

ened.^ //ig tongues of them have been made weak upon them. Could 

Ps. 27, this be strong against God ? ' Iniquity,^ he saith, * hath lied 

(Vulg ) ^^ itself:^ their tongues have been made weak upon them. 

Behold, the Lord hath risen. That was killed. They were 

passing by before the Cross, or were standing and were 

looking upon Him, as so long before a Psalm had foretold: 

Ps. 22, They have pierced My hands and My feet, they have told all 

My bones, but themselves have beheld and have looked upon 

Mat. 27, Me. Then the head they wagged, saying, If Son of God He 

is, let Him come down from the Cross. They made trial in a 

manner whether He was Son of God ; and as it were they found 

out that He was not, because, on their reviling Him, from the 

Cross He came not down : if He had come down from the 

Cross, Son of God He would have been. What thinkest thou 

of Him Who from the cross came not down, and from the 

tomb rose again? What therefore did they effect? But even 

if the Lord had not risen again, v^hat would they have 

effected, except what the persecutors of the Martyrs have 

also effected? For the Martyrs have not yet risen again, 

and nevertheless they have effected nothing; of them not 

yet rising again we are now celebrating the nativities. Where 

is the madness of their raging ? Arrows of infants have the 

strokes of them been made, and tlie tongues of them have 

been made loeak upon them. To what did they bring those 

their searchings, in which searchings they failed, so that even, 

when the Lord was dead and buried, they set guards at the 

M at. 27, tomb .f" For they said to Pilate, Tliat deceiver; (by this 

^^' ^^' name the Lord Jesus Christ was called, for the comfort of 

His servants when they are called deceivers;) they say 

therefore to Pilate, That deceiver said when yet living, After 



Weak and vain devices of the Jews, 243 

three days I ivill rise again: command therefore that the Ver. 
sepulchre be guarded even nnto the third dag, lest perchance — ~ — 
there come His disciples, and steal Him, and say to the 
people, He hath, risen from the dead, and the last error shall 
he worse than the former. Pilate saitli to them, Ye have a 
guard, go ye, keep it as ye know how. But they departing 
made fast the sepulchre, sealing the stone, and setting the 
guards. They set for guards soldiers at the sepulchre. At 
the earth quaking, the Lord rose again : such miracles were 
done about the sepulchre, that even the very soldiers that 
had come for guards were made witnesses, if they chose to 
tell the truth : but the same covetousness which had led 
captive a disciple, the companion of Christ, led captive also 
the soldier that was guard of the sepulchre. We give you, Mat.28, 
they say, money ; and say ye, while yourselves were sleeping '" '^* 
there came His disciples, and tool< Him 'away. Truly they 
failed searching searchings. 

What is it that thou hast said, O unhappy guile ? Dost 
thou so far forsake the light of the counsel of godliness, and 
sinkest into the depths of craftiness, as to say this, Say ye 
that while ^/ourselves were sleeping, there came His disciples 
and took Him aivay ? Sleeping witnesses ye adduce : truly 
thou thyself hast fallen asleep, that in searching such devices 
hast failed. If they were sleeping, what could they see ? if 
nothing they saw, how are they witnesses ? But they 
failed in searching searchings : failed of the light of God, 
failed in the very completion of their designs : when that 
which they willed, nowise they were able to complete, surely 
they failed. Wherefore this ? Because there drew near a Man 
and a deep heart, and God was exalted. For this reason 
afterwards when the resurrection of Christ had been made 
known, and the Holy Spirit came and filled with boldness Acts 2, 
certain disciples that feared, so that no longer fearing death, ' 
they dared to preach what they had seen, after God had been 
exalted in His Majesty, Who for our weakness' sake humble 
was judged ; and when the heavenly trumpets began to sound 
forth Him to come as Judge, Whom at first they had seen 
judged, then tvere troubled all men that saiv them. God 
being exalted, as I have said, Christ being preached, Jews 
were seen by certain Jews, were seen failing in their searchings. 

r2 



244 Christians freed from fear of the enemy. 

I'sALM Yox those men saw, in the name of llim that had been 
' crucified and killed b>^ their hands, so great miracles per- 
formed : they withdrew in heart from those thai continued in 
ungodliness : the; hard-hcartednessof the others was displeasing 
to them, they sought counsel for their own salvation, and 
they said to the Apostles, * What shall ive do T There uere 
troubled^ therefore, all men that saw them : that is, they that 
perceived how their tongues were made weak upon them, they 
that perceived how in all their evil searchings of designs 
every where they failed. Those men were troubled. 

16. Ver. 9. And every man feared. They that feared not, 
were not even men. Every man feared ; that is, every one 
using reason to perceive the things which were done. Whence 
they that feared not, must rather be called cattle, rather beasts 
savage and cruel. A lion ramping and roaring is that people 
as yet. But in truth every man feared : that is, tliey that 
would believe, that trembled at the judgment to come. And 
every man feared : and they declared the works of God. He 
V. 1. that said, From fear of the enemy deliver my soul, was the 
every man \hdX feared. From fear of the enemy he was being 
delivered, Ixit to the fear of (jod was being made subject. 
He did not fear those that kill the body, but Him That hath 
Mat.io, power to cast both body and soul into Hell. They preached 
^^' the Lord : for at first Peter feared, and feared the enemy, not 
yet was his soul delivered from the enemy. Having been 
Mat.26 questioned by the maid because he had been among His 
ra. 70. (lisciples, he denied the Lord thrice. The Lord rose again, 
confirmed the Pillar: now Peter preacheth without fear and 
with fear; without fear of them that kill the body, with fear 
Mat.io of Him that both body and soul hath power of killing in the 
^^* Hell of fire. Erery man feared; and they declared the icorks 
of God. For those Apostles declaring the works of God the 
chief priests brought before them, and threatened them, say- 
Acts 4, i"g? that in the name of Jesus they should not i)reach. And 
^^- they said, " Tell us, whom it behovcth us rather to obey, 
rJod or men?" What would they say? men rather than God? 
Without doubt they would answer nothing but, God rather. 
But they knew what things God commanded, and they 
despised the threatening priests. Hccause therefore every 
man feared, man terrified not: and ihvy dechtred the irorks 



What God was doing made known m the end. 245 

of God. If man feareth, let not man terrify : for a man ought Ver. 

to fear Him by Whom man was made. That which is above 

men fear thou, and men shall not terrify thee. Death everlast- 
ing fear thou, and for that which is present thou wilt not care. 
That pleasure uncorrupt, and the rest without spot, desire 
thou : and one promising those gifts temporal, and the whole 
world, thou wilt deride. Love therefore and fear : love that 
which God promiseth, fear that which God threateneth : thou 
wilt neither be corrupted by that which man promiseth, nor 
wilt be frightened by that which he threateneth. And every 
man liatlt feared : and they have declared the works of God, 
and His doings they have perceived. What is. His doings they 
have jyerceived? Was it, O Lord Jesu Christ, that Thou wast Is. 53, 7. 
silent, and like a sheep for a victim wast being led, and 
didst not open before the shearer Thy mouth, and we thought ib. 4. 
Thee to be set in smiting and in grief, and knowing how toib. 3. 
bear weakness? Was it that Thou wast hiding Thy beauty, 
O Thou beautiful in form before the sons of men } Was it Ps.45,2, 
that Thou didst not seem to have beauty nor grace .'' Thouis.53,2. 
didst bear on the Cross men reviling and saying. If Son o/'Mat.27, 
God He is, let Him come doivn from the Cross. What'^^' 
servant of Thine and beloved of Thine, perchance knowing 
Thy power, cried not out and said, O that now He would 
come down, and all these that revile would be confounded ! 
But it was not so: He must needs have died for the sake of 
men to die, and must rise again for the sake of men alway 
to live. This thing they, that would have had Him come 
down from the Cross, perceived not: but when He rose 
again, and being glorified ascended into Heaven, they per- 
ceived the works of God. They declared the works of Qod, 
and His doings they perceived. 

17. Ver. 10. The just man shall rejoice in the Lord. 
Now the just man is not sad. For sad were the disciples at 
the Lord's being crucified ; overcome with sadness, sorrow- 
ing they departed, they thought they had lost hope. He 
rose again, even when appearing to them He found them Luke24, 
sad. He held the eyes of two men that walked in the way, 
so that by them he was not known, and He found them 
groaning and sighing, and He held them until He had ex- 
pounded the Scriptures, and by the same Scriptures had 



246 The Righteous find cause at last to rejoice. 

Psalm shewn that so it ought to liave been done as it was done. 
=— ^,— — ■ For He shewed in the Scriptures, how after the third day it 

Luke24, , . . , , 

46. behoved the Lord to rise agani. And how on the third day 
would He have risen again, if from the Cross He had come 
down ? Now ye that are sad in the way, if at the Jews 
reviling ye had seen the Lord come down from the Cross, 
how much would ye have been elated? Ye would have 
rejoiced that the mouths of the Jews He had so stopped. 
Await the design of the Physician : in that He descendeth, 
in that He willeth to be killed. He is compounding an 
antidote. Behold now He hath risen again, behold now He 
speaketh, not yet is He known, in order that the more joy- 

Luke24, fully He may be known. Afterwards He opened the eyes 
of them in the breaking of bread : they know Him, rejoice, 
cry out. The just man shall rejoice in the Lord. It was told 

John 20, one that was more hard-hearted. The Lord hath been seen, 

^^' the Lord hath risen again. As yet he is sad, he believeth 
not. Except I shall have put forth, he saith, mi/ hand, 
and shall have touched the scars of the nails, I will not 
believe. There is presented even the Body to be touched, 
he thrusteth the hand, handleth, crieth out, " J/y Lord and 
my God.'''' The just vian shall rejoice in the Lord. Those 
just men therefore rejoiced in the Lord, that saw, touched, 
and believed : what of the just that now are ? because they 
see not, because they touch not, rejoice they not in the 
Lord ? And where is that voice of the Lord to Thomas 

John20, liimself, Because thou hast seen Me, thou hast believed: 

29 

blessed are they that have not seen, and have believed? 
Therefore let us all rejoice in the Lord, let us all after the 
faith be One Just Man, and let us all in one Body hold One 
Head, and let us rejoice in the Lord, not in ourselves: 
because our Good is not ourselves to ourselves, but He that 
hath made us. Himself is our good to make us glad. And 
let no one rejoice in himself, no one rely on himself, no one 
despair of himself: let no one rely on any man, whom he 
ought to bring iu to be the partner of his own hope, not the 
giver of the hope. 

18. Ver. 10. The just man shall rejoice in the Lord, and 
shall hope in Him ; and all men shall be praised that are 
right in heart. Now because the Lord hath risen again. 



God delays justice for their improvement. 247 

now because He hath ascended mto Heaven, now because ver. 
He hath shewed that there is another life, now because it is ^^- 
evident that His counsels, wherein He lay concealed in deep 
heart, were not empty, because to this end That Blood vras 
shed to be the price of the redeemed ; now because all things 
are evident, because all things have been preached, because 
all things have been believed, under the whole of Heaven, 
the just man shall rejoice in the Lord, and shall hope in 
Him ; and all men shall be praised that are right in heart. 
Who are the right in heart ? Ah ! my brethren, we are 
always saying', and good it is for you to know, who are the* Oxf. 
right in heart ? They that all those things whatsoever in ,. ^'^^^ 
this life they suffer, do ascribe not to any ignorance, but to often 
the counsel of God for their healing; and rely not on their 
own justice, so as to think that they unjustly suffer what 
they suffer, or that God is unjust, because he that sinneth 
more suffereth no more. See, brethi'en, these things we 
often speak of. Something thou feelest, either affecting the 
body, or the expenditure of thy property, or it is some be- 
reavement of those most dear to thee : do not regard those 
whom thou knowest to be more wicked than thyself, (for 
perchance thou darest not to call thyself righteous, but thou 
knowest men worse than thyself,) both how they prosper in 
those respects, and are not chastised, so that the counsel of 
God should be displeasing to thee, and thou shouldest say. 
Grant I am a sinner, and for that reason 1 am chastened, 
why is he not chastened, in whom very great outrages 
I know? Whatsoever of evil 1 have done, have I by any 
means done so much as he ? Perverted is thy heart. How Ps. 73, 
good is the God of Israel, but to men right in heart. But ' 
thy feet are slipping, because thou art jealous of sinners, 
beholding the peace of sinners. Allow Him to heal : He 
knoweth what He doeth, that knoweth the wound. The 
other is not lanced. What if he is despaired of? what if thou 
ai't being lanced, because thou art not despaired of.? Suffer 
therefore whatever thou sufferest, with right heart. God 
knoweth what to give to thee, what to withhold from thee. 
Let that which He giveth thee serve for comfort, not for 
corruption : and let what He withholdeth from thee serve for 
patience, not for blasphemy. But if thou blasphcmcst, and 



248 Our Lord's example of submissive will. 

Psalm God is displeasing to thcc, and thou art pleasing to thyself, 
-H^" of perverted and crooked heart thou art: and this is the worse, 
that the heart of God thou wouldest correct by thy heart, to 
make Him do what thou wilt have, whereas thou oughtest to 
do what lie willeth. What then ? Thou wouldest make 
crooked the heart of God which alway is right, according to 
the depravity of thy own heart ? How much better to correct 
thy heart by the rectitude of God ? Hath not thy Lord 
taught thee this, of Whose Passion but now we were speaking ? 
Mat,26, Was He not bearing thy weakness, when He said. Sad is My 
sold evc?i unto death ? Was He not figuring thyself in Him- 
ib. 39. self, when He was saying, Father, if it he possible, let there 
pass from Me this cup? For the hearts of the Father and of 
the Son were not two and different: but in the form of a servant 
He carried thy heart, that He might teach it by His example. 
Now behold trouble found out as it were another heart of 
thine, which willed that there should pass away that which 
was impending : but God would not. God consenteth not 
to thy heart, do thou consent to the heart of God. Hear the 
voice of Himself: Yet not what I will, but what Thou wilt. 
Father. 

19. Tliere shall be praised, therefore, all men right in 

heart. What followeth ? If there shall be praised all men 

right in heart, there shall be condemned the crooked in 

heart. Two things are set before thee now, choose while 

there is time. If of right heart thou shalt have been, at the 

right hand thou wilt be, and thou wilt be praised. In what 

Mat. 25, manner .'' Come, ye blessed of My Father, receive the kingdom 

^^' which for you hath been prepared from the beginning of the 

world. But if of crooked heart thou shalt have been, if thou 

shalt have mocked God, if His Providence thou shalt have 

derided, if thou shalt have said in thy mind, truly God careth 

not for things human: if He did care for things human, 

would that robber have so much, and I innocent be in want .'' 

of crooked heart thou bast become, there will come that 

Judgment, there will appear all the reasons on account of 

which God doeth all these things: and thou, that wouldest 

not in this life correct thy heart by the rectitude of God, and 

prepare thyself fur the right hand, where there shall be praised 

all men right in heart, wilt be on the left, where at that time 



God's tillage and rain should bring fruit. 249 

thou Shalt hear, Qo yc into fire everlasting, that hath been Ver. 
prepared for the devil and his angels. And will there be jjj^^^ 
then time to correct the heart? Now therefore correct, 4i. 
brethren, now correct. Who doth hinder ? Psalm is chanted, 
Gospel is read, Reader crieth. Preacher crieth; long-suffering 
is the Lord; thou sinnest, and He spareth; still thou sinnest, 
still He spareth, and still thou addest sin to sin. How long 
is God long-suffering? Thou wilt find God just also. We 
terrify because we fear ; teach us not to fear, and we terrify 
no more. But better it is that God teach us to fear, than 
that any man teach us not to fear. For every man hath feared, v. 9. 
and they have declared the works of God. May God count 
us among those that have feared and have declared. Because 
we fear, we declare to you, brethren. We see your eagerness 
to hear the word, and we see your wishes to demand it, we 
see your yearnings. The soil is well watered with rain, may 
it bear grain, not thorns : for grain the barn is prepared, fire 
for thorns. Dost thou know what to do with thy land, and 
doth not God know what to do with His servant? That which 
raineth upon a fruitful field is sweet, and that which raineth 
upon a thorny field is sweet. Doth it find fault with the rain, 
because it hath borne thorns .'' Will not that rain be witness 
in the Judgment of God, and say, sweet I have come upon all ? 
Do thou therefore take heed what thou bringest forth, that 
thou mayest attend to what is being prepared for thee. Thou 
bringest forth grain, barn expect thou; bringest forth thorns, 
fire expect thou. But not yet hath come either the time of 
the barn or the time of the fire : now let there be preparation, 
and there will not be fear. In the name of Christ both we 
who speak are living, and ye to whom we speak are living : 
for amending our plan, and changing evil life into a good life, 
is there no place, is there no time ? Can it not, if thou wilt, 
be done to-day ? Can it not, if thou wilt, be now done ? What 
must thou buy in order to do it, what specifics" must thou 
seek? To what Indies must thou sail? What ship prepare? 
Lo, while I am speaking, change the heart; and there is 
done what so often and so long while is cried out for, thai it 
be done, and w-hich bringeth forth everlasting punishment if 
it be not done. 

'I Symplasia, probably meaning' com and some other Mss. * Temi)Ia AsitC,' 
pounds;' older Ed. ' emplastra ;' Oxf. ' Temples of Asia.' 



^^^y PSALM LXV. 



EXPOSITION. 



Sermon to tJie Commonalty. 

The voice of holy prophecy must be conlessed in the very 
title of this Psahn. It is inscribed, Unto the end, a Psalm 
of David, a song of Jeremiah and Ezekiel, on account of the 
people of transmigration when they were beginning to go 
forth. How it fared with our fathers in the time of the 
transmigration to Babylon, is not known to all, but only to 
those that diligently study the Holy Scriptures, either by 
2 Kings hearing or by reading. For the captive people Israel from 
' ■ the city of Jerusalem was led into slavery unto Babylon. But 
Jerem. holy Jeremiah prophesied, that after seventy years the people 
29' 10 ' ^ould return out of captivity, and would rebuild the very city 
Jerusalem, which they had mourned as having been overthrown 
by enemies. But at that time there were prophets in that 
captivity of the people dwelling in Babylon, among whom 
was also the prophet Ezekiel. But that people was waiting 
until there should be fulfilled the space of seventy years, 
according to the prophecy of Jeremiah. It came to pass, 
when the seventy years had been completed, the temple was 
restored which had been thrown down : and there returned 
from captivity a great part of that people. But whereas the 
iCor.io, Apostle saith, these things in figure happened unto them, hut 
they have been written for our sakes, upon whom the end of 
the ivorld hath come : we also ought to know first our cap- 
tivity, then our deliverance : we ought to know the Babylon 
wherein we are captives, and the Jerusalem for a return to 
which we are sighing. For these two cities, according to the 
letter, in reality are two cities. And the former Jerusalem 
indeed by the Jews is not now inhabited. For after the 
crucifixion of the Lord vengeance was taken upon them with 
a great scourge, and being rooted up from that place where, 
with impious licentiousness being infuriated, they had madly 
raged against their Physician, they have been dispersed 
throughout all nations, and that land hath been given to 



• The two Cities, Jerusalem and Babylon. 251 

Christians: and there is fulfilled what the Lord had said to Title. 



them, Tlierefore the kingdom shall he taken away from ^a,t.^\y 
you, and it shall he given to a nation doing justice. But 
when they saw great multitudes then following the Lord, 
preaching the kingdom of Heaven, and doing wonderful 
things, the rulers of that city said, If we shall have let Him-^^^^^^f 
go, all men will go after Him, and there shall come the 
Romans, and shall take from us both place and nation. 
That they might not lose their place, the Lord they killed ; 
and they lost it, even because they killed. Therefore that city, 
being one earthly, of a certain city everlasting in the Heavens 
did bear the figure : but when that which was signified began 
more evidently to be preached, the shadow, whereby it was 
being signified, was thrown down : for this reason in that 
place now the temple is no more, which had been constructed 
for the image of the future Body of the Lord. We have the 
light, the shadow hath passed away : nevertheless, still in a 
kind of captivity we are : So long as we are, he saith, in the'^Cox.5, 
body, we are sojourning afar from the Lord. 

2. And see ye the names of those two cities, Babylon and 
Jerusalem. Babylon is interpreted confusion, Jerusalem 
vision of peace. Observe now the city of confusion, in order 
that ye may perceive the vision of peace; that ye may endure 
that, sigh for this. Whereby can those two cities be distin- 
guished ? Can we anywise now separate them from each other ? 
They are mingled, and from the very beginning of mankind 
mingled they run on unto the end of the world. Jerusalem 
received beginning through Abel, Babylon through Cain : for 
the buildings of the cities were afterwards erected. ThatJosh.is, 
Jerusalem in the land of the Jebusites was builded : for at ^^' 
first it used to be called Jebus, from thence the nation of the 
Jebusites was expelled, when the people of God was delivered 
from Egypt, and led into the land of promise. But Babylon 
was builded in the most interior regions of Persia, which for 
a long time raised its head above the rest of nations. These 
two cities then at particular times were builded, so that there 
might be shewn a figure of two cities begun of old,'tind to 
remain even unto the end in this world, but at the end to be 
sevei'ed. Whereby then can we now shew them, that are 
mingled ? At that time the Lord shall shew, when some He 



252 Citizens of Jerusalem captives in Babylon. 

Psalm shall set on the right hand, others on the left. Jerusalem 

T XV • 

^ on the right hand shall be, Babylon on the left. Jerusalem 

Mat. 25, is to hear, Come, ye blessed of 3Iy Father, receive the kingdom 
which for you hath been prepared from the beginning of the 
Mat.25, world. Babylon is to hear. Go ye ifito fire everlasting, that 
hath been prepared for the devil and his angels. Never- 
theless, we can bring forward something, as far as the Lord 
allowelh, whereby may be distinguished the godly believers 
even at this time, citizens of Jerusalem, from the citizens of 
Babylon. Two loves make up these two cities : love of God 
maketh Jerusalem, love of the world maketh Babylon. 
Therefore let each one question himself as to what he loveth: 
and he sliall find of which he is a citizen : and if he shall have 
found himself to be a citizen of Babylon, let him root out 
cupidity, implant charity: but if he shall have found himself a 
citizen of Jerusalem, let him endure captivity, hope for liberty. 
For many citizens of holy mother Jerusalem were being held 
corrupted by the lusts of Babylon, and by the very corruption 
of lusts were made as it were citizens of that city, and many 
still are so, and many that are to be after us on this earth 
will be so: but the Lord, the Builder of Jerusalem, knoweth 
what citizens of His He hath predestinated, whom He seeth 
under the dominion of the devil, and who must be redeemed 
with the blood of Christ : the Same knoweth them before 
they know themselves. Under this figure then is sung this 
Psalm. In the title of which are set even two Pro])hets, 
who at that time were in the captivity, Jeremiah and 
Ezechiel, and they were singing certain things ichen they 
were beginning to go forth. He beginneth to go forth, 
that is beginning to love. For there go forth many men 
secretly, and the feet of them going forth are the heart's 
affections: but they go forth from Babylon. What is, from 
Babylon ? From confusion. How do men go forth from 
Babylon, that is, from confusion ? They that at first were 
confounded together with like lusts, begin by charity to be 
distinct: being now distinct, they are not confounded. 
Even if yet in body they are mingled, yet by holy longing 
they are severed ; and because of the corporal mingling not 
^ yet they have gone forth, because of the affection of the 
heart they have begun to go forth. Now therefore let us 



Songs of GocVs praise belong to Sion. 258 

hear of, brethren, hear of, and sing of, and long for, that city Ver. 

whereof we are citizens. And what are the joys which are '- — 

sung of to us ? In what manner in ourselves is formed again 
the love of our city, which by long sojourning we had for- 
gotten ? But our Father hath sent from thence letters to us, 
God hath supplied to us the Scriptures, by which letters 
there should be wrought in us a longing for return : because 
by loving our sojourning, to enemies we had turned our 
face, and our back to our father-land. What then is here 
sung ? 

3. Ver. 1. For Thee a hymn is meet, O God, in Sion. That 
fatherland is Sion : Jerusalem is the very same as Sion ; and 
of this name the interpretation ye ought to know. As Jeru- 
salem is interpreted vision of peace, so Sion ' Beholding',' that ' Speeu- 
is, vision and contemplation. Some great inexplicable sight 
to us is promised : and this is God Himself that hath builded 
the city. Beauteous and graceful the city, how much more 
beauteous a Builder it hath ! For Thee a hymn is meet, God, 
he saith. But where .? In Sion : in Babylon it is not meet. 
For when a man beginneth to be renewed, already with heart 
in Jerusalem he singeth, with the Aposile saying, Our co;/- Philip. 
versation is in the Heavens. For in thejiesh though walking, ^^^^ 
he saith, not after thejiesh ice war. Already in longing we i<^) 3. 
are there, already hope into that land, as it were an anchor, 
we have sent before, lest in this sea being tossed we suffer 
shipwreck. In like manner therefore as of a ship which is 
at anchor, we rightly say that already she is come to land, for 
still she rolleth, but to land in a manner she hath been 
brought safe in the teeth of winds and in the teeth of storms; 
so against the temptations of this sojourning, our hope being 
grounded in that city Jerusalem causeth us not to be carried 
away upon rocks. He therefore that according to this hope 
singeth, in that city singeth : let him therefore say. For Thee 
a liyinn is meet, O God, in Sion. In Sion, not in Babylon. 
But now there ihou art yet in Babylon. There I am, saith 
that lover and that citizen : there I am; but in flesh, not in 
heart. But whereas of two things I have spoken, namely, 
that I am there in flesh not in heart, with the latter I sing, 
not with the former: for not in flesh I sing, but in heart. 
The flesh indeed sounding even the citizens of Babylon hear, 



254 The risen saints pa?j their vuics in Jerusalem. 

Psalm but the heart's sound heareth the Builder of Jerusalem. 

• Whence saith the Apostle, exhorting those same citizens to 

certain loving songs, and longings to return to that most fair 

Ephes. city, the vision of peace, Simjing, he saith, and chanting 

' ' Psalms in your hearts to the Lord. What is, singing in your 

hearts ? Sing not from thence where ye are, namely, in 

Babylon: but from thence sing, where above ye dwell. 

Therefore, For Thee a Jiymn is meet, O God, in Sion. In Sion 

for Thee a hymn is meet, not in Babylon. They that sing in 

Babylon are citizens of Babylon ; even the hymn of God 

Ecclus. unmeetly they sing. Hear the voice of Scripture. ' Praise is 

' ' not seemly in the mouth of a sinner.^ For Tliee a hymn is 

meet, O God, in Sion. 

4. And to Thee shall there be paid a vow in Jerusalem. 

Here we vow, and a good thing it is that there we should 

pay. But who are they that here do vow and pay not ? 

Mat.24, They that persevere not even unto the end in ihat which they 

Ps, 76 have vowed. Whence saith another Psalm, Vow ye, and pay 

^^- ye unto the Lord your God : and, to Thee shall it he paid in 

Jerusalem. For there shall we be whole, that is, entire in 

the resurrection of just men : there shall be paid our whole 

vow, not soul alone, but the very flesh also, no longer 

corruptible, because no longer in Babylon, but now a body 

heavenly and changed. What sort of change is promised ? 

1 Cor. For ue all shall rise again, saith the Apostle, hut we 

gjp^ ' shall not^ all he clianged. But who shall be, himself hath 

\ " "0*" said : In the tivinkling of an eye, at tlie last trump ; for 

ing in tJiere shall sound the trumpet, and the dead shall rise 

our text fif^fjif, incorrupt, (that is, entire,) and tve shall he changed. 

But of what sort will be ihat change he continueth and 

saith : for it must needs he that this corruptihle put on 

incorruption, and that this mortal put on immortality : 

hut uhen this corruptihle shall have put on incorruption, 

and this mortal shall have j)"^ on immortality, then 

shall come to pass the saying which hath heen w)itten. 

Death hath heen swallowed up in victory. Where is, 

O death, thy sting? For now while there begin in us the 

first-fruits of the mind, from whence is the longing for 

Jerusalem, many things of corruptible flesh do contend 

against us, which will not contend, when death shall have 



The whole man a sacrifice when sin no more strives. 255 

been swallowed up in victory. Peace shall conquer, and ver. 
war shall be ended. But when peace shall conquer, that ^' — 
city shall conquer which is called the vision of peace. On 
the part of death therefore shall be no contention. Now 
with how great a death do we contend ! For thence are carnal 
pleasures, which to us even unlawfully do suggest many 
things : to which we give no consent, but nevertheless in 
giving no consent we contend. At first therefore the lust of 
the flesh hath led us following it, afterwards struggling against 
it hath dragged us ; then after grace received it hath begun 
neither to lead nor to drag, but still to contend with us : after 
contention will be also victory. Now although it cometh 
against thee, let it not overcome thee : hereafter, when death 
shall have been swallowed up in victory, even from fighting it 
will desist. What hath been said ? TJie last enemy shall be i Cor. 
destroyed, even death. " I will pay my vow." What vow ? ' 
As it were a holocaust. For a holocaust is then spoken of 
when fire consumeth the whole : a holocaust is a sacrifice 
where the whole is consumed : for oKov is translated whole, 
Kova-ig burning. Holocaust is a whole burned. Let there 
seize us then a fire, a fire divine in Jerusalem : let us begin 
to burn with love, until the whole mortal thing be consumed, 
and let that which may have been ' against us, go for a sacri- ' Oxf, 
fice unto the Lord. Whence elsewhere is said. Deal kindly, i ^^g, 
Lord, in Thy good uill with Sion, that builded may ^eP'^-^i, 
the ic alls of Jerusalem: then Thou shaltacceptthe sacrifice of 
righteousness, oblations, and holocausts. For Thee a hijmn 
is meet, O God, in Sion, and to Thee shall be paid a vow in 
Jerusalem. We ask here, whether perchance mention is 
made to us of the Kmg of that same city ; of our Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ; let us sing then until we arrive at more 
manifest tokens. For I could now say, that it is He to whom 
is said, For Thee a hymn is meet, God, in Sion; and to 
Thee shall be rendered a vow in Jerusalem. But if I were 
to say it, I rather than the Scripture should be believed, and 
thus perchance I should not be believed. Let us hear the 
following words. 

5. Ver. 2. Hearken, he saith, to my prayer, unto Thee Jo]m]7, 
every flesh shall come. And we have the Lord saying, that ' 
there was given to Him power over every flesh. That King 



256 Flesh of every kind hrouyht into the Church. 

PsAiM therefore began even now to ajipear, when there was being 

^said, Lhilo Tliee every Jlesh shall come. To T/fce, he saith, 

every flesh shall come. Wherefore to llim shall every flesh 
come? Because flesh He hath taken to Ilim. Whither shall 
there come every flesh ? He took the first-fruits thereof out 
of the womb of the Virgin; and now that the first-fruits have 
been taken to Him, the rest shall follow, in order that the 
holocaust may be completed. Whence then every jlesh ? 
Every man. And whence every man ? Have all been foretold, 
as going to believe in Christ ? Have not many ungodly men 
been foretold, that shall be condemned also ? Do not daily 
many men not believing die in their own unbelief? After 
what manner therefore do we understand, Unlo Thee every 
flesh shall come ? By every Jlesh he hath signified Jlesh of 
every kind: out of every kind of flesh they shall come to 
Tiiee. What is, out of every kind of flesh ? Have there come 
poor men, and have there not come rich men ? Have there 
come humble men, and not come lofty men ? Have there 
come unlearned men, and not come learned men ? Have 
there come men, and not come women ? Have there come 
masters, and not come servants? Have there come old meuj 
and not come young men ; or have there come young men, 
and not come youths ; or have there come youths, and 
not come boys ; or have there come boys, and have there 
not been brought infants ? In a word, have there come Jews% 
Acts 2, (for thence were the Apostles, thence many thousands of 
men at first betraying, afterwards believing,) and have there 
not come Greeks ; or have there come Greeks, and not come 
Romans ; or have there come Romans, and not come Bar- 
barians? And who could number all nations coming to Him, 
to Whom hath been said, Vido Thee eveiy Jlesh shall coined 
Hearken unto my prayer, unto Thee every Jlesh shall come. 

6. Ver. 3. Tlie discourses of unjust men have prevailed 
over ns,and our iniquities Thou shall propitiate^. \\]\di is, 
the discourses of unjust men have prevailed over us, and our 
iniquities Titou shall propitiate? For as mucli as we were 
born on this earth, we found those unjust men, whom we have 
heard s])eaking. If I be able to explain what I mean, let 

» Oxf. Mss. ' have there not come '' propitiabcris. One Ms, here, and 
Jew s, (for &c.) or have there comcTews many below, ' propitiahis.' 
and not come Greeks &c.' 



Converts before misled hy ungodly tongues. 257 

the attention of your Love aid me. Every man, in what- Ver. 
soever place he is born, of that same land or region or city — '■ — 
learneth the language, is habituated to the manners and life 
of that place. What should a boy do, born among Heathens, 
to avoid worshipping a stone, in as much as his parents have 
suggested that worship } from them the first words he hath 
heard, that error with his milk he hath sucked in ; and because 
they that used to speak were elders, and the boy that was 
learning to speak was an infant, what could the little one do 
but follow the authority of elders, and deem that to be good, 
which they recommended.'' Therefore nations that are con- 
verted to Christ afterwards, and taking to heart the impieties 
of their parents, and saying now what the prophet Jeremias 
himself said. Truly a lie our fathers have worshipped, vanity Jer. 16, 
which hath not profited thein — when, I say, now they say 
this, they renounce the opinions and blasphemies of their 
unjust parents. But because, in being imbued with such-like 
opinions and blasphemies, they acted upon the persuasions 
of those men, who in proportion as in age they had precedence, 
so were thought to have precedence due to them in authority; 
now he desiring to return to Jerusalem from Babylon, con- 
fesseth and saith. The discourses of unjust men have prevailed 
against us. There have led us away men teaching evil 
things, citizens of Babylon they have made us, we have left 
the Creator, have adored the creature : have left Him by 
whom we were made, have adored that which we ourselves have 
made. For the discourses of unjust men have prevailed over 
us : but nevertheless they have not crushed us. Wherefore ? 
' Oicr impieties Thou shall propitiate.^ Let your Love observe. 
Our impieties Thou shall pi-opitiate, is not said except to some 
priest offering somewhat, whereby impiety may be expiated 
and propitiated. For impiety is then said to be propitiated, 
when God is made propitious to the impiety. What is it for God 
to be made propitious to impiety? It is. His becoming for- 
giving, and giving pardon. But in order that God's pardon may 
be obtained, propitiation is made through some sacrifice. There 
hath come forth therefore, sent from God the Lord, One our 
Priest; He took upon Him from us that which He might offer 
to the Lord; we are speaking of those same first-fruits of the 
flesh from the womb of the Virgin. This holocaust He offered 
VOL. III. s 



'258 The vail removed un achnouledying Christ. 

Psalm to God. He Stretched out His hands on the Cross, in order 

y"^' ' - that He might say, Let My prayer be directed as incense in 

2. Thy sight, and the Ufliny up of My hands an evening 

filat.^TiSacrl/ice. As ye know, the Lord about eventide hung on 

^^' the Cross: and our iinpiotics were propitiated; otherwise 

they had swallowed us up : the discourses of unjust men 

had prevailed over us; there had led us astray preachers 

of Jupiter, and of Saturn, and of Mercury : the discourses of 

ungodly wen had prevailed over us. But what wilt Thou do ? 

Heb. 9, Our impieties Thou wilt propitiate. Thou art the ])riest, 

Thou the victim; Thou the offerer, Thou the offering. 

Heb. 6, Himself is the Priest, that now having entered into the 

19 20 . . . 

places within the vail, alone there of those that have borne 
flesh, maketh intercession for us. For a figure of which 
thing, in that first people, and in that first temple, one priest 
used to enter into the Holy of Holies, all the people without 
used to stand : and he that alone entered into the parts 
within the vail, offered sacrifice for the people standing 
without. If it be understood rightly, the Spirit maketh alive: 
if it be not understood, the letter killeth. But now when 

2 Cor. 3, the Apostle was being read ye heard, The letter killeth, but 
the Spirit rnakelh alive. For what was being enacted in 
that people, the Jews knew not ; nay, not even now do they 

2 Cor. know. For of them hath been said. So lonq as Moses is 

' * being read, a vail is apon their heart. There the vail is a 

figure : but there shall be taken away the figure, and there 

shall apjiear truth in themselves. But when shall the vail be 

2 Cor. taken away ? Hear the Apostle : When thou shall have 
' * passed over to the Lord, the vail shall be removed. Where- 
fore so long as they i)ass not over to the Lord, so long 
as they read Moses, a vail they have upon the heart. For 
this sacrament shone at that time the face of Moses, so as 
that the sons of Israel could not look stedfastly upon the 
fiice of him : (ye heard it but now when it was being read :) 
and a vail there was bet'.veen the face of Moses speaking, 
and the ])eople hearing the words. Through a vail they 
heard words, face they saw not. And what saith the Apostle ? 

2 Cor. So that the sons of Israel could not look stedfastly upon the 

^> ^^- face of Moses. They looked not stedfastly, he saith, even 
unto the end. What is, even unto the end ^ Even until they 



The 'end' of all prophetic Jifjurcs is in Him. 259 

perceived Christ. For, saith the Apostle, For the end of the law Ver. 
is Christ for riglileousness unio every man helieving. There ^^^^^^ 
is indeed splendour in the face of Moses, but only as in a 4. 
face carnal and mortal: could that be long-lasting or ever- 
lasting? For death supervening, straightway it will be taken 
away. But the splendour of the glory of our blessed Lord 
Jesus Christ is everlasting. But that was a figure temporal, 
but this, which by that figure was being signified, is truth. 
They read therefore and perceive not Christ, they bring not 
down their stedfast looking even imto the end, because a 
vail set in the way withholdeth from them the sight of the 
interior splendour. And see there under the vail Christ : 
Our Lord Jesus Christ Himself saith. If ye believed Moses, John 6, 
ye would believe also in Me, for of Me he wrote. But our 
sins and impieties being propitiated through that evening 
sacrifice, we pass over to the Lord, and the vail is taken 
away: for which reason also when the Lord had been 
crucified, the vail of the temple was rent. Hearken to myM.9.t.27, 
prayer, unto Thee every flesh shall come. The discourses'^' 
of ungodly men have prevailed over us, and to our impieties 
Thou shall be propitious. 

7. Ver. 4. Blessed is he whom Thou hast chosen, and hast 
taken to Thee. Who is he that is chosen by Him and taken 
to Him? Was any one chosen' by our Saviour Jesu Christ, iQxf. 

or was Himself after the flesh, because He is man, chosen f^^f * 

. . . 'taken 

and taken to Him? Thus it might be spoken as it were to and 

the Word of God, that was in the beginning, as saith the ^°°^^°' 
Evangelist, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word 3o\mi, 
was with God, and the Word was God: because also the * 
same Son of God is the Word of God, of Whom also he saith, 
All things through Him were made, and without Him there ib. 3. 
loas not made any thing : wherefore there is said to that Son 
of God, because He is Himself our Priest, afterward when He 
had taken to Him flesh, Blessed is he ichom Thou hast chosen, 
and hast taken to Tliee: that is that Man wherewith Thou hast 
been invested, who had his beginning in time, being born of a 
woman, for a sort of temple of Him Who is alway for ever- 
lasting, and for everlasting hath been. Or hath not rather 
Christ Himself taken to Him some blessed one, and the 
same whom He hath taken to Him is not spoken of in the 

s2 



260 TJic Church one blessed Ma7i, talien to Christ. 

Psalm plural number but in the singular ? For one man Ho hath 
LXV . . 
'- taken to Him, because unity He hath taken to Hira. Schisms 



He hath not taken to Him, heresies He haih not taken to 
Him : a multitude they have made of themselves, there is 
not one to be taken to Him. But they that abide in the bond 
of Christ and are the members of Him, make in a manner 

Eplies. one man, of whom saith the Apostle, Until we all arrive at 
' ' the acknowledging of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, 
unto the measure of the age of the fidness of Christ. There- 
fore one man is taken to Him, to which the Head is Christ; 

1 Cor. because the Head of the man is Christ. The same is that 

113. 

Ps. 1 1. blessed man that hath not departed in the counsel of ungodly 
men., and the like things which there are spoken of: the same 
is He that is taken to Him. He is not without us, in His 
own members we are, under one Head we are governed, by 
one Spirit we all live, one father-land we all long for. Let 
us see therefore what is spoken to Christ, whether to us it 
belong, and whether of ourselves it be said : let us question 
our consciences, that love let us search out diligently, and if 
as yet little is that love, and but lately born, (for perchance 
in some one lately it hath sprung up,) let him diligently 
root up the thorns springing beside it, that is, worldly cares, 
lest in growing they choke the holy seed. Blessed is He 
ivhoni Thou hast chosen and taken to Thee. In Him let us 
be, and be taken to Him ; in Him let us be, and chosen we 
shall be. 

8. And to us He will give what ? He shall inhabit, he 
saith, in Thy courts. Jerusalem, that is, to which they sing 
that begin to go forth from Babylon : He shall inhabit in 
Thy courts: we shall be filled with the good things of Thy 
House. What are the good things of the House of God ? 
Brethren, let us set before ourselves some rich house, with 
what numerous good things it is crowded, how abundantly 
it is furnished, how many vessels there are there of gold and 
also of silver ; how great an establishment of servants, how 
many horses and animals, in a word, how much the house 
itself delights us with pictures, marble, ceilings, pillars, re- 
cesses, chambers: — all such things are indeed objects of desire, 
but still they are of the confusion of Babylon. Cut off all 
such longings, O citizen of Jerusalem, cut them off"; if thou 



The beauty of God's House is that of Righteousness. 261 

wilt return, let not captivity delight thee. But hast thou Ver. 

already begun to go forth ? Do not look back, do not loiter '— 

on the road. Still there are not wanting foes to recommend 
thee captivity and sojourning : no longer let there prevail 
against thee the discourses of ungodly men. For the House 
of God long thou, and for the good things of that House long 
thou : but do not long for such things as thou art wont to 
long for either in thy house, or in the house of thy neighbour, 
or in the house of thy patron. Other is the good thing of 
that House. What need is there that we declare what are 
the good things of that House ? Let that same man point 
them out, that singeth going out of Babylon. We shall he 
filled^ he saith, with the good things of Thy House. What 
are those good things ? We had lifted up perchance the 
heart to gold, to silver, and other precious things: do not 
seek such things, they weigh down, they lift not up. Here 
therefore now upon those good things of Jerusalem, upon 
those good things of the House of the Lord, upon those good 
things of the temple of the Lord, let us meditate : because 
the House of the Lord, is the very same as the Temple of 
the Lord. IVe shall he filled with the good things of Thy 
House : Thy holy Temple is (ver. 5.) marvellous in righteous- 
ness. These are the good things of that House. He hath 
not said. Thy hol}^ Temple is marvellous in pillars, marvel- 
lous in marbles, marvellous in gilded ceilings ; but is 
marvellous i>i righteousness. Without thou hast eyes where- 
with thou mayest see marbles, and gold : within is an eye 
wherewith may be seen the beauty of righteousness. If there 
is no beauty in righteousness, why is a righteous old man 
loved ? What bringeth he in body that may please the eyes ? 
Crooked limbs, brow wrinkled, head blanched with grey 
hairs, dotage every where full of plaints. But perchance 
because thine eyes this decrepit old man pleaseth not, thine 
ears he pleaseth : with what words ? with what song ? Even 
if perchance when a young man he sang well, all with age 
hath been lost. Doth perchance the sound of his words 
please thine ears, that can hardly articulate whole words for 
loss of teeth ? Nevertheless, if righteous he is, if another 
man's goods he coveteth not, if of his own that he possesseth 
he distribuleth to the needy, if ho giveth good advice, and 



202 He that would enjoy Highteomness^ must desire it. 

Psalm soundly jiulgeth, if he believeth the entire faith, if for his 
— '■ — ^belief in the faith he is ready to expend even those very 
shattered huibs, for many Martyrs are even old men ; why 
do we love him ? What good thing in him do we see with 
the eyes of the flesh ? Not any. There is therefore a kind 
of beauty in righteousness, which we see with the eye of 
the heart, and we love, and we kindle with afTeclion : how 
much men found to love in those same Martyrs, though 
beasts tare their limbs ! Is it possible but that when blood 
was staining all parts, when with the teeth of monsters their 
bowels gushed out, the eyes had nothing but objects to 
shudder at ? What was there to be loved, except that in that 
hideous spectacle of mangled limbs, entire was the beauty of 
righteousness? These are the good things of the House of God, 
with these prepare thyself to be satisfied. But in order that 
Avith them thou mayest be satisfied, when thou shalt have 
arrived there, for this it behoveth thee to hunger and thirst 
while thou art sojourning : for this thirst thou, for this 
hunger thou; because those same will be the good things of 
God. Hear thou that king to whom these things are said. 
Who hath come that He may bring thee back, and for thy 
JolinH, sake hath made Himself the Way. He saith what ? " Blessed 
Matt. 6 '^'^y which hunger and thirst after righteousness ^ for they 
^' shall he filled.^'' Thy holy Temple is marvellous in righteous- 

ness. And that same temple, brethren, do not imagine to 
be ought but yourselves. Love ye righteousness, and ye are 
the Temple of God. 

9. Ver. 5. Hearken to us, O God, our Saviour. He hath 
disclosed now Whom he nameth as God. The Saviour 
specially is the Lord Jesus Christ. It hath appeared now 
y2. more openly of Whom he had said, " Unto Thee every flesh 
shall come.^'' Hearken to us, O God, our Saviour. That 
One Man that is taken unto Him into the Temple of God, 
is both many and is One. In the person of One he hath 
V. 2. said. Hearken, O God, to my hunger: and because the 
same One of niany is composed, now he saith, Hearken to 
us, O Ood, our Saviour. Hear Him now more openly 
preached : Hearken to us, O God, our Saviour, the Hope of 
all the ends of the earth and in the sea afar. Behold 
wherefore hath been said, Unto Thee every flesh shall come. 



Christ our Hope, loh'de in this ivorhVs sea. 263 

From every quarter they come. Hope of all the ends of the Vfb. 
earth, not hope of one corner, not hope of Judcea alone, — '■ — 



not hope of Africa alone, not hope of Pannonia, not hope of 
East or of West : but Hope of all the ends of the earth, and 
in the sea afar : of the very ends of the earth. And in the sea 
afar: and because in the sea, therefore afar. For the sea 
by a figure is spoken of this world, with saltness bitter, with 
storms troubled ; where men of perverse and depraved 
appetites have become like fishes devouring one another. 
Observe the evil sea, bitter sea, with waves violent, observe 
with what sort of men it is filled. Who desireth an inherit- 
ance except through the death of another? Who desireth 
gain except by tlie loss of another ? By the fall of others 
how many men wish to be exalted ? How many, in order 
that they may buy, desire for other men to sell their goods ? 
How they mutually oppress, and how they that are able do 
devour ! And when one fish hath devoured, the greater the 
less, itself also is devoured by some greater. O evil fish, 
prey thou wilt have of a little fish, prey thou wilt be made 
to a great fish. Daily those things happen, before our faces 
they are ; we see them, let us shudder at them. Let us not 
do these things, brethren, because the hope He is of the 
ends of the earth. If He were not the hope, and in the sea 
afar, He would not have said to His disciples, / will make M^it. 4, 
yon fishers of men. Now in the sea being taken by the nets 
of the Faith, we rejoice that we there are swimming yet within 
the nets; because this sea yet is raging with storms, but the 
nets, which have taken us, will be drawn out to shore. The 
shore is the end of the sea. Therefore the landing will be 
at the end of the world. Meanwhile within those same 
nets, brethren, let us live righteously: let us not by break- 
ing the nets go forth without. For many have broken the The 
nets, and have made schisms, and have gone forth without, f^"^'^' 
Because evil fishes that were taken within the nets they said 
they would not endure ; they themselves have become more 
evil than they wdiom they said' they could not endure. For igi. «r<?- 
those nets did take fishes both good and evil. The Lord'^"*^^^ 
saith, The kingdom of Heaven is like to a sein cast into the^i^LtAS 
sea, which gathereth of every ki/td, which, when it had heen'^^~'^'^' 
filled, drawing out, and sitting on the shore, they gathered the 



QC4 ' Mountains^ in the Church have their strength of God. 

Psalm (/ood into vessels, but the evil they cast out : so it shall be, 

'- He sailh, in the consummation of the world. He shcweth 

what is tlie shore, He sheweth what is the end of the sea. 
The angels shall go forth, and shall sever the evil from the 
midst of the just, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire : 
there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Ha ! ye 
citizens of Jerusalem that are within the nets, and are good 
fishes; endure the evil, the nets break ye not: together with 
them ye are in a sea, not together with them will ye be in the 
vessels. For Hojje He is of the ends of the earth. Himself 
is Hope also in the sea afar. Afar, because also in the 
sea. 

10. Ver. 6. Preparing mountains in His strength. Not 
in their strength. For He hath prepared great preachers, and 
those same He hath called mountains ; humble in themselves, 
exalted in Him. Prcpjaring mountains in His strength. 

2Cor. i,What saith one of those same mountains? We ourselves in 
^' our own selves have had the answer of death, in order that 

in ourselves we should not trust, but in God that raise th the 
dead. He that in himself doth trust, and in Christ trusteth 
not, is not of those mountains which He hath pi'epared in 
His strength. Preparing moimtains in His strength: girded 
about in power. Power, I understand : girded about, is what ? 
They that put Christ in the midst, girded about they make 
Him, that is on all sides begirt. We all have Him in 
common, therefore in the midst He is : all we gird Him 
about that believe in Him : and because our faith is not of 
our strength, but of His power ; therefore girded about He 
is in His power ; not in our own strength. 

11. Ver. 7. That troublest the bottom of the sea. He 
hath done this: it is seen what He hath done. For He 
hath prepared mountains in His strength, hath sent them to 
preach : girded about He is by believers in power : and 
moved is the sea, moved is the world, and it bcginneth to 
persecute His saints. Girded about in power : that troublest 
the bottom of the sea. He hath not said, that troublest the 
sea; but the bottom of the sea. The bottom of the sea is the 
heart of ungodly men. For just as from the bottom more 
thoroughly all things are stirred, and the bottom holdeth 
fu-m all things : so whatsoever hath gone forth by tongue, by 



The world troubled will fear at God's Work. 265 

hands, by divers powers for the persecution of the Church, Ver. 
from the bottom hath gone forth. For if there were not the '-— 



root of iniquity in the heart, all those things would not have 
gone forth against Christ. The bottom He troubled, per- 
chance in order that the bottom He might also empty : for in 
the case of certain evil men He emptied the sea from the 
bottom, and made the sea a desert place. Another Psalm Ps.66,6. 
saith this, That turneth sea into dry land. All ungodly 
and heathen men that have believed were sea, have been 
made land ; with salt waves at first barren, afterwards 
with the fruit of righteousness productive, lliat trouhlest 
the bottom of the sea : the sound of its ivaves tvho shall 
endure? Who shall endure.) is what? What man shall endure 
the sound of the waves of the sea, the behests of the high 
powers of the world ? But whence are they endured } Because 
He prepareth mountains in His strength. In that therefore 
which he hath said who shall endure ? he saith thus ; We 
ourselves of our own selves should not be able to endure 
those persecutions, unless He gave strength. That troublest 
the bottom of the sea : the sound of its waves who shall 
endure ? 

12. Ver. 8. The nations shall be troubled. At first they 
shall be troubled : but those mountains prepared in the 
strength of Christ, are they troubled } Troubled is the sea, 
against the mountains it dasheth : the sea breaketh, un- 
shaken the mountains have remained. The nations shall be 
troubled, and all men shall fear. Behold now all men fear: 
they that before have been troubled do now all fear. The 
Christians feared not, and now the Christians are feared. All 
that did persecute do now fear. For He hath overcome That 
is girded about with power, to Him hath come every flesh in 
such sort, that the rest by their very minority do now fear. 
And all men shall fear, that inhabit the ends of the earth, 
because of Thy signs. For miracles the Apostles wrought, 
and thence all the ends of the earth have feared and have 
believed. 

13. Outgoings in morning and in evening Thou shall 
delight : that is, Thou makest delightful. Already in this life 
what is there being promised to us .? Outgoings thou shalt 
delight in morning and in evening. There are outgoings in 



'200 Goil f/ives ^ outyoing:^ from snares of gain or terror. 

Psalm morning, there are outgoings in the evening. By the morning 

^he signifielh tlie prosperity of the worhl, l)y the evening he 

significth the trouble of the world. Let your Love give heed, 
(for in both a human soul is tried, both in prosperity lest it be 
corrupted, and in adversity lest it be crushed) — The morning 
signilieth prosperity, because the morning is glad, the sadness, 
as it were, of the night being overpast. But sad is the 
darkness, when the evening cometh on : therefore when the 
evening, as it were, of the world came. He offered an evening 
sacrifice. Let each one therefore not fear the evening; 
neither in the morning let him be corrupted. Behold, some 
one or other, in order that thou mayest do some evil thing, 
hath promised gain; it is morning: there smileth upon thee 
a large sum of money, morning to thee it becometh. Do not 
be bribed, and thou wilt have an outgoing in the morning. 
For if thou hast an outgoing, thou wilt not be caught. For 
the promise of gain is like a bait in a trap ; thou art squeezed 
close, and there is no way of going out, thou art caught in 
the trap. But the Lord th}^ God hath given to thee an out- 
going, lest with gain thou be caught, when He saitb to thee 
in heart, /a;« thy riches. Do not give heed to what the 
world promiseth, but to what the Maker of the world promiseth. 
Thou miudest what God hath promised to thee doing righte- 
ousness, thou despisest what man promiseth thee to draw thee 
away from righteousness. Heed not then what the world 
promises, but what the Maker of the world, and thou wilt have 
an outgoing in the morning through the Lord's word saying^ 
Mat. 16, What doth it profit a man, if the tvhule world he gain, hut 
to his soul suffer loss. But he that could not with promised 
gain corrupt and allure thee to iniquity, will menace penalties, 
and will resort to hostility, and will begin to say to thee, If 
thou wilt not do this thing, I will shew thee, I will be doing, 
thou shalt have me for an enemy. At first when he was 
promising gain, it was morning to thee : but now evening 
draweth on, sad thou hast become. But He that hath given 
thee an outgoing in the morning, will give one also in the 
evening. In the same manner as thou hast contemned the 
morning of the world by the light of the Lord, so contemn the 
evening also by the sufferings of the Lord, in saying to thy soul. 
What more will this man do to me, tlian my Lord hath suffered 



The earth watered and enriched through God^s People, 207 

for me? May I' hold fast justice, not consent to iniquity, vfr. 
Let him vent his rage on the flesh, the trap will be broken, ^~^^' 
and 1 will fly to my Lord, That sailh to me. Do not fear ^^' 
them that kill the body, but the soul are not able to kill. ^'"1 old 

, . . . . J . Ed.'that 

And for the body itself He hath given security, ^a.y\x\g, A hair i may' 
of your head shall not perish. Nobly here he hath set down, ^^^^- '^> 
Thou wilt delight outgoings in morning and in evening. For Luke2i, 
if thou take not delight in the very outgoing, thou wilt not " 
labour to go out thence. Thou runnest thy head into the 
promised gain, if thou art not delighted with the promise 
of the Saviour. And again thou yieldest to one tempting 
and terrifying, if thou find no delight in Him that suffered 
before thee, in order that He might make an outgoing for thee. 
Outgoings in morning and in evening Thou uilt delight, 

14. Ver. 9. Thou hast visited the earth, and hast inebriated 
it. Whence hast inebriated the earth ? Thy cup inebriating ?s.23,b. 
how glorious it is ! Thou hast visited the earth, and hast 
inebriated it. Thou hast sent Thy clouds, they have rained 
down the preaching of the truth, inebriated is the earth. 
Thou hast miUtiplied to enrich it. Whence hast thou 
^multiplied iu enrich it V The river of God is filled with 
water. What is the river of God ? The people of God. 
The first people was filled with water, wherewith the rest 
of the earth might be watered. Hear Him promising 
water : Jf any man thirst, let Him come to Me and drink : John 7, 
he that believeth on Me, rivers of living water from His belly '' ' 
shall flow : if rivers, one river also ; for in respect of unity 
many are one. Many Churches and one Church, many 
faithful and one Bride of Christ : so many rivers and one 
river. Many Israelites believed, and were fulfilled with the 
Holy Spirit; from thence they were scattered abroad through 
the nations, they began to preach the truth, and from the 
river of God that was filled with water, was the whole earth 
watered. 7Viou hast prepared food for them: because thus 
is Thy pjreparing. Not because they have deserved of Thee, 
whom Thou hast forgiven sins : the merits of them were evil, 
butlhou for Thy mercy's sake, because thus is Thy preparing, 
thus Thou hast pjrcpared food for them. 

\b. Ver, 10. The furrows thereof inebriate Thou. Let 
there be made therefore at first furrows to be inebriated: 



268 Drops provided for the weak in their Jirst growth. 
Psalm let the hardness of our breast be opened with the share of 

LXV 

^ the word of God, The furrows thereof inebriate Thou: mul- 
tiply the generations thereof. We see, they believe, and by 
them believing other men believe, and because of those others 
believe ; and it is not sufficient for one man, that having 
become himself a believer, he should gain one. So is 
multiplied seed too : a few grains are scattered, and fields 
spring up. The furrous thereof inebriate Thou, multiply 
the generations thereof: in the drops thereof it shall rejoice^ 
when it shall rise vp. That is, before it be perchance 
enlarged to the bulk of a river, when it shall rise up, in its 
drops, that is, in those meet for it, it shall rejoice. For upon 
those that are yet babes, and upon the weak, are dropped 
some portions of the sacraments, because they cannot receive 
the fulness of the truth. Hear in what manner he droppeth 
upon babes, while they are rising up, that is, in their recent 

1 Cor. rising having small capacities : the Apostle saith. To you I 

' ' could not speak as if to spiritual, but as if to carnal, as if 

to babes in Christ. When he saith, to babes in Christ, he 

speaketh of them as already risen up, but not yet meet to 

1 Cor, receive that plenteous wisdom, whereof he saith. Wisdom we 

2 6 

' ' speak among iierfect men. Let it rejoice in its drops, while 

it is rising up and is growing, when strengthened it shall 
receive wisdom also : in the same manner as an infant is fed 
with milk, and becometh fit for meat, and nevertheless at 
first out of that very meat for which it was not fit, for it 
milk is made. In its drops it shall rejoice, when it shall 
rise up. 

16. Ver. ] 1. Thou shall bless the crown of the year of Thy 
goodness. Seed is now sowing, that which is sown is growing, 
there will be the harvest too. And now over the seed the 
enemy hath sown tares ; and there have risen up evil ones 
among the good, false Christians, having like leaf, but not 

^ zizaniaY\^s.e fruit. For those are properly called 'tares, which spring 
up in the manner of wheat, for instance darnel, for instance 
wild oats, and all such as have the first leaf the same. 
Therefore of the sowing of the tares thus saith the Lord : 

Mat. 13, There hath come an enemy, and hath sown over them tares ; 
but what hath he done to the grain ? The wheat is not 
choked by the tares, nay, through endurance of the tares 



Thejirst harvest from the Jews finds seed for a second. 269 

the fruit of the wheat is increased. For the Lord Himself Veb, 
said to certain workmen desiring to root up the tares, Suffer 



Mat.13, 

ye both to grow unto the harvest, lest perchance while ye so. 
desire to root up the tares, ye root up at tlie same time the 
wheat also: but in time of liar vest I will say to the reapers. 
Gather together first the tares, and bind in bundles for 
burning, but the wheal store ye in the barn. This is the end 
of the year, the harvest of the world. T/iou shall bless the 
crown of the year of Thy goodness. Of crown when thou hearest, 
the glory of victory is implied. Conquer the devil, and thou 
wilt have a crown. Thou shall bless the crown of the year of 
Thy goodness. Again he maketli reference to the goodness 
of God, lest any one boast of his own merits. 

17. Thy plains shall be filled with abundance: (ver. 12.) 
the ends of the desert shall grow fat, and the hills shall 
be encircled with exultation. Plains, hills, ends of the 
desert, the same are also men. Plains, because of the 
equality: because of equality, I say, from thence just peoples 
have been called plains. Hills, because of lifting up : be- 
cause God doth lift up in Himself those that humble them- 
selves. Ends of the desert are all nations. Wherefore ends 
of the desert .'' Deserted they were, to them no Prophet 
had been sent : they were in like case as is a desert where 
no man passeth by. No word of God was sent to the 
nations : to the people Israel alone the Prophets preached. 
We came to the Lord ' ; the wheat believed among that same ^ ' ^ea- 
people of the Jews. For He said at that time to the disciples, ad Do- 
Ye say, far off is the Jiarvest : look back, and see hotv wliite^^^^'^i' 
are the lands to harvest. There hath been therefore a first Domi- 
harvest, there will be a second in the last age. The first f^^^ 
harvest was of Jews, because there were sent to them Prophets Lord 
proclaiming a coming Saviour. Therefore the Lord said to joha 4 
His disciples. See how white are the lands to harvest : the^^- 
lands, to wit, of Juda3a. Other men. He saith, have laboured, l^^ ^' 
and into their labours ye have entered. The Prophets 
laboured to sow, and ye with the sickle have entered into 
their labours. There hath been finished therefore the first 
harvest, and thence, mth that very wheat which then was 
purged, hath been sown the round world ; so that there ariseth 
another harvest, which at the end is to be reaped. Tn the 



270 Joy of the Iciders of Christ's Flock in its abundance. 

Psalm second harvest have been sown tares, now here there is labour. 

^ Just as in that first harvest the Prophets laboured until the 

Lord came : so in that second harvest the Apostles laboured, 
and all preachers of the truth labour, even until at the end 
the Lord send unto the harvest His Angels. Aforetime, I say, 
a desert there was, but Hie ends- of ike desert sJiall grow 
fat. Behold where the Prophets had given no sound, the 
Lord of the Prophets hath been received, The ends of the 
desert shall grow fat, and with exultation the hills shall be 
encircled. 

18. Ver. 13. Clothed have been the rams of the sheep: 
' with exultation' must be understood. For with what exult- 
ation the hills are encircled, with the same are clothed the 
rams of the sheep. Rams are the very same as hills. For 
hills they are because of more eminent grace ; rams, because 
they are leaders of the flocks. Therefore those rams, the 
Apostles, were clothed with exultation, they rejoice over 
their fruits, not without cause they have laboured, not 
without cause they have preached, dollied have been the 
rams of the sheep : and the valleys shall abound in wheat. 
And the humble peoples shall bring forth much fruit. They 
shall shout : thence they shall abound with wheat, because 
they shall shout. What shall they shout? For a hymn they 
shall say. For one thing it is to shout against God, another 
thing to say a hymn ; one thing to shout iniquities, another 
thing to shout the praises of God. If thou shout in blasphemy, 
thorns thou hast brought forth : if thou shoutest in a hymn, 
thou aboundest in wheat. 



Lat. PSALM LXVI. 

LXV. 

EXPOSITION. 

Sermon to the Commonalty. 

This Psalm hath on the title the inscription, For the end, 

a song of a Psalm of Resurrection. When ye hear /br the 

end, whenever the Psalms are repeated, understand it for 

Rom.io, Christ : the Apostle saying, For the end of the law is Christ, 

4. 



The Jews had carnal hopes of the Resurrection. 271 

for righteousness to every one helievmg. In what manner 
therefore here Resurrection is sung, ye will hear, and whose 
Resurrection it is, as far as Himself deigneth to give and 
disclose. For the Resurrection we Christians know already 
hath come to pass in our Head, and in the members it is to 
be. The Head of the Church is Christ, the members ofColoss. 

1 18. 

Christ are the Church. That whicli hath preceded in the ' 
Head, will follow in the Body. This is our hope ; for this 
•we believe, for this we endure and persevere amid so great 
perverseness of this world, hope comforting us, before that 
hope becometh reality. For reality it will be when both we 
shall have risen again, and being changed into a heavenly- 
form, shall have been made equal to tlie Angels. WhatMat.22, 
man for this would dare to hope, unless Truth had promised j^y^g^Q 
it? But this hope promised to themselves the Jews had,3G. 
and of their good and as it were just works they gloried 
much, because they had received the Law, by living accord- 
ing to which both here they would have carnal good things, 
and in the Resurrection of the dead, they hoped for such 
things as here they delighted in. For this cause to the 
Sadducees, who denied a future Resurrection, the Jews were 
not able to make answer when they propounded a question 
which the same Sadducees propounded to the Lord. For 
hence we perceive that they could not solve this question, 
because on the Lord's solving it they wondered, TheMat22, 
Sadducees, I say, were propounding a question respecting a^ 
certain woman, who had seven husbands, not at the same 
time, but succeeding one another. For there was this 
provision of the Law for multiplying the people, that if a Deut. 
man perchance died without children, his brother (if brother ""*' 
he had) should take his wife to raise up seed unto his brother. 
When that woman then was brought forward, who liad had 
seven husbands who had all died without children, and who 
to fulfil this duty had married their brother's wife, they asked 
a question and said, In the Resurrection, of which of them Mat.22, 
shall she he the ivifef Without doubt the Jews would not^^* 
have been hard bested, would not have failed in that question, 
unless in the Resurrection for themselves they had hoped 
for such things as they were in the habit of doing in this 
life. But the Lord promising equality with Angels, not any 



272 Propliccy oj joy in the Resurrection for ' all lands.' 

Psalm human corruption of the flesh, sailh to ihem, Ye err, ktiow- 
ivf f oo ^^^y ^'^' ^^'^ Scriptures, neither the power of God ; for in the 
29. Resurrection, neither shall the women, marry, nor shall the 
3g" ^ ^ men take uives: for neither shall they bc<jin to die, hut shall 
be equal with the Angels of God. He hath proved that 
succession is necessary in a place where decease is mourned : 
there because there shall be no deceased, neither should 
successors be looked for. For imto this lie hath subjoined 
For they shall not begin to die. Nevertheless, because the 
Jevrs, though it be carnally, did hold the hope of future 
resurrection, they were glad that answer had been made to 
the Sadducees, with whom they had a dispute about this 
doubtful and obscure question. The Jews therefore did hold 
the hope of the resurrection of the dead: and they hoped that 
themselves alone would rise again to a blessed life because 
of the work of the Law, and because of the justifications 
of the Scriptures, which the Jews alone had, and the Gentiles 
Rom.ii,had not. Crucified was Christ, blindness in part happened 
unto Israel, in order that the fulness of the Gentiles might 
enter in : as the Apostle saith. The resurrectiou of the dead 
beginneth to be promised to the Gentiles also that believe in 
Jesus Christ, that He hath risen again. Thence this Psalm 
is against the presumption and pride of the Jews, for the 
comfort of the Gentiles that are to be called to the same hope 
of resurrection. 
lor'soul' 2. In a manner, my brethren, the mind' of the Psalm ye 
^'^' have heard. Upon this which I have said, upon this which 
I have set before you, let your whole attention be fixed ; 
from hence let not any thought divert you : against the 
presumption of the Jews it is spoken, who because of the 
justifications of the Law were hoping to themselves resur- 
rection, and crucified Christ, Who was the First to rise again, 
Who will not have for His members to rise again the Jews 
alone, but all men that have believed in Him, that is, all 
nations. Thence he beginneth, (ver. 1.) Be joyful in God. 
Who.** Every land. Not therefore Judaea alone. See, brethren, 
after what sort is set forth the universality of the Church in 
the whole world spread abroad : and mourn ye not only the 
Jews, who envied the Gentiles that grace, but still more 
for heretics wail ye. For if they are to be mourned, that 



Song of praise joined with music of good ivorks. 273 

have not been gathered together, how much more they that Veu. 

being gathered together have been divided ? Jubilate in God '— 

every land. What is jubilate? Into the voice of rejoicings 
break forth if ye cannot into that of words. For 'jubilation' 
is not of words, but the sound alone of men rejoicing is 
uttered, as of a heart labouring and bringing forth into 
voice the pleasure of a thing imagined which cannot be 
expressed. Be joyful in God every land: let no one jubi- 
late in apart: let every land be joyful, let the Catholic 
Church jubilate. The Catholic Church embraceth the whole: 
whosoever holdeth a part and from the whole is cut off, should 
howl, not jubilate. Be joyful in God every land. 

3. Ver. 2. But play ye to His name. What hath he said ? 
By you playing let His name be blessed. But what it ia to 
play, I told you yesterday, and I suppose Your Love to 
remember it. To play is also to take up an instrument which 
is called a psaltery, and by the striking and action of the 
hands to accompany voices. If therefore ye jubilate so that 
God may hear ; play also something that men may both see 
and hear : but not to your own name. For take heed that ye Matt. 6, 
do not your righteousness before men that ye may be seen oj 
them. And for whose name, thou wilt say, shall I play, so 
that my works may not' be seen of men ? Attend to another 
passage. Let your works shine before men, that they may Matt. 5, 
see your good deeds, and glorify your Father which is in 
Heaven. Let them see your good deeds, and glorify not you, 
but God. For if for the sake of yourselves being glorified 
ye do good works, we make the same reply as He made to 
certain of such men. Verily I say unto you, they have re- Matt. 6, 
ceived their reward : and again. Otherwise norewardye ivill ^^ j_ 
have with your Father That is in Heaven. Thou wilt say, 
ought I, then, to hide my works, that I do them not before 
men ? No. But whatsaith He } Let your works shine before 
men. In doubt then I shall remain. On one side Thou sayest to 
me, Take heed that ye do not your righteousness before men : 
on the other side Thou sayest to me, Let your good ivorks shine 
before men; what shall I keep ? what do ? what leave undone ? 
A man can as well serve two masters commanding different 
things as one commanding different things. I command not, 
' Most Mss. omit 'not,' making the reference two lines farther back. 

VOL. III. T 



274 All 'praise is to he for God, not for men. 

Psalm saith the Lord, different tbincrs. The end observe, for the end 

LXVt 

sing : with what end thou doest it, see thou. If for this reason 

thou doest it, that thou mayest be glorified, I have forbidden 

it : but if for this reason, that God may be glorified, I have 

commanded it. Play therefore, not to your own name, but 

to the name of the Lord your God. Play ye, let Him be 

lauded: live ye well, let Him be glorified. For whence 

have ye that same living well ? If for everlasting ye had had 

it, ye would never have lived ill; if from yourselves ye had 

had it, ye never would have done otherwise than have lived 

well. But play ye to His name. 

4. Give glory to His praise. Our whole attention upon 

the praise of God he directeth, nothing for us he leaveth 

whence we should be praised. Let us glory thence the 

more, and rejoice: to Him let us cleave, in Him let us be 

1 Cor. 1, praised. Ye heard when the Apostle was being read, See ye 

26. &c. yQ^ij. calling, brethren, how not many wise after the flesh, 
not many mighty, not many noble, but the foolish things of 
the world God hath chosen to confound the wise; and the 
weak things of the world God hath chosen to confound the 
strong; and the mean things of the tcorld God hath chosen, 
and those things tvhich are not as though they were things 
that are, that those things which are might be made void. 
What hath he willed to say ? What hath he willed to shew ? 
There hath come down the Lord, our God Jesus Christ, to 
restore' the human race, and to give His Grace to all men 
perceiving that it is His Grace, not their merits : and that 
no person whatever should glory in the flesh, the weak He 
chose. For thence was not chosen even that Nathanael. 

Matt. 9, For why dost thou suppose that He chose Matthew the 
publican, sitting at the receipt of custom, and chose not 
Nathanael, to whom the same Lord had borne witness, 

John 1, saying. Behold a true Israelite, in whom guile is not ? This 
'* Nathanael, I say, is found to have been learned in the law. 
Not that learned men He was not going to choose: but if 
the same at first He had chosen, on account of their learning 
they would have thought themselves to have been chosen ; 
so those men's knowledge would have been praised, and the 
praise of the Grace of Christ would have been lessened. He 
' Oxf. Mss. and some others add, ' in the Spirit.' 



Christ chose the weak first, lest man should glory. 275 

bare witness to one being a good trustworthy man, in whom Ver. 
guile was not: but, nevertheless, him He took not among '— 



those disciples, for whom at first He chose but ignorant 
men. And whence perceive we that he was skilled in the 
Law ? When he heard from one of those that had followed 
the Lord, saying, We have found the Messiah, whicli is 
interpreted Christ: he enquired whence, and it was told liim, 
from Nazareth : then he, From Nazareth there may he Jobn l , 

46. 

some good thing. Without doubt he, that perceived that 
from Nazareth there might be some good thing, was skilled 
in the Law, and had well examined the Prophets. 1 know 
that there is in these words another way of reading, but by 
the wiser sort it is not approved, namely, that he seemed as 
it were to have despaii-ed, when he heard and said, From 
Nazareth can there be any good thing? That is, can there 
any wise be? So uttering it as if he were in despair. But 
there followeth in that place, Come and see. These words, 
to wit. Come and see, may follow after either way of reading. 
If thou sayest, as if not believing, From Nazareth can there 
he any good thing? The answer is. Come and see that which 
thou believest not. Again, if thou sayest in confirmation, 
From Nazareth there may he some good ihiny ; the answer 
is. Come and see how truly good is that which 1 tell thee of 
from Nazareth ; and how rightly thou believest, come and 
experience. From hence nevertheless this man is supposed 
to have been learned in the Law, because, to wit, he was not 
chosen among the disciples by Him, Who chose the foolish i Cor. i, 
things of this world first, though the Lord had borne so great ^ 
testimony to him, saying. Behold an Israelite indeed, mJohni, 
whom guile is not. But the Lord chose afterwards orators^ 
also ; but they would have been proud, if He had not first 
chosen fishermen; He chose rich men; but they would have 
said that on account of their riches they had been chosen, 
unless at first He had chosen poor men: He chose Emperors 
afterwards ; but better is it, that when an Emj^eror hath 
come to Rome, he should lay aside his crown, and weep at 
the monument of a fisherman, than that a fisherman should 
weep at the monument of an Emperor. For the weak things ^ ^Z^- 
of the world God hath chosen to confound the strong; and ' 
the mean things of the world God hath chosen, and those 

T 2 



270 The glory of all good working due io God. 

Psalm things which are noi as though things that are, that those 

—^ ^ things which are might be made void. And what followeth ? 

The Apostle hath concluded, That there might not glory 
before God any flesh. See ye how from us He hath taken 
away, that He might give glory: hath taken away ours, that 
He might give His own ; hath taken away empty, that He 
might give full ; hath taken away insecure, Ihat He might 
give solid. How much more strong and firm is our glory, 
because in God it is ? Thou oughtest not therefore in thyself 
to glory; Truth hath forbidden it ; but that which the Apostle 
sailh. Truth hath commanded, ' He ihat glorielJi, in God let 
him glory.' Give therefore glory to His praise. Do not 
imitate the Jews, who as if to their merits desired to ascribe 
their justifications ; and envied the Gentiles drawing near to 
Evangelical Grace, in order that all sins might be forgiven 
them ; as if the former had not any thing to be forgiven them; 
already, as if they were good workmen, were expecting their 
hire. And though yet they were sick, they thought them- 
selves to be whole, and on that account more dangerously 
were they sick. For if they had but been more slightly sick, 
they would not, as if they were phrensied, have slain the 
Physician. Give ye glory to His praise. 

5. Ver. 3. Sag ye to God, How to be feared are Thy 

works! Wherefore to be feared and not to be loved ? Hear 

Ps.2,ii.thou another voice of a Psalm: Serve ye ihe Lord in fear, 

and exult iinio Him with tretnhling. What meaneth this.'' 

Philip. Hear the voice of the Apostle : IViih fear, he saith, and 

' ' trembling, your own salvation tvork ye out. Wherefore 

with fear and trembling ? He hath subjoined the reason : 

Philip, for God it is ihat workeih in you both io will and io work 

' according to good icill. If therefore God worketh in thee, 

by the Grace of God thou workest well, not by thy strength. 

Therefore if thou rejoicest, fear also : lest perchance that 

which was given to a humble man be taken away from a 

proud one. For that ye may know this thing to have come 

to pass because of that very pride of the Jews, who justified 

themselves as though by the works of the Law, and therefore 

Ps.2o,r. fell ; another Psalm saith. These in chariots and those in horses, 

as though it were in certain steps and instruments of theirs 

for their raising up : but we, he sailh, in the name of the 



7hey must oivn their blindness, who would have sight. 277 

Lord our God will be magnified. These in chariots and Ver. 

these in horses: but we in the name of the Lord our God ^— 

will be magnified. See how the former were exalted in 
themselves: see how the latter were glorying in God. 
Wherefore what followed: Their feet have beeii bowid fast 'Ps.20fi. 
and they have fallen : but we have risen and are erect. 
Hear our Lord Himself saying this same thing: /, He saith, John9, 
have come, that they ivhieh see not may see: and they that^ ' 
see may be made blind. See on one side goodness, on the 
other ill intent as it were. But what is better than He? 
What more merciful? What more just? Why then, they 
that see not may see? Because of goodness. Why, and 
they that see may be made blind f Because of arrogance. 
And did they really see, and were they made blind ? They 
saw not, but they thought they saw. For behold, see brethren, 
when the Jews themselves said, Are ive blind, the Lord saith 
to them, If blind ye were., sin ye would not have: but wo?^'John9, 
because ye say, we see, your sin in you abideth. To the^ 
Physician thou hast come ; that thou seest sayest thou ? 
Then no more of eye-salves, alway blind thou wilt remain : 
confess thyself blind, that thou mayest deserve to be en- 
lightened. Observe the Jews, observe the Gentiles. They 
that see not, may see. He saith : to this end I have come, 
that they which see may be made blind. Our Lord Jesus 
Christ Himself in the Flesh the Jews saw, the Gentiles saw 
not : behold they that saw, crucified ; they that saw not 
believed. Therefore what hast Thou done, O Christ, against 
proud men ? What hast Thou done ? We see, because 
Thou hast so deigned, and Thy members we are : we see. 
Thou hast hidden God, hast put forth Man. Wherefore this? 
That blindness in part to Israel might hap^wn, and Me Rom- 
fulness of the Gentiles might enter in. To this end Thou ' 
hast hidden God, and Man before their faces Thou hast put. 
They saw, and saw not : they saw what Thou hadst taken, 
and they saw not what Thou wast : they saw the form of a Philip, 
servant, they saw not the form of God: the form of a servant, ' ' 
than which the Father is greater, not the form of God, be- Johni4, 
cause of which but now ye have heard, / and the Father are jo'hnio 
One. They held what they saw, they crucified what they^o. 
saw ; they insulted Him whom they saw, they acknowledged 



27 R Cal holies not to he proud agahist Jeu's or Heretics. 

Psalm not Him that was concealed. Hear the Apostle saying, For 
^^ if they had known, the Lord of glory they woidd never have 
8. ^crucified. Therefore ye Gentiles that have been called, 
ii°"i7 observe the branches cut oiF because of severity, but your- 
selves graffed in because of goodness, and made partakers of 
the fatness of the olive, not being high-minded, that is, not 
Rom. being proud. For thou hearest not the root, he saith, but 
' ' the root thee. Rather be afraid, because ye see the natural 
branches lopped off. For through the Patriarchs the Jews 
came, from the flesh of Abraham they were born. And what 
Rom. 11, saith the Apostle ? But thou sayest, broken were the branches, 
19—21. ^j^^^ I might he graffed in. Well, because of unbelief they 
tvere broken off: but thou, he saith, by faith standest, be not 
highminded, but fear : for if the natural branches God hath 
not spared, neither thee will He spare. Observe therefore 
the branches broken, and thyself graffed in : be not exalted 
above the broken branches, but rather say thou to God, How 
to be feared are Thy works! Brethren, if against the Jews of 
old, cut off from the root of the Patriarchs, we ought not to 
exalt ourselves, but rather to fear and to say to God, How to 
be feared are Thy works : how much less ought we not to 
exalt ourselves against the fresh wounds of the cutting off! 
Before there had been cut off Jews, graffed in Gentiles; 
from the very graft there have been cut off heretics ; but 
neither against them ought we to exalt ourselves ; lest per- 
chance he deserve to be cut off, that delighteth to revile them 
that are cut off. My brethren, a bishop's voice, however 
miworthy, hath sounded to you^ : we pray you to beware, 
whosoever ye are in the Church, do not revile them that are 
not within; but pray ye rather, that they too may be within. 
^°™- For God is able again to graft them in. Of the ver}' Jews 
the Apostle said this, and it was done in their case. The 
Lord rose again, and many believed : they perceived not 
when they crucified, nevertheless afterwards they believed in 
Him, and there was forgiven them so great a transgression. 
The shedding of the Lord's blood was forgiven the man- 
1 Cor. slayers, not to say, God-slayers: for if they had known, the 
' ' Lord of glory they never would have crucified. Now to the 
manslayers hath been forgiven the shedding of the blood of 

^ Some Oxf. Mss. ' My brethren, however their voice soundeth toward you." 



Our Lord's singular miracle. His rising to live for ever, 279 

Him innocent : and that same blood which through madness Ver. 
they shed, though grace they have drunk. Say ye, therefore, — ?^ — 
to God, How to he feared are Thy works! Whence to be 
feared? Because blindness in part to Israel hath happened, TiomAl, 
that the fulness of the Gentiles might enter in. O fulness * 
of Gentiles, say thou to God, How to be feared are Thy 
works ! and so rejoice thou as that thou mayest fear, be not 
exalted above the branches cut off. Say ye unto God, How 
to be feared are Thy works. 

6. Ver. 2. In the multitude of Thy power Thine enemies 
shall lie to Thee. For this purpose he saith, to TJtee thine 
enemies shall lie, in order that great may be Thy power. 
What is this ? With more attention hearken. The power of 
our Lord Jesus Christ most chiefly appeared in the Resurrec- 
tion, from whence this Psalm hath received its title. And 
rising again, He appeared to His disciples. He appeared not Acts lo, 
to His enemies, but to His disciples. Crucified He appeared 
to all men, rising again to believers : so that afterwards also 
he that would might believe, and to him that should believe, 
resurrection might be promised. Many holy men wrought 
many miracles ; no one of them when dead did rise again : 
because even they that by them were raised to life, were 
raised to life to die. Let your Love attend. The Lord 
making mention of His works said. The works believe ye, 2/"Johnio, 
Me ye will not believe. And there are mentioned also the ' 
past works of the Prophets ; and if they be not the same, yet 
many are the same, many of the same power. The Lord Mat.u, 
walked upon the sea, He bade Peter also walk. Was the same Exod. 
Lord not in that place when the sea divided herself, that ^^' ^^* 
Moses with the people of Israel might pass over ? The same 
Lord was doing those things. He that did them through 
His flesh, the Same did them through the flesh of His servants. 
Nevertheless, this thing through His servants He did not, 
(for Himself did all things,) that any one of themselves should 
have died and risen again unto life everlasting. Because 
therefore the Jews might say, when the Lord did miracles, 
Moses hath done these things, Elias hath done, Eliseus hath 
done them: they might for themselves say these words, 
because those men also did raise to life dead men, and did 
many miracles: therefore when from Him a sign was de- 



280 Christ's poiver in rising sheivn through the ' lie of enemies. 

Psalm manded, of the peculiar sign making mention which in Him- 

-■.y — - self alone was to be, He saith, This aetieration crooked and 

Mat. 12, ' ,, , 

39.40. provoking^ seeketh a sign, and a sign shall not be given to 

cnns^kc *^' ^'^'^^P^ ^^'^ ^^ff"' ^f Jf^nas the Prophet : for as Jonas was 

Most i/f. the bellg of the whale three days and three nights, so shall 

iipi'ii be also the So?i of Man in the heart of the earth three dags 

""'^ ajid three nights. In what way was Jonas in the belly of 

terous" the whale } Was it not so that afterwards alive he was 

vomited out? Hell was to the Lord what the whale was to 

Jonas. This sign peculiar to Himself He mentioned, this 

is the most mighty sign. It is more mighty to live again 

after having been dead, than not to have been dead. The 

greatness of the power of the Lord as He was made Man, in 

the virtue of the Resurrection dolh appear. This the Apostle 

Phil. 3, also noticcth, when he saith. Not having mine owti righ- 

teousness which is of the Law, but that which is through the 

faith of Christ, tvhich is of God righteousness in faith, to 

know Him and the virtue of His Resurrection. Thus it is 

2 Cor. noticed also in another place : although He was crucified 

^^' ^' through weakness, yet He liveth in the virtue of God. 

Whereas therefore this great power of the Lord is in the 

Resurrection perceived, whence this Psalm hath received its 

title, what meaneth, in the multitude of Thy power Thine 

enemies shall lie unto Thee, but that thou understand it thus, 

Thine enemies shall lie to Thee in order that Thou mayest 

be crucified, Thou shalt be crucified in order that Thou 

mayest rise again ? The lie therefore of them shall redound 

to the praise of Thy great power. Wherefore are enemies 

wont to lie ? To lessen the power of some person, about 

whom they lie. To Thee, he saith, contrariwise it chanceth. 

For less would Thy power have appeared, if they had not 

lied to Thee. 

7. Observe also the very lie of the false witnesses in the 
Gospel, and see how it is about Resurrection. For when to 
John 2, the Lord had been said, What sign sheicest Thou to us, that 
^^' Thou doest these things? besides that which He had spoken 
Mat.i2, about Jonah, through another similitude of this same thing 
^^' also He spake, that ye might know this peculiar sign had 
John 2, been es])ecially pointed out : Destroy this Temple, He saith, 
^^" '^^' and in three days I ivill raise it 2tp. And they said, In forty 



Their false witness marked the sign of the Resurrection. 281 

and six years was huilded this temjde, and wilt Thou in Ver. 
three days raise it up ? And the Evangelist explaining what. ^* 



it was, But this, he saith, spake Jesus of the Temple of His John 2, 

2 1 

Body. Behold this His power He said He would shew to 
men in the same thing as that from whence He had given 
the siunlitude of a Temple, because of His flesh, which was 
the Temple of the Divinity hidden within. Whence the Jews 
outwardly saw the Temple, the Deity dwelling within they saw 
not. Out of those words of the Lord false witnesses made up 
a lie to say against Him, out of those very words wherein He 
mentioned His future Resurrection, in speaking of the Temple. 
For false witnesses, when they were asked what they had heard 
Him say, alleged against Him: We heard Him saying, /Mat.2&, 
will destroy this Temple, and after three days I will raise it ^^^y 
up. ^ After three days I will raise iip^ they had heard: / 14,58. 
will destroy, they had not heard : but had heard ^destroy ye."" John 2, 
One word they changed and a few letters, in order to support 
their false testimony. But for whom changest thou a word, 
O human vanity, O human weakness .'* For the Word, the 
Unchangeable, dost thou change a word ? Thou changest 
thy word, dost thou change God's Word? Whence in 
another place is said. And iniquity hath lied to themselves, pg, 27 
Why therefore to Thee have Thine enemies lied, to Whom ^^* 
every land shouteth for joy ? In the midtitude of Thy power 
Thine enemies shall lie to Thee. They will say, / will 
destroy, though Thou hast said. Destroy ye. Wherefore said 
they that Thou hadst said, / icill destroy ; and said not that 
which T^\\Q\\si\x(Xe%t,destroy ye? It was, as it were, in order that 
they might defend themselves from the charge of destroying 
the Temple witliout cause. For Christ, because He willed it, 
died: and nevertheless ye killed Him. Behold we grant you, 
O ye liars, Himself destroyed the Temple. For it hath been 
said by the Apostle, T'liat loved me, and gave up Himself for Gal. 2, 
me. It hath been said of the Father, That His own Son rJ^j^ g 
spared not, hut gave Him up for us all. If therefore the^^. 
Father gave up the Son, and the Son gave up His own Self, 
Judas did what ? The Father in giving up the Son to death 
for us did well : Christ in delivering up Himself for us did 
well: Judas in giving up his Master for his covetousness, Mat.26, 
did evil. For that which hath been given to us by the 



282 The lie of the guard also manifested Christ's Power. 

Psalm Passion of Christ, shall not be ascribed to the malice of 

^ ^ Judas : he shall have the reward of malice, Christ the praise 

of bounty. By all means be it that Himself destroyed the 
Temple, Himself destroyed that said, Power I have to lay 

'or life down My Soul\ and power I have again to take it : no one 

18. ^' ' taketh it from Me, but I Myself lay it down from Me, and 
again I take it. Be it that Himself hath destroyed the 
Temple in His Grace, in your malice. In the multitude of 
Thy power thine enemies shall lie to Tliee. Behold they lie, 
behold they are believed, behold Thou art oppressed, behold 
Thou art crucified, behold Thou art insulted, behold head 

Mat. 27, is wagged at Thee, If Son of God He is, let Him come down 
from the Cross. Behold when Thou wilt, life Thou layest 

John 19, down, and with lance in the side art pierced, and Sacraments 
from Thy side flow forth; Thou art taken down from the 
Tree, wound in linens, laid in the sepulchre, there are set 
guards lest Thy disciples take Thee away ; there cometh 
the hour of Thy Resurrection, earth is shaken, tombs are 
cloven. Thou risest again in secret, appearest openly. 
Where then are those liars ? Where is the false testimony 
of evil will ? Have not Thine enemies in the multitude of 
Thy power lied to Thee ? 

8. Give them also those guards at the Tomb, let them 

Mat.28, recount what they have seen, let them take money and lie 
too : let them too speak, crooked men by crooked men ad- 
monished, let there speak by Jews corrupted, they that in 
Christ would not be uncorrupted ; let them speak, let them 
too lie. What will they say ? Let us see, speak ye : ye also 
will lie in the multitude of the power of the Lord. What 

Mat.28, will ye say? While we were sleeping, there came His dis- 
ciples, and took Him away from the I'omb. O folly, asleep 
indeed ! Either thou wast awake, and shouldest have pre- 
vented it : or thou wast asleep, and what was done thou 
knewest not. They too were added to the lie of the enemies : 
increased was the number of liars, that increased might be 
the I'eward of believers : because i?i the multitude of Thy 
power Thine enemies shall lie to Thee. Therefore they lied, 
in the multitude of Thy power they lied : to confound liars 
Thou hast appeared to men of truth, and Thou hast appeared 
to those men of truth whom Thou hast made men of truth. 



All nations invited to view God's Work. 283 

9. Let Jews remain in their lies: to Thee, because in Veb. 
the multitude of Thy power they lied, let there be done ^~^' -- 
that which followeth, (ver. 3.) Let every land worship Thee, 

and play to Thee, play to Thy name, O Most Highest. 
A little before, Most Lowly, now Most Highest: Most 
Lowly in the hands of lying enemies ; Most Highest above 
the head of praising Angels. Let every land worship Thee, 
and play to Thee, play to TJiy name, O Most Highest. 

10. Come ye, and see the works of the Lord. O ye Gentiles 
O most distant nations, leave lying Jews, come confessing. 
Come ye, and see the works of the Lord: terrible in counsels 
above the sons of men. Son of Man indeed He too hath 
been called, and verily Son of Man He became : very Son of 
God in the form of God ; very Son of Man in form of a Philip. 

2 6 

servant : but do not judge of that form by the condition of ' 
others alike : terrible He is in counsels above the sons of 
men. Sons of men took counsel to crucify Christ, being 
crucified He blinded the crucifiers. What then have ye 
done, sons of men, by taking keen counsels against your 
Lord, in whom was hidden Majesty, and to sight shewn 
weakness ? Ye were taking counsels to destroy. He to blind 
and save ; to blind proud men, to save humble men : bilt to 
blind those same proud men, to the end that, being blinded 
they might be humbled, being humbled might confess, having 
confessed might be enlightened. Terrible in counsels above 
the sons of men. Terrible indeed. Behold blindness inEom. 
part to Israel hath happened: behold the Jews, out of whom '^ ' 
was born Christ, are without: behold the Gentiles, that were 
against Judsea, in Christ are within. Terrible in counsels 
above the sons of men. 

11. Wherefore what hath He done by the terror of His 
counsel ? He hath turned the sea into dry land. For this 
followeth, (ver. 5.) That hath turned the sea into dry land. 
A sea vvas the world, bitter with saltness, troubled with 
tempest, raging with waves of persecutions, sea it was : truly 
into dry land the sea hath been turned, now there thirsteth 
for sweet water the world that with salt water was filled. 
Who hath done this ? He that hath turned the sea into dry 
land. Now the soul of all the Gentiles saith what? ' Myv^, 143, 
soul is as it were land without water to Thee.' That hath^' 



284 Our Joy in God when morlality is passed hy. 

TsAj.M turned the sea into dry land. In the river they shall pass 

— oier on foot. Those same persons tluii have been turned 

into dry land, though ihey were before sea, in the river on 
fool shall pass over. What is the river ? The river is all 
the mortality of the world. Observe a river : some things 
come and pass by, other things that are to pass by do 
succeed. Is it not thus with the water of a river, that from 
earth springeth and floweth ? Every one that is born must 
needs give place to one going to be born : and all this order 
of things rolling along is a kind of river. Into this river let 
not the soul greedily throw herself, let her not throw herself, 
but let her stand still. And how shall she pass over the 
pleasures of things doomed to perish ? Let her believe in 
Christ, and she will pass over on foot: she passeth over with 
Him for Leader, on foot she passeth over. What is, to pass 
over on foot ? To pass over easily. She requireth no horse 
to pass over, she is not lifted up with pride to pass over the 
river: humble she passeth over, and the more safely she 
passeth over. In the river they shall pass over on foot. 

12. There ice will be joyous in Him. O ye Jews, of your 
own works boast ye : lay aside the pride of boasting of your- 
selves, take up the Grace of being joyous in Christ. For 
therein we will be joyous, but not in ourselves : there tee 
will be joyous in Him. When shall we joy? When we shall 
have passed over the river on foot. Life everlasting is 
promised, resurrection is promised, there our flesh no longer 
shall be a river : for a river it is now, while it is mortality. 
Observe whether there standeth still any age. Boys desire 
to grow up; and they know not how by succeeding years the 
span of their life is lessened. For years are not added to 
but taken from them as they grow: just as the water of a 
river alway draweth near, but from the source it withdraweth. 
And boys desire to grow up that they may escape the 
thraldom of elders ; behold they grow up, it cometh to pass 
quickly, they arrive at youth : let them that have emerged from 
boyhood retain, if they are able, their youth: that too passeth 
away. Old age succeedeth'^: let even old age be everlasting; 
with death it is removed. Therefore a river there is*^ of 

« Oxf. Ms«, add, ' Let even old age ^ Oxf. Mss. ' is the mortality.' 
succeed for everlasting, let,' &c. 



Christ has passed through mortality to cure our fall. 285 

flesh that is born. This river of mortality, so that it doth Ver. 
not by reason of concupiscence of things mortal undermine — - — 
and carry him away, he easily passeth over, that humbly, 
that is on foot, passeth over, He being leader That first hath 
passed over, That of the flood in the way even unto death Ps. no, 
hath drunk, and therefore hath lifted up the head. Passing 
over therefore on foot that river, that is, easily passing over 
that mortality that glideth along, there we vsill be joyous in 
Him. But now in what save in Him, or in the hope of 
Him ? For even if we are joyous now, in hope we are 
joyous ; but then in Him we shall be joyous. And now in 
Him, but through hope : but then face to face. J Cor. 

13, There we will be joyous in Him. In whom? In Him ' 
(ver. 7.) That reigneth in His virtue for everlasting. For 
what virtue have we? and is it everlasting? If everlasting 
were our virtue, we should not have slipped, should not have 
fallen into sin, we should not have deserved penal mortality. 

He, of His good pleasure, took up that wherennto our desert Gen, 3, 
threw us down. That reigneth in His virtue for everlasting. ' °' 
Of Him partakers let us be made, in Wbose virtue we shall 
be strong, but He in His own. We enlightened. He a light 
enlightening: we, being turned away from Him, are in dark- 
ness; turned away from Himself He cannot be. With the 
heat of Him we are warmed ; from whence withdrawing we 
had grown cold, to the Same drawing near again we are 
warmed. Therefore let us speak to Him that He may keep 
us in His virtue, because in Him we will be joyous That 
reigneth in His virtue for everlasting. 

14. But this thing is not granted to believing Jews alone. 
Because the Jews did greatly lift themselves up relying on 
their own virtue, afterwards tliey understood in Whose virtue 
they were strong to their health, and certain of them believed : 
but that is not enough for Christ; much is that which He 
hath given, a great price He hath given, not for Jews alone 
was that to avail which He hath given. The eyes of 
Him do look upon the Oentiles. Therefore, " The eyes of 
Him upon the Gentiles look. And what do we ?" The Jews 
will murmur; the Jews will say, " what He hath given to us, 
the same to them also ; to us Gospel, to them Gospel ; to us 
the Grace of Resurrection, and to them the Grace of Resur- 



286 The Jews' disappointed murmuring silenced. 

Psalm rection ; doth it profit us nothing that we have received the 

^^^^ Law, and that in the justifications of the Law we have lived, 
and have kept the conimandnienls of the fathers? Nothing 
will it avail ? The same to them as to us." Let them not 
strive, let them not dispute. Let not them that are hitter he 
exalted in their own selves. O flesh miserable and wasting, 
art thou not sinful ? Why crieth out thy tongue ? Let the 

Kom. 3, conscience be listened to. For all men hare sinned^ and need 
the glory of God. Know thyself, human weakness. Thou 

Rom. 5, didst receive the Law, in order that a transgressor also of 
the Law thou mightest be : for thou hast not kept and 
fulfilled that which thou didst receive. There hath come to 
thee because of the Law, not the justification which the Law 
enjoineth, but the transgression which thou hast done. If 
therefore there hath abounded sin, why enviest thou Grace 
more abounding. Be not bitter, for let not them that are 
hitter be exalted in their own selves. He seemeth in a manner 
to have uttered a curse in Let not them that are bitter be 
exalted; yea, be they exalted, but not in themselves. Let 

Mat.23,them be humbled in themselves, exalted in Christ. For, " he 

12. 

that humbleth himself shall be exalted ; and he that exalteth 
himself shall be humbled.''^ Let not them that are bitter he 
exalted in their oivn selves. 

15. Ver. 8. Bless our God, ye nations. Behold, there have 
been driven back they that are bitter, reckoning hath been 
made with them : some have been converted, some have 
continued proud. Let not them terrify you that grudge the 
Gentiles Gospel Grace : now hath come the Seed of Abraham, 

Gen. 12, in Whom are blessed all nations. Bless ye Him in Whom ye 
are blessed. Bless our God, ye nations : and hear ye the 
voice of His praise. Praise not yourselves, but praise Him. 
What is the voice of His praise ? That by His Grace we are 
whatever of good we are. (Ver. 9.) Who hath set my Soul 
unto life. Behold the voice of His praise : Who hath set my 
Soul unto life. Therefore in death she was: in death she was, 
in thyself. Thence it is that ye ought not to have been exalted 
in yourselves. Therefore in death she was in thyself: where 

John 14, will it be in life, save in Him that said, / am the Way, the 

Truth, and the Life ? Just as to certain believers the Apostle 

Ephes.5, saith, Ye were sometime darkness, but now light in the Lord. 
8. 



We suffer tnuch, but nothing that need move us. 287 

Darkness therefore in yourselves, light in the Lord : so death in Ver. 
yourselves, life in the Lord. Who hath set my Soul unto life. — '- — '- 
Behold, He hath set our Soul in life, because we believe in 
Him ; unto life He hath set our Soul : but what further need 
is there, save that we persevere even unto the end ? And 
this who shall give, save He of whom in continuation hath 
been said, and hath not given unto motion my feet ? He hath 
set my Soul unto life. He guideth the feet that they stumble 
not, be not moved and given unto motion ; He maketh us 
to live, He maketh us to persevere even unto the end, in 
order that for everlasting we may live. And hath not given 
unto motion my feet. 

16. Wherefore hath He said this. And hath not given unto 
motion my feet ? For what hast thou suffered, or what 
couldest thou sufi'er, that thy feet should be moved ? What ? 
Hear the words which follow. Wherefore have I said, hath 
not given unto motion my feet!' Because many things we 
have suffered, on account of which our feet would have been 
moved from the way, unless He had guided, and not given 
them unto motion. What are these things.^ (ver. 1 0.) For thou 
hast proved us, God; Thou hast fired us as silver is fired. 
Hast not fired us like hay, but like silver : by applying to us 
fire, Thou hast not turned us into ashes, but Thou hast 
washed off uncleanness. Thou hast fired us, as silver is fired. 
And see in what manner God is wroth against them, whose 
Soul He hath set unto life. Thou hast led us into a trap : 
not that we might be caught and die, but that we might be 
tried and delivered from it. Thoic hast laid tribulations upon 
our back. For having been to ill purpose lifted up, proud 
we were: having been to ill purpose lifted up, we were 
bowed down, in order that being bowed down, we should be 
lifted up for good. Thou hast laid tribulations on our back: 
(ver. II.) Thou hast set men over our heads. All these things 
the Church hath suffered in sundry and divers persecutions : 
She hath suffered this in Her individual members, even now 
doth suffer it. For there is not one, that in this life could 
say that he was exempt from these trials. Therefore there 
are set even men over our heads : we endure those whom we 
would not, we suffer for our betters those whom we know to 
be worse. But if sins be wanting, a man is justly superior: 



*288 Fire of trouble hardeiis against water of ease. 

Psalm but by how much there are more sins, by so much he is 
-— — ^inferior. And it is a good thing to consider ourselves to be 
sinners, and thus endure men set over our heads : in order 
that we also to God may confess that deservedly we suffer. 
For why dost thou suffer with indignation that which He 
docth Who is just? Thou hast laid tribulalions upon our 
back: Thou hast set men over our heads. God seemeth to 
be wroth, when He doeth these things : fear not, for a Father 
He is, He is never so wroth as to destroy. When ill thou 
livest, if He spareth, He is more angry. In a word, these 
tribulations arc the rods of Him correcting, lest there be a 
sentence from Him punishing. Thou hast laid tribulations 
upon our back : Thou hast set men over our heads. 

17. We have passed through fire and water. Fire and water 
are both dangerous in this life. Certainly water seemeth to 
extinguish fire, and fire seemeth to dry up water. Thus also 
these are the trials, wherein aboundeth this life. Fire 
burnetii, water corrupteth : both must be feared, both the 
burning of tribulation and the water of corruption. When- 
ever there is adversity, and any thing which is called un- 
happiness in this world, there is as it were fire : whenever 
there is prosperity, and the world's plenty floweth about one, 
there is as it wei'e water. See that fire burn thee not, nor 
water corrupt. Be thou strong against the fire, thou must 
needs be baken ; as though thou wert a clay vessel, thou art 
cast into the furnace of fire, in order that the thing which 
hath been formed may be made strong. The vessel then 
now by fire being made strong feareth not the water: but if 
the vessel shall not have been hardened by fire, like mud in 
water it will be dissolved. Hasten not to the water : through 
fire pass over to the water, that thou mayest pass over the 
» Sacra- Water also. Therefore also in the mystic rites ', and in 
^^Exor- catechising and in exorcising^, there is first used fire. For 
cism be- whence ofttimes do the unclean spirits cry out, ' I burn,' if 
Baptism that is not fire? But after the fire of Exorcism we come to 
Baptism : so that from fire to water, from water unto refresh- 
ment. But as in the Sacraments, so it is in the temptations 
of this world : the straitness of fear draweth near first, in 
place of fire ; afterwards fear being removed, we ought to be 
afraid lest worldly happiness corrupt. But when the fire 



^Refreshment* and ^perfect sacrifice,'' in the Resurrection. 289 
hath not made thee burst, and when thou hast not sunk in Ver. 

13 

the water, but hast swum out ; through discipline thou passest '— 



over to rest, and passing over through fire and water, thou 
art led forth into a place of refreshment. For of those things 
whereof the signs are in the Sacraments, there are the very 
realities in that perfection of life everlasting. So soon as we 
shall have passed over to that place of refreshment, dearly 
beloved brethren, there no enemy we shall fear, no tempter, 
no envious person, no fire, no water ; there an everlasting- 
place of refreshment there will be. A place of coolness' it is ' refn- 
called, because of the rest therein. For if thou say, it is heat, ^^""" 
it is true : if thou say, it is a cool place, it is true. For if 
the cool place thou understand amiss, we are as it were 
torpid there. But we are not torpid there, but we rest : nor 
though it be called heat, shall we be hot there, but we shall 
be fervent in spirit. Observe that same heat in another 
Psalm : nor is there any one that hideth himself from the P^- 19, 
heat thereof. What saith also the Apostle .-' In spirit fervent. Rom, 12 
Therefore, ive have gone over through fire and loater : and^^' 
Thou hast led us forth into a cool place. 

18. Observe how not only concerning a cool place, but 
neither of that very fire to be desired he hath been silent : 
(ver. 13.) I will enter into Thy House in holocausts. What is 
a holocaust ? A whole sacrifice burned up, but with fire 
divine. For a sacrifice is called a holocaust, when the whole 
is burned. One thing are the j^arts of sacrifices, another 
thing a holocaust : when the whole is burned and the whole 
consumed by fire divine, it is called a holocaust : when a 
part, a sacrifice. Every holocaust indeed is a sacrifice: but 
not every sacrifice a holocaust. Holocausts therefore he is 
promising, the Body of Christ is speaking, the Unity of Christ 
is speaking, / will enter into Thy House in holocausts. All 
that is mine let Thy fire consume, let nothing of mine remain 
to me, let all be Thine. But this shall be in the Resun*ection 
of just men, when both this corruptible shall be clad in in- \ Cor. 
corruption, and this mortal shall be clad in immortality: then i^> ^^• 
shall come to pass that which hath been written, ' Death is 
swallowed up in victory? Victory is, as it were, fire divine : 
when it swalloweth up our death also, it is a holocaust. 
There remaineth not any thing mortal in the flesh, there 

VOL. III. u 



290 Fows duly distivguished. Marrow of the Holocaust. 

Psalm remain eth not anv tliiner culiiable in the spirit: the whole of 

" mortal life shall be consumed, in order that in life everlasting 

it may be consuuimated, that from death we may be preserved 
1 Oxf. in life^ These therefore will be the holocausts, 
'^^hat*^'^ 19. And what shall there be in the holocausts? I will 
froinSic.' render to Thee my vows, (ver. 14.) wliich myUpshave distin- 
guished. What is the distinction in vows? This is the distinc- 
tion, thai thyself thou censure, Him thou praise : perceive 
thyself to be a creature, Him the Creator : thyself darkness, 
Ps. 18, jjira the Enlighlener, to Whom thou shouldestsay, Thou shall 
light my lamp, O Lord my God, Thou shall enlighten my 
darkness. For whenever thou shall have said, O soul, that 
from thyself thoii hast light, thou wilt not distinguish. If 
thou wilt not distinguish, thou wilt not render distinct vows. 
Render distinct vows, confess thyself changeable. Him un- 
changeable : confess thyself without Him to be nothing, but 
Himself without thee to be perfect ; thyself to need Him, but 
Ps. 16, Him not to need thee. Cry to Him, I have said to the Lord, 
' ' My God art Thou, for tny good things Thou needest not. Now 
though God taketh thee to Him for a holocaust. He groweth 
not, He is not increased. He is not richer, He becometh not 
better furnished: whatsoever He maketh of thee for thy sake, 
is the belter for thee, not for Him that maketh. If thou 
dislinguishest these things, thou renderest the vows to thy God 
which thy lips have distinguished, / will render to Thee 
my vows, which my lips have distinguished. 

'20. And my mouth hath spoken in my tribulation. How 
sweet ofttimes is tribulation, how necessary ? in that case 
what hath the mouth of the same spoken in his tribulation ? 
(Ver. 15.) Holocausts marrotved I will offer to Tliee. What is 
marrowed f Within may I keep Thy love, it shall not be 
on the surface, in my marrow it shall be that I love Thee. 
For there is nothing more inward than our marrow : the 
bones are more inward than the flesh, the marrow is more 
inward than those same bones. Whosoever therefore on the 
surface loveth God, desireth rather to please men, but 
having some other affection within, he offereth not holo- 
causts of marrow : but into whosesoever marrow He looketh, 
him He receiveth whole. Holocausts marrowed I will offer 
to Thee, with incense and rams. The rams are the rulers of 



Even ♦ he-goats' accepted when duly offered. 291 

the Church: the whole Body of Christ is speaking: thisisthe Ver. 
thing which he ofFereth to God. Incense is what? Prayer. 



With incense and rams. For especially the rams do pray 
for the flocks. / will offer to Thee oxen with, he-goats. 
Oxen we find treading out corn, and the same are offered to 
God. The Apostle hath said, that of the preachers of the 
Gospel must be understood that which hath been written. 
Of the ox treading out corn the mouth thou shall not muzzle, i Cor. 
Doth God care for oxen? Therefore great are those rams,j^'g^,j 
great the oxen. What of the rest, that perchance are con- 25, 4. 
scious of certain sins, that perchance in the very road have 
slipped, and, having been wounded, by penitence are being 
healed.? Shall they too continue, and to the holocausts shall 
they not belong ? Let them not fear, he hath added he-goats 
also. Holocausts, he saith, niarrowed I will offer to Thee, 
with incense and rams; I ivill offer to Thee oxen with he-goats. 
By the very yoking are saved the he-goats ; of themselves 
they have no strength, being yoked to bulls they are accepted. 
For they have made friends of the mammon of iniquity, that Luke 
the same may receive them into everlasting tabernacles. ' 
Therefore those he-goats shall not be on the left, because 
they have made to themselves friends of the mammon of 
iniquity. But what he-goats shall be on the left? They to 
whom shall be said, I hungred, and ye gave me not to eat : Ma,t.l5, 
not they that have redeemed their sins by alms-deeds- 

21. Ver. 16. Come ye, hear, and I will tell, all ye that 
fear God. Let us come, let us hear, what he is going to tell, 
Come ye, hear, and I will tell. But to whom. Come ye, and 
hear? All ye that fear God. If God ye fear not, I will not 
tell. It is not possible that it be told to any where the fear 
of God is not. Let the fear of God open the ears, that there 
may be something to enter in, and a way whereby may enter 
in that which I am going to tell. But what is he going to 
tell ? How great things He hath done to my soul. Behold, 
he would tell : but what is he going to tell ? Is it perchance 
how widely the earth is spread, how much the sky is ex- 
tended, and how many are the stars, and what are the 
changes of sun and of moon ? This creation fulfilleth its 
course : but they that have very curiously sought it out, the 

Creator thereof have not known. This thing hear, this thing vvisd. 

rt 13,1. 

u 2 ' 



292 The soul taught of God cries with its own voice. 

Psalm receive, ye that fear God, hoiv (jreni ihingn He hath done 

to mij soul: if ye will, to yours also. How great things He 

hath done to my soul. (Ver. 17.) To Him with wy mouth 
I have cried. And this very thing, he saith, hath been done 
to his soul ; that to Him with his mouth he should cry, hath 
been done, he saith, to his soul. Behold, brethren, Gentiles 
we were, even if not in ourselves, in our parents. And what 

1 Cor. saith the Apostle ? Ye know, tvhen Gentiles ye were, to 
*^' ^' idols without speech liow ye went up, being led. Let the 

Church now say, how great things He hath done to my soul. 
To Him with my mouth I have cried. I a man to a stone 
was crying, to a deaf slock I was crying, to idols deaf and 
dumb I was speaking: now the image of God hath been 

Jerem. turned to the Creator thereof I that was saying to a stock, 

2 27 

' ' My father thou art; and to a stone, Thou hast begotten me: 

Matt. 6, now say, " 0//r Father, JVhich art in Heaven."" To Him 
^* loith my month I have cried. ' IVith my moutlC now, not 

with the mouth of another. When I was crying to stones 
iPet. i,?w the vain conversation of fathers' tradition, with the 
mouth of others I was crying: when I have cried to the 
Lord, that which Himself hath given, that which Himself 
hath inspired, to Him with my own mouth I have cried, and 
have exalted Him under my tongue. What is, 1 have cried 
with my mouth, and hare exalted Him under my tongue? 
Him in public I have preached, Him in secret T have con- 
fessed. Too little it is to exalt God with tongue ; but also 
under the tongue, so that of what thou speakest being assured, 
of the same in silence thou mayest meditate. To Him with 
my mouth I have cried, and J have exalted Him under my 
tongue. See how in secret he would be uncorrupt that 
ofFereth marrowed holocausts. This do ye, brethren, this 
imitate, so that ye may say. Come ye, see hoiv great tilings 
He hath done to my soul. For all those things of which he 
telleth, by His Grace are done in our soul. See the other 
things of which he speaketh. 

22. Ver. 18. If I have beheld iniquity in my heart, may 
not the Lord hearken. Consider now, brethren, how easily, 
how daily men blushing for fear of men do censure iniquities; 
He hath done ill, lie hath done basely, a villain the fellow 
is: this perchance for man's sake he saith. See whether 



How we are not to ' regard ' iniquity. 293 

thou beholdest no iniquity in thy heart, whether perchance Ver. 
that which thou censurest in another, thou art meditating to ^^' 
do, and therefore against him dost exclaim, not because he 
hath done it, but because he hath been found out. Return 
to thyself, within be to thyself a judge. Behold in thy hid 
chamber, in the very inmost recess of the heart, where thou 
and He that seeth are alone, there let iniquity be displeasing 
to thee, in order that thou mayest be pleasing to God. Do 
cot regard it, that is, do not love it, but rather despise it, 
that is, contemn it, and turn away from it. Whatever pleasing 
thing it hath promised to allure thee to sin; whatever grievous 
thing it hath threatened, to drive thee on to evil doing ; all is 
nought, all passeth away: it is worthy to be despised, in 
order that it may be trampled upon ; not to be eyed lest it 
be accepted. [For'' it maketh suggestion sometimes through 
thoughts, or through the words of evil men in conference. 
For evil communications do corr^ipt good manners: do thoui Cor. 

15 33 

regard them not. But too little it is to do so in countenance, ' 
too little it is to do so in tongue : in heart do not regard, 
that is, do not love it, do not accept it. For to put ' regard '"'"espec- 
for love is of daily occurrence : in the first place, because of 
God we say, He hath regarded me. What is, liath regarded 
me ? For saw He not thee before ? Or was He lookinsr 
upward, and by thy prayers hath Fie been reminded to cast 
His eyes upon thee ? He did see thee before too ; but in. 
He hath regarded me, thou meanest, He hath loved me. 
And to a man that seeth thee, and of whom thou makest 
request, that he may pity thee, thou sayest. Regard me. 
What is, regard me? Love; attend to me; pity me. There- 
fore he hath not said, If I have heheld ' iniquity in my heart, 
because no iniquity at all is suggested to the human heart. 
There it is suggested, there will not cease suggestion ; but 
let there be made no regard. For if thou regardest iniquity, 
thou lookest back ; and incurrest the condemnation of the 
Lord, saying in the Gospel, No one putting hand upon the Luke 9, 
plough and looking back is jit for the kingdom of God. ^^* 
What, therefore, ought I to do ? What the Apostle saith, 

Those things which are behind forgetting, unto those things Philip, 

3, 13. 

« The part in brackets is omitted in ♦' Ben. ' adspexi.' Oxf. Msti. as above^ 
some good Mss. Ben. ^oonspexi,' 



294 Perseverance in prayer fails not to obtain hearing. 

PsAi.M lohich are before stretching forth. For behind, all our doings 

•' which have passed away are iniquitous. No one out of good 

Rom. 3, hath come to Christ : all men have sinned, by believing they 
arc justified. Perfect righteousness there will not be, save 
in that life : nevertheless for our progress in goodness good 
' et inorals by Himself are^ inspired, by Himself are given. Do 
not therefore reckon up thine own merits, do not. And if 
iniquity maketh suggestion, do not consent, for he saith what?] 
If I have beheld iniquity in my heart, may not the Lord 
hearken, 

23. Ver. 19. Therefore God halhhearhened to me. Because 
I have not beheld iniquity in my heart. And He hath listened 
to the voice of my prayer. 

24. Ver. 20. Blessed be my God, that hath not thrust away 
my supplication and His mercy from me. Gather the sense 

V. 16. from that place, where he saith, Co7Jie ye, hear, and I will tell 
you, allye that fear God, how great things He hath done to my 
soul : he hath both said the words which ye have heard, 
and at the end thus he hath concluded : Blessed be my God, 
that hath not thrust auay my supplication and His mercy 
from me. For thus there arriveth at the Resurrection he 
that speaketh, where already we also are by hope : yea both 
it is we ourselves, and this voice is ours. So long therefore 
as here we are, this let us ask of God, that He thrust not 
from us our supplication, and His mercy, that is, that we 
pray continually, and He continually pity. For many become 
feeble in praying, and in the newness of their own conversion 
pray fervently, afterwards feebly, afterwards coldly, after- 
waixls negligently : as if they have become secure. The foe 
watcheth : thou slcepest. The Lord Himself hath given 
LukeiS, commandment in the Gospel, how it behoveth men always to 
!• &c. pyaij and not to faint. And he giveth a comparison from 
that unjust judge, who neither feared God, nor regarded man, 
whom that widow daily importuned to hear her; and he yielded 
ibr weariness, that was not influenced by pity : and the 
naughty judge saith to himself, Though neither God 1 fear, 
nor men I regard, even because of the weariness which this 
widuic daily pulteth upon me, 1 tvill hear her cause, and 
will avenge her. And the Lord saith, Jfa naughty judge 
hath done this, shall not your Father avenge His chosen, 



Our blessing God, the fruit of His blessing us. 295 

that to Him do cry day and night? Yea, I say unto you, Ver. 
He shall make judgment of them speedily. Therefore let us ^^' 
not faint in prayer. Though He putteth off what He is 
going to grant, He putteth it not away : being secure of His 
promise, let us not faint in praying, and this is by His good- 
ness. Therefore he hath said. Blessed is my God, that hath 
not thrust away my supplication and His mercy from me. 
When thou hast seen thy supplication not thrust away from 
thee, be secure, that His mercy hath not been thrust away 
from thee. 



PSALM LXVII. Lat. 

LXVI. 



EXPOSITION. 



Sermon to the Commmialty. 

1. Your Love remembereth, that in two Psalms, which 
have been already treated of, we have stirred up our soul to Ps. 103. 
bless the Lord, and with godly chant have said, Bless thou, ^^^' 
O my soul, the Lord. If therefore we have stirred up our 
soul in those Psalms to bless the Lord, in this Psalm is well 
said, (ver. 1 .) May God hare pity en us, and bless us. Let 
our soul bless the Lord, and let God bless us. When God 
blesseth us, we grow, and when we bless the Lord, we grow, 
to us both are profitable. He is not increased by our 
blessing, nor is He lessened by our cursing. He that 
curseth the Lord, is himself lessened : he that blesseth the 
Lord, is himself increased. First, there is in us the blessing 
of the Lord, and the consequence is that we also bless the 
Lord. That is the rain, this the fruit. Therefore there is 
rendered as it were fruit to God the Husbandman, raining 
upon and tilling us. Let us chant these words with no 
barren devotion, with no empty voice, but with true heart. 
For most evidently God the Father hath been called a Johni5, 
Husbandman. The Apostle saith, God's husbandry ye rt?'c, icor 3 
God's building ye are. In things visible of this world, the ^• 
vine is not a building, and a building is not a vineyard: but 



296 Note God is the Husbandman, though men cultivate. 

Psalm we are the vineyard of the Lord, because He tilleth us for 

LXVJI • 

'fruit; the building of God we are, since He Who tilleth us, 

1 Cor.3, dvvelleth in w%. And what saith the same Apostle? I have 
planted, Apollo hath watered, hut the incrcafie God hath 
given. Therefore neither he that planteth is any thing, nor 
he that uatereth, hut He that giveth the increase, even God. 
He it is therefore That giveth the increase. Are those per- 
chance the husbandmen ? For a husbandman he is called 
that planteth, that watereth : but the Apostle hath said, / 
have planted, Apollo hath watered. Do we enquire whence 

1 Cor. himself hath done this ? The Apostle maketh answer. Yet 
' ■ not I, but the Grace of God with me. Thei'efore whither- 
soever thou turn thee, whether through Angels, thou wilt find 
God thy Husbandman ; whether through Prophets, the 
Same is thy Husbandman ; whether through Apostles, the 
very Same acknowledge to be thy Husbandman. What then 
of us ? Perchance we are the labourers of that Husbandman, 
and this too with powers imparted by Himself, and by Grace 
granted by Himself. Himself therefore both tilleth, and 
giveth the increase. But a human husbandman tilleth a 
vineyard only so far as to plough, prune, apply other means 
which belong to the diligence of husbandmen : to rain upon 
his vineyard he is not able. But if perchance he is able to 
water, of whose power is it? Himself indeed guideth the 
water into a channel, but God filleth the spring. Lastly, in 
his vineyard he cannot give increase to his tender shoots, 
he cannot shape the fruit, he cannot qualify the seeds, he 
cannot rule the seasons of production. But God, that can 
do all things, is our Husbandman; we are secure. Perchance 
some one saith, " Thou sayest that our Husbandman is God. 
Nay, but 1 say that the Apostles are husbandmen, who have 
said, I have planted, Apollo hath watered.''' 1/ I of myself 
say it, let no one believe : if Christ saith it, woe to him that 

JobnI5, believcth not. The Lord Christ therefore saith what? I am 
the Vine, ye the branches, 3Iy Father the Husbandman. Let 
therefore earth thirst, and give forth the voices of her thirst: 

Ps. 143, as it hath been written, My soul is as earth without water 
for Thee. Let therefore our earth, we ourselves, longing 
for the rain of God, say. May Gnd have pity on ns, and 
bless us. 



Alii even temporal blessings, are from God only. 297 
2. Lighten His countenance upon us. Thou wast per- Ver 



chance going to enquire, what is bless us? In many ways 
men would have themselves to be blessed of God: one would 
have himself to be blessed, so that he may have a house full 
of the necessary things of this life ; another desireth himself 
to be blessed, so that he may obtain soundness of body with- 
out flaw ; another would have himself to be blessed, if per- 
chance he is sick, so that he may acquire soundness ; another 
longing for sons, and perchance being sorrowful because 
none are bom, would have himself to be blessed so that he 
may have posterity. And who could number the divers 
wishes of men desiring themselves to be blessed of the Lord 
God ? But which of us would say, that it was no blessing of 
God, if either husbandry should bring him fruit, or if any 
man's house should abound in plenty of things temporal, or 
if the very bodily health be either so maintained that it be 
not lost, or, if lost, be regained ? For the fruitfulness of women 
and the chaste vows of men desiring sons, belong to whom 
save to the Lord God ? For He that created when there was 
nothing, doth Himself by succession of offspring cause to 
continue that which He hath builded. God maketh these 
things, God giveth these things. Too little it is for us to say, 
God maketh these things, God giveth these things; but alone 
He maketh, alone He giveth. For what if God maketh these 
things, but some one also maketh these things, that is not 
God? He maketh these things, and alone maketh them. And 
without reason these things are sought either from men, or 
from demons; and whatsoever good things the enemies of 
God receive, from Him they receive; and while from others 
they seek them, when they receive, unknowingly from Him 
they receive them. In like manner as when they ai'e punished, 
and think themselves by others to be punished, unknowingly 
by Him they are punished : so also, when they abound, are 
filled, are saved, are delivered, even though they know not 
this, and either to men or demons or to angels they ascribe 
it, they have it not except from Him with whom is power 
over all things. May we so have spoken of these things, 
brethren, that whosoever longeth for even those earthly things, 
either for the cravings of necessity, or for any infirmity, 
should long for them from no one except from Him Who is 



verso- 
rum. 



298 iVhat things God gives to the good and the evil alike. 

Psalm the Fountain of all good things, and the Creator and Renewcr' 

, of the universe. 

atoruni- 3. But some gifts there are which God giveth even to His 
enemies, others which God keepeth only for His friends. 
AVhat are the gifts which He giveth to His enemies ? Those 
which I have enumerated. For not good men alone have houses 

=" salvi. full of things necessary, nor do good men alone either in health *" 
abide or from sickness grow well, nor do good men alone have 
sons, good men alone money, good men alone other things 
meet for this life temporal and transient: evil men also have 
these things, and sometimes they are wanting to good men : 
but they are wanting to evil men also, and ofttimes to these 
rather than to those ; sometimes to those rather than to these 
they abound. God hath willed these temporal things to be 
promiscuous : because if to good men alone He were to give 
them, evil men also would think that for the sake of these 
things God must be worshipped : again, if to evil men alone 
He were to give these things, weak good men would fear to 
be converted, lest those things to them should perchance be 
wanting. For a soul being as yet weak is less able to receive 
the kingdom of God, God our Husbandmam must feed her. 
For even the tree that now mightily withstandeth tempests, 
when from tlie ground it sprung, was but a herb. That 
Husbandman therefore knoweth how not only to prune and 
purge mighty trees : but also how to protect the tender 
plants at their first springing. For this reason, dearly be- 
loved, as 1 began to say, if to good men alone these things 
were given, all men for the sake of receiving these things 
would wish to be converted to God : again, if to evil men 
alone they were given, weak men would fear lest when they 
were converted, they should lose that which evil men alone 
could have. Indiscriminately they are given both to good 
men and evil men. Again, if from good men alone they 
should be taken away, there would be that same fear on the 
part of weak men, so that they would not be converted to 
God: again, if from evil men alone they should be taken 
away, the only punishment would be thought to be that 
same wherewith evil men are smitten. In that therefore He 
giveth them to good men. He comforteth them on their 
journey: in that He giveth them to evil men also, He 



Good men suffer, lest they should hope in this life, 299 

warneth good men to long for other things which they have ^er. 

not with evil men in common. Again, from good men He '- — 

taketh them away whenever He willeth, in order that they 
may question themselves of their own powers, and they may 
find out themselves, that perchance were hidden from them- 
selves, whether now they be able to say. The Lord hath Job l, 
given, the Lord hath taken away ; as hath pleased the Lord, 
so hath been done; he the name of the Ijord Messed. For 
that soul both blessed the Lord, and, being rained upon with 
the fatness of blessing, rendered back her fruits : The Lord 
hath given, the Lord hath taken away. He hath withdrawn 
the gifts, but hath not withdrawn the Giver. Everii soul'P'^ov. 

. . 11 26. 

that is blessed is simple, not cleaving to things earthly norLxx*. 
with glued wings grovelling, but beaming with the brightness 
of virtues, on the twin wings of twin love doth spring into 
the free air; and seeth how from her is withdrawn that 
whereon she was ti'eading, not that whereon she was resting, 
and she saith securely, The Lord hath given, the Lord 
hath taken away ; as it hath pleased the Lord, so hath been 
done: be the name of the Lord blessed. He hath given, and 
He hath taken away: there remaineth He that hath given, 
and He hath taken away that which He hath given : be His 
name blessed. To this end therefore these things are taken 
away from good men. But let not perchance any weak man 
say, when shall I be of so great virtue, as was holy Job ? 
The mightiness of the tree thou wonderest at, because but 
now thou hast been born : this great tree, whereat thou 
wonderest, under the branches and shade whereof thou 
coolest thyself, hath been a switch. But dost thou fear lest 
there be taken away from thee these things, when such thou 
shall have become ? Observe that they are taken away from 
evil men also. Why therefore dost thou delay conversion ? 
That which thou fearest when good to lose, perchance if evil 
thou wilt lose still. If being good thou shalt have lost them, 
there is by thee the Comforter that hath taken them away : 
the coffer is emptied of gold; the heart is full of faith: 
witliout, poor thou art, but within, rich thou art : thy riches 
with thee thou carriest, which thou wouldest not lose, even if 
naked from shipwreck thou shouldest escape. Why doth 
not the loss, that perchance, if evil, thou wilt lose, find thee 



300 JVise men provide Jur the winter like the Ant. 

Psalm ffood; forasmuch as thou seest evil men also suffer loss? 

LiXVII 

= ' But with greater loss they are stricken : empty is the house, 

more empty the conscience is. Whatsoever evil man shall 
have lost these things, hath nothing to hold by without, hath 
nothing within whereon he may rest. He fleeth when he 
hath suffered loss from the place where before the eyes of 
men with the display of riches he used to vaunt himself; 
now in the eyes of men to vaunt himself he is not able : to 
himself within he returneth not, because he hath nothing. 
Prov. 6, He hath not imitated the ant, he hath not gathered to himself 
26. ' grains, while it was summer. What have I meant by, while 
it was summer? While he had quietude of life, while he 
had this world's prosperity, when he had leisure, when 
happy he was being called by all men, his summer it was. 
He should have imitated the ant, he should have heard the 
Word of God, he should have gathered together grains, and 
he should have stored them within. There had come the 
trial of tribulation, there had come upon him a winter of 
numbness, tempest of fear, the cold of sorrow, whether it were 
loss, or any danger to his safety, or any bereavement of his 
family; or any dishonour and humiliation; it was winter; 
the ant falleth back upon that which in summer she hath 
gathered together ; and within in her secret store, where no 
man seeth, she is recruited by her summer toils. When for 
herself she was gathering together these stores in summer, 
all men saw her: when on these she feedeth in winter, no 
one seeth. What is this ? See the ant of God, he riseth 
day by day, he hasteneth to the Church of God, he prayeth, 
he hearelh lection, he chanteth hymn, he digesteth that 
• or 'at which he hath heard, with himself* he thinketh thereon, he 
^°^^- storeth within grains gathered from the threshing-floor. 
They that providently hear those very things which even 
now are being spoken of, do thus, and by all men are seen 
to go forth to the Church, go back from Church, to hear 
sermon, to hear lection, to choose a book, open and read it : 
all these things are seen, when they are done. That ant is 
treading his jjath, carrying and storing up in the sight of men 
seeing him. There cometh winter sometime, for to whom 
cometh it not ? There chanceth loss, there chanceth be- 
reavement : other men pity him perchance as being miserable, 



Either loss or yain comes better to the good. 301 

who know not what the ant hath within to eat, and they say, Veb. 

miserable he whom this hath befallen, or what spirits, dost '— 

thou think, hath he whom this hath befallen? how afflicted 
is he? He measurelh by himself, hath compassion according 
to his own strength ; and thus he is deceived : because the 
measure wherewith he measureth himself, he would apply to 
him whom he knoweth not. He seeth him that hath suffered 
loss, or is humbled, or is stricken with bereavement. What 
thinkest thou ? ' That man hath done some evil thing, that 
this should befal him. Such a heart, such a mind let mine 
enemies have.' Thou knowest not, man, thou art indeed 
thine own enemy, that through the summer gatherest not 
together for thyself what he hath gathered. Now within 
the ant is feeding on the labours of summer ; but her 
gathering together thou wast able to see, her eating thou 
canst not see. In these words, brethren, as far as the Lord 
hath allowed, as far as He hath deigned to supply and in- 
struct our infirmity and lowliness, as much as we are capable 
of according to our measure, we have explained why God 
giveth all these things promiscuously, both to good men and to 
evil men, and why He taketh them away both from good men 
and evil men. He hath given to thee, be not lifted up. He 
hath taken away from thee, be not heart-broken. Thou 
fearest lest He take away, He can take away from an evil man 
also : it is better that being good that which is of God thou 
losest, but God thou keepest. So also it is with that evil 
man, him we are exhorting : thou art going to suffer loss, 
(who is not going to suffer bereavement ?) some chance will 
fall upon thee, some calamity by a side blow, every where 
the world is full of such, instances are never wanting : I am 
speaking to thee in summer, grains for thee to gather are not 
wanting: observe the ant, O sluggard, gather in summer 
while thou art able; winter will not suffer thee to gather, but 
to eat that which thou shalt have gathered. For how many 
men so suffer tribulation, that there is no opportunity either 
to read any thing, or to hear any thing, and they obtain no 
admittance, perchance, to those that would comfort them. 
The ant hath remained in her nest, let her see if she hath 
gathered any thing in summer, whereby she may recruit 
herself in winter. 



302 Hoxo God is said to ' lighten His Countenance' on us. 

Psalm 4. But now since God blcsseth us, wliv doth He bless us? 

LXVII 

^Wbat blessing dolb this voice require, That God may 

bless us ? The blessing which He keepeth for His friends, 

which to good men alone He giveth. Do not for a great 

matter desire that which evil men also receive : because 

Matt. 5, God is good, He doth those things, the Same that maketh 
His Sim to rise upon good men and evil men, and raineth 
upon just men and unjust men. What therefore is there 
especially for good men? What especially for just men? 
May He lighten His face upon us. That Sun's face 
Thou lightenest upon good men and evil men, Thine 
own face lighten Thou upon us. There see that light as 

Matt. 5, well beasts, as both good men and evil men. ^\\t^ blessed 

^' they of pure heart ; for they shall see God.^ May He 

lighten His face upon us. There is a double interpretation, 
both must be given : lighten, he saith, Thy face upon us, 
shew to us Thy countenance. For God doth not ever light 
His countenance, as if ever it had been without light: but 
He lighteth it upon us, so that what was hidden from us, is 
opened to us, and that which was, but to us was hidden, is 
unveiled upon us, that is, is lightened. Or else surely it is, 
' Thy image lighten upon us :' so that he said this, in, lighten 
Thy countenance upon us: Thou hast imprinted Thy coun- 

Gen. 1, tenance upon us; Thou hast made us after Thine image and 

26 • • . 

Thy likeness, Thou hast made us Thy coin; but Thine image 
ought not in darkness to remain : send a ray of Thy wisdom, 
let it dispel our darkness, and let there shine in us Thy 
image ; let us know ourselves to be Thine image, let us hear 
Song of what hath been said in the Song of Songs, // Thou shalt 
°-^'^'not have knoivn Thyself, O Thou fair one among women. 
For there is said to the Church, If Thou shall not have 
known Thyself. What is this? If Thou shalt not have 
known Thyself to have been made after the image of God. 
O Soul of the Church, precious, redeemed with the blood of 
the Lamb immaculate, observe of how great value Thou art, 
think what hath been given for Thee. Let us say, therefore, 
and let us long that He 7nay lighten His face upon us. We 
wear His face : in like manner as the faces of emperors are 
spoken of, truly a kind of sacred face is that of God in His 
own image : but unrighteous men know not in themselves 



The ' loay' sought, sheivnfrom this Psalm to he Christ. 303 

the image of God. In order that the countenance of God Ver. 
may be lightened upon them, they ought to say what ? Thou 



Ps. 18, 

shah light my candle, O Lord my God, Thou shall light my 28. 
darkness. I am in the darkness of sins, but by the ray of 
Thy wisdom dispelled be my darkness, may Thy countenance 
appear; and if perchance through me it appeareth somewhat 
deformed, by Thee be there reformed that which by Thee 
hath been formed. 3Iay He lighten, therefore, His face 
iqion us. 

5. Ver. 2. That we may know on earth Thy way. On 
earth, here, in this life, we may know Thy way. What 
is, Thy ivay? That which leadeth to Thee. May we ac- 
knowledge whither we are going, acknowledge where we are 
as we go ; neither in darkness we can do. Afar Thou art from 
men sojourning, a way to us Thou hast presented, through 
which we must return to Thee. Let us acknowledge on earth 
Thy way. What is His way wherein we have desired, That 
we may know on earth Thy way? We are going to enquire 
this ourselves, not of ourselves to learn it. We can learn of 
it from the Gospel: I am the Way, the Lord saith : Christ Johnl4, 
hath said, / am the Way, But dost thou fear lest thou 
stray? He hath added, And the Truth. Who strayeth in 
the Truth ? He strayeth that hath departed from the Truth. 
The Truth is Christ, the Way is Christ : walk therein. 
Dost thou fear lest thou die before thou attain unto Him ? 
/ am the Life: I am. He saith, the Way and the Truth 
and the Life. As if He were saying. What fearest thou ? 
Through Me thou walkest, to Me thou walkest, in Me thou 
restest. What therefore meaneth, We may know on earth 
Tliy Way, but ' we may know on earth Thy Christ?' But 
let the Psalm itself reply : lest ye think that out of other 
Scriptures there must be adduced testimony, which per- 
chance is here wanting: by repetition he hath shewn what 
signified, That %ve may know on earth Thy Way: and as if 
thou wast inquiring, " In what earth, what ivay ?" Li all 
nations Thy Salvation. In what earth, thou art inquiring? 
Hear : In all nations. What way art thou seeking ? Hear : 
Thy Salvation. Is not perchance Christ his Salvation? 
And what is that which the old Symeon hath said, that old Luke 2, 

on 

man, I say, in the Gospel, preserved full of years even unto * 



304 All nations confess to God in His true Church. 

Psalm the infancy of the Word ? For that old man took in his 

il^i^- hands the Infant Word of God. Would He that in the 

womb deigned to be, disdain to be in the hands of an old 

man? The Same was in the womb of the Virgin, as was in 

the hands of the old man, a weak infant both within the 

bowels, and in the old man's hand, to give us strength, by 

Whom were made all things; (and if all things, even His 

very mother.) He came humble, He came weak, but clothed 

with a weakness to be changed into strength ^, because 

2 Cor, though He was crucijied of weakness, yet He liveih of the 

' ' ■ virtue of God., the Apostle saith. He was then in the hands 

of an old man. And what saith that old man .? Rejoicing 

that now he must be loosed from this world, seeing how in 

his own hand was held He by Whom and in Whom his 

Lulip 2, Salvation was upheld; he saith what? Now Thou lettest go, 

he saith, O Lord, Thy servant in peace, for mine eyes have 

seen Thy Salvation. Therefore, May God bless us, and have 

pity on us; may He lighten His countenance upon us, that 

we may know on earth Thy Way! In what earth ? In all 

nations? What Way ? Thy Salvation. 

6. What followeth, because the Way of God is known on 
earth, because the Salvation of God is known in all nations ? 
(Ver. 3.) Let the peoples confess to Thee, O God ; confess to 
Thee, he saith, all peoples. There standeth forth a heretic, 
I Oxf. and he saith, In Africa I' have peoples: and another from 
^'^,^* ' ^ another quarter, And I in Galatia have peoples. Thou in 
Africa, he in Galatia: therefore I require one that hath them 
every where. Ye have indeed dared to exult at that voice, 
when ye heard. Let the peoples confess to Thee, O God. 
Hear the following verse, how he speaketh not of a part : 
Let there confess to Thee all peoples. Walk ye in the Way 
together with all nations ; walk ye in the Way together with 
all peoples, O sons of peace, sons of the One Catholic 
Church, walk ye in the Way, seeing as ye walk. Wayfarers 
do this to beguile their toil. Sing ye in this Way; I implore 
you by that Same Way, sing ye in this Way: a new song 
sing ye, let no one there sing old ones : sing ye the love- 
songs of your father-land, let no one sing old ones. New 
Way, new wa}'farer, new song. Hear thou the Apostle 

8 Oxf. Mss. add ' into strength.' 



The ' nexo song' belongs to the < whole Earth.'' 305 

exliorting thee to a new song: Whatever therefore is in Ver. 
Christ is a new creature ; old things have passed aicay^ — '- — 
behold they hareheen made new. A new song sing ye in the 
way, which ye have learned on the earth. In what earth ? 
In all nations. Therefore even the new song doth not 
belong to a part. He that in a part singelh, singelh an old 
song : whatever he please to sing, he singeth an old song, 
the old man singeth : divided he is, carnal he is. Truly in 
so far as carnal he is, so far he is old ; and in so far as he is 
spiritual, so far new. See what saith the Apostle; I could \ Cot. 3, 
not speak to you as if to spiritual, hut as if to carnal. 
Whence proveth he them carnal.'' For while one saith, I am ib. 4. 
of Paul ; but another, I of Apollos : are ye not, he saith, 
carnal? Therefore in the Spirit a new song sing thou in 
the safe way. Just as wayfarers sing, and ofttimes in the 
night sing. Awful round about all things do sound, or rather 
they sound not around, but are still around ; and the more 
still the more awful; nevertheless, even they that fear robbers 
do sing. How much more safely thou singest in Christ! 
That way hath no robber, unless thou by forsaking the 
way fallest into the hands of a robber. Sing, I say, safely 
a new song in the way which thou hast known upon earth, 
that is, in all nations. See thou how he singeth not with 
thee that new song, that would be in a part. Sing ye, he Ps. 96, 
saith, to the Lord a new song, and in continuation. Sing ye "' 
to the Lord all the earth. Let the peoples confess to Thee, 
O Qod. They have found out Thy way, let them confess to 
Thee. The very singing is confession, confession of thy sins 
and of the virtue of God. Thine own iniquity confess thou, 
the Grace of God confess thou : thyself blame thou. Him 
glorify thou; thyself censure thou, Him praise thou : in order 
that also when Himself cometh He may find thee thine own 
punisher, and He may hold out to thee Himself as thy 
Saviour. For why fear ye to confess, that have found out 
this way in all nations? Why fear ye to confess, and in 
your confession to sing a new song together with all the 
earth ; in all the earth, in catholic ];eace, dost thou fear to 
confess to God, lest He condemn thee that hast confessed ? 
If having not confessed thou liest concealed, having confessed 
thou wilt be condemned. Thou fearest to confess, that by 

VOL. III. X 



300 Confession to God compared icith confession to man. 

PsAtM not confessing canst not be concealed : thon wilt be con- 

— ■ damned if thou bast beld tby peace, tbat niigbtest bavc been 

delivered, by having confessed. Let there confess to Thee 
peoples, God, confess to Thee all peoples. 

7. And because this confession leadelh not to punishment, 
he continueth and saitli, (ver. 4.) Let the natio7is rejoice 
and exult. If robbers after confession made do wail before 
man, let the faithful after confessing before God rejoice. 
If a man be judge, the torturer and his fear exact from a 
robber a confession : j'ea sometimes fear wringcth out con- 
fession, pain extorteth it : and he that waileth in tortures, 
but feareth to be killed if he confess, supporteth tortures as 
far as he is able : and if he shall have been overcome by 
pain, he giveth his voice for death. Nowise therefore is he 
joyful ; nowise exulting : before he confesseth the claw 
tearcth" him ; when he hath confessed, the executioner 
leadeth him along a condemned felon : wretched in every 
case. But lei the nations rejoice and exult. Whence? 
Through that same confession. Why ? Because good He is 
to Whom they confess : He exacteth confession, to the end 
that He may deliver the humble ; He condemneth one not 
confessing, to the end that He may punish' the proud. There- 
fore be thou sorrowful before thou confessest ; after having 
confessed exult, now thou wilt be made whole. Thy con- 
science had gathered up evil humours, with boil it had 
swollen, it was torturing thee, it suffered thee not to rest : 
the Physician applieth the fomentations of words'", and some- 
times He lanceth it. He applieth the surgeon's knife by the 
chastisement of tribulation : do thou acknowledge the Phy- 
sician's hand, confess thou, let every evil humour go forth and 
flow away in confession : now exult, now rejoice, that which 
remaineth will be easy to be made whole. Let there confess 
to Thee peoples, O God : confess to Thee all peoples. And 
because they confess, let the nations rejoice and exidt, 
for Tliou judgest the joeoples in equity. No one deceiveth 
Thee: let him be glad that must be judged, that hath feared 
Him that was to judge. For he hath looked before, and 

a ' Exarat unpula,' perhaps the §. 3. Tr. p. 329. 
torture referred to in 7rA.€i;pa$ Kara- ^ So Ben.; Osf. Mss. ' ferramenta 
fakvov^t^- S. Chrys. on Stat. Horn. xx. verborum.' 'The instruments of words.' 



Men corrected beforehand rejoice in judyment. 30/ 

hath come before the face of Him in confession ; but He, Ver. 

.4. 

when He shall have come, shall judge the peoples in equity, p^ q^ - 
What will avail there the cunning of the accuser, where 2. 
conscience is witness, where thou wilt be and thy cause, 
where the Judge requireth no witness ? An Advocate He 
hath sent to thee : for the sake of Him and through Him 
confess thou, plead thy cause, and He is Counsel for the 
penitent, and the Petitioner of pardon for him if confessing, 
and the judge of him if innocent. Wilt thou indeed possibly 
fear for thy cause where thy Advocate will be thy Judge ? 
Let the nations rejoice, therefore, and exult, for Thou judgest 
the peoples in equity. But they will have to fear lest they 
be judged to their hurt : let them give up themselves to be 
amended to Him who seeth them that must be judged. Here 
let them be amended, and not fear when they shall be judged. 
See thou what he saith in another Psalm: God, in Thi/Fs.Bi, 
name save me, and in Thy virtue judge me. What saith he ? 
Unless first Thou save me in Thy name, I ought to fear the 
time when Thou shalt judge me in Thy virtue: but if first 
Thou save me in Thy name: why shall I fear Him judging 
in virtue, whose safety hath gone before in His name ? So also 
in this passage, let there confess to Thee all peoples. And 
lest ye should suppose that something must be feared in 
confession, let the nations rejoice, he saith, and exult. 
Why rejoice and exult? Because Thou judgest the peoples 
in equity. No one giveth bribe against us, no one bril^th 
Thee, no one beguileth Thee. Therefore be thou secure. 
But what of thy cause ? No one bribeth God, it is evident : 
let Him not perchance therefore be more to be feared, because 
no wise He can be bribed. How therefore art thou secure ? 
According to that which but now hath been said, O God, in 
Thy name save me, and in Thy virtue judge me. So here 
also ; let the nations rejoice and exult, for Thou judgest 
the peoples in equity. And that unrighteous men may not 
fear, he hath added, and the nations on the earth Thou 
directest. Depraved were the nations and crooked were the 
nations, perverse were the nations ; for the ill desert of their 
depravity, and crookedness and perverseness, the Judge's 
coming they feared : there cometh the hand of the same, it 
is stretched out mercifully to the peoples, they are guided in 

X 2 



308 Sinners called to repent by preventing Grace. 

Psalm order that tliey may walk the straight way; why should they 

' fear the Judge to come, that have first acknowledged Him 

for a Corrector? To His hand let them give up themselves, 
Himself guidelh the nations on the earth. But guided 
nations are walking in the Truth, are exulting in Him, are 
doing good works ; and if perchance there comelh in any 
water (for on sea they are sailing) through the ver}' small 
holes, through the crevices into the hold, pumping it out by 
good works, lest by more and more coming it accumulate, 
and sink the ship, pumping it out daily, fasting, praying. 
Matt. 6, dQJjig almsdeeds, saying with pure heart, Furgive us our 
debts, as also we forgive our debtors — saying such words walk 
thou secure, and exult in the way, sing in the way. Do not 
fear the Judge : before thou wast a believer, thou didst find 
a Saviour. Thee ungodly He sought out that He might 
redeem, thee redeemed will He forsake so as to destroy ? 
And the nations on earth Thou directest. 

8. He exulteth, rejoiceth, exhorteth, he repeateth those 
same verses in exhortation. (Ver. 5.) Let the peoples confess 
toThec, O God, let all peoples confess to Thee. (Ver. 6.) Tlie 
earth hath given her fruit. What fruit? Let all peoples con- 
fess to Thee. Earth it was, of thorns it was full ; there came 
the hand of One rooting them up, there came a calling by His 
majesty and mercy, the earth began to confess; now the earth 
giveth her fruit. Would she give her fruit unless first she were 
rained on ? Would she give her fruit, unless first the mercy of 
God had come from above .? Let them read to me, thou 
sayest, how the earth being rained upon gave her fruit. Hear 
Matt, .s, of the Lord raining upon her: Do penance, for the kingdom 
^' of heaven is at hand. He raincth, and that same rain is 

thunder; it terrifieth : fear thou Him thundering, and re- 
ceive Him raining. Behold, after that voice of a thundering 
and raining God, after that voice let us see something out of 
Luke 7, the Gospel itself Behold that harlot of ill fame in the city 
burst into a strange house into which she had not been in- 
vited by llie host, but by One invited she had been called; 
' Oxf. called' not with tongue, but by Grace. The sick woman knew 
repeat that she had there a place, where she was aware that her 
*vocata' Physician was sitting at meat. She is gone in, that was a 
sinner; .she darcth not draw near save to the feet : she 



27ie Blessing of God multiplies His Church. 309 

weepeth at His feet, she washeth with tears, she wipeth with Ver. 

hair, she anointeth with ointment. Why wonderest thou? '- — 

The earth hath given her fruit. This thing, I say, came to 
pass by the Lord raining there through His own mouth ; 
there came to pass the things whereof we read in the Gospel; 
and by His raining through His clouds, by the sending of the 
Apostles and by their preaching the truth, the earth more 
abundantly hath given her fruit, and that crop now hath 
filled the round world. 

9. See what secondly is said; May God bless us, even our 
God; (ver. 7.) 3Iai/ God bless us. Bless us, as already I have 
said, is again and again may He bless, may He multiply 
blessings. Let Your Love observe that even now the fruit 
of the earth was first in Jerusalem. For from thence began 
the Church: there came there the Holy Spirit, and filled full Acts 2, 
the holy men gathered together in one place ; miracles were ^' ^' 
done, with the tongues of all men they spake. They were 
filled full of the Spirit of God, the people were converted that 
were in that place, fearing and receiving the divine shower, 
by confession they brought forth so much fruit, that all their 
goods they brought together into a common stock, making 
distribution to the poor, in order that no one might call 
any thing his own, but all things might be to them in common, 
and they might have one soul and one heart unto God. Acts 4, 
For there had been forgiven' them the blood which they had i oV 
shed, it had been forgiven them by the Lord pardoning, in'^'''^°" 
order that now they might even learn to drink that which 
they had shed. Great in that place is the fruit : the earth 
hath given her fruit, both great fruit, and most excellent fruit. 
Ought by any means that earth alone to give her fruit ? 3Iai/ 
there bless us God, our God, may (here bless us God. Still 
may He bless us: for blessing in multiplication is wont most 
chiefly and properly to be perceived. Let us prove this in 
Genesis ; see the works of God : God made light, and God 
made a division between light and darkness: the light He Gen. i, 
called day, and the darkness He called night. It is not 
said. He blessed the light. For the same light returneth 
and changeth by days and nights. He calleth the sky the 
firmament between waters and waters : it is not said, He 
blessed the sky : He severed the sea from the dry land, and 



310 GoiVs promises fulfilled a pledge of thejutare. 

PsAi.M named both, the dry land earth, and the gathering together of 

—^ "the waters sea : neither here is it said, God blessed. We come 

to those things which were to have the seed of fVuitfulness, 
Gen. 1, and the things which sprang out of the waters. For these 
very things have the greatest fruitfulness in multiplying; and 
the Lord blessed them, saying, Grotr, and he nndtipliedy 
and replenish the waters of the sea, and let winged creatures 
he muJliplied over the earth. So also when He made sub- 
ject all things to man, whom He made after His own image, it 
V. 28. is written, And God Messed, saying, Grow, and he mnlliplied, 
and replenish the face of the earth. Therefore of blessing the 
proper power is for multiplication, and for replenishing the 
face of the earth. Hear also in this Psalm : May God bless 
us, even our God, may God bless us. And for what availeth 
that blessing ? And let all the ends of the uorld fear Him. 
Therefore, my brethren, so abundantly in the name of Christ 
God hath blessed us, that He fiUeth the entire face of the 
earih with His sons, adopted into His kingdom, coheirs of 
His Only-Begotten. An only Son He begot, and One He 
would not have Him to be : an Only Son He begot, I say, 
and One He would not have Him to remain. He made for 
Him brethren ; though not by begetting, yet by adopting, He 
made them co-heirs with Him. He made Him first a partaker 
of our mortality, in order that we might believe ourselves to 
be able to be partakers of His Divinity. 

10 Let us observe our price. All things have been foretold, 
all things are being shewn forth, the Gospel goeth through the 
round world : every labour of mankind at this time beareth 
witness, all things are being fulfilled, that in the Scriptures 
have been foretold. Just as up to the present day all things 
have come to pass, so also the things which remain are to come 
to pass. Let us fear the judgment-day, the Lord is to come. 
He that came humble, will come exalted : He that came to be 
judged, will come to judge. Let us acknowledge Him humble, 
in order that we may not dread Him exalted : let us embrace 
Him humble, in order that vtc may long for Him exalted. For 
to men longing for Him He will come gracious. Those long 
for Him that have kept His faith and have done His com- 
mandments. For even if we will not. He will come. Let us will 
therefore that He come, Who will come, even if we will not. 



Our renewal is hy Christ, as the EayWs by the lioch, 8)-c. 311 

How should we will that He come ? By living well, by doing Ver. 
well. Let not things past please us; things present not hold us; 



let us not ' close the ear' as it were with tail, let us not press Ps. 68, 
down the ear on the ground ; lest by things past we be kept^* 
back from hearing, lest by things present we be entangled and 
prevented from meditating on things future ; let us reach forth Phil. 3, 
unto those things which are before, let us Ibrget things past. ' 
And that for which now we toil, for which now we groan, for 
which now we sigh, of which now we speak, which in part, 
however small soever, we perceive, and to receive are not 
able, we shall receive, we shall throughly enjoy in the 
resurrection of the just. Our youth shall be renewed asps. 103, 
an eagle's, if only our old man we break'' against the Rock of ^" 
Christ. Whether those things be true, brethren, which are 
said of the serpent, or those which are said of the eagle, or 
whether it be rather a tale of men than truth, truth is never- 
theless in the Scriptures, and not without reason the Scrip- 
tures have spoken of this : let us do whatever it signifieth, 
and not toil to discover how far that is true. Be thou 
such an one, as that thy youth may be able to be re- 
newed as an eagle's. And know thou that it cannot be 
renewed, except thine old man on the Rock shall have been 
broken off: that is, except by the aid of the Rock, except 
by the aid of Christ, thou wilt not be able to be renewed. 
Do not thou because of the pleasantness of the past life be 
deaf to the word of God : do not by things present be so 
held and entangled, as to say, I have no leisure to read, 
I have no leisure to hear. This is to press down the ear 
upon the ground. Do thou therefore not be such an one : 
but be such an one as on the other side thou findest, that is, 
so that thou forget things past, unto things before reach 
thyself out, in order that thine old man on the Rock thou 
mayest break ofl'. And if any comparisons shall have been 
made for thee, if thou hast found them in the Scriptures, 
believe: if thou shalt not have found them spoken of except 
by report, do not very much believe them. The thing itself 
perchance is so, perchance is not so. Do thou profit by it, 
let that comparison avail for thy salvation. Thou art un- 

* On Ps. 103,5, he says, that the sive growth of the beak against a 
eagle is said to break off an exces- rock. 



3 1 2 Do tve desire GocTs kingdom ? Peril of men's praise. 

Psalm willing to profit by this comparison, by some other profit, 

— ^it niattereth not provided thou do it: and, being secure, 

wait for the Kingdom of God, lest thy prayer quarrel 
with thee. For, O Christian man, when thou sayest, Thy 
Matt. 6, Kingdom come, how sayest thou, Thy kingdom come? 
Examine thy heart: see, behold. Thy kingdom come: He 
crieth out to thee, I come: dost thou not fear? Often we have 
told Your Love: both to preach the truth is nothing, if heart 
from tongue dissent: and to hear the truth is nothing, if fruit 
follow not hearing. From this place exalted as it were we 
are speaking to you : but how much we are beneath your 
feet in fear, God knoweth, Who is gracious to the humble ; 
for the voices of men praising do not give us so much 
pleasure as the devotion of men confessing, and the deeds of 
men now righteous. And how we have no pleasure but in 
your advances, but by those praises how much we are 
endangered. He knoweth, Whom we pray to deliver us from 
all dangers, and to deign to know and crown us together with 
you, saved from every trial, in His Kingdom. 



i^AT. PSALM LXVin. 

LXVII. 

EXPOSITION. 

\. Of this Psalm, the title seemeth not to need operose 
discussion : for simple and easy it appeareth. For thus it 
standeth : For the end^for David Himself a Psalm of a Song. 
But in many Psalms already we have reminded you what is at 
'Rom.lO, the end : for the end of the Daw is Christ for righteousness to 
every man believing: He is the end which maketh perfect, 
not that which consumethor destroyeth. Nevertheless, if any 
oneendcavourelh to inquire, whAimeaneth, a Psalm of a Song: 
why not either Psalm or Song, but both ; or what is the 
difference between Psalm of Song, and Song of Psalm, because 
even thus of some Psalms the titles are inscribed : he will 
find perchance something which we leave for men more 
acute and more at leisure than ourselves. Certain before us 



Distinction of ' Psalm'' and ' Song* 313 

have distinguished between Song and Psalm ; so that because Title. 
a Song with the mouth is pronounced, but a Psalm with the 
accompaniment of a visible instrument, that is with a Psaltery, 
is sung, by a Song there seemeth to be signified the under- 
standing of the mind, but by a Psalm the works of the body. 
For instance, in this very sixty-seventh Psalm which we have 
undertaken to treat of, that which hath been said, namely, 
Sing ye to God, Psalm ye to His name : certain have dis- v, 4. 
tinguished as followeth ; to wit, Sing ye to God, seemeth to 
have been said, because those things which within herself 
the mind doelh, to God are known, by men are not seen; 
but because good works are to be seen by men to the end Matt. 5, 
that they may glorify our Father Who is in Heaven, with 
reason hath been said, Psalm ye to His name, that is, to its 
fame far and wide, so that laudably His name may be pro- 
nounced. This distinction in some other place, as far as I 
recollect, I myself also have followed. But I remember that 
we have also read. Psalm ye to God : as signifying, that suchPs,47,6. 
things as visibly we work well, not only to men, but also to 
God, are pleasing. But not all things which to God are 
pleasing, can also be pleasing to men, because they cannot 
see them. Whence a marvellous thing it is, if in the same 
manner as both are read, both Sing ye to God, and Psahn 
ye to God; so in some other place there can be read, 
Sing ye to His name. But if This also in the holy Scrip- 
tures is found to be spoken, the above distinction in vain 
hath been worked out. I am moved also by the consider- 
ation, that under a general name they are rather called 
Psalms than Songs; so that the Lord said. What things have Luke24, 
been written in the Law and in the Prophets and in the ' 
Psalms concerning Me. And the book itself is called the 
book of Psalms, not of Songs : as it is written. He saith, in Acts l, 
the book of the Psalms, whereas rather according to that^^* 
distinction, it would seem that they ought to have been 
called Songs ; for a Song even without a Psalm there may 
be, but a Psalm without a Song there cannot be. For there 
may be thoughts of the mind, whereof there are no corporal 
works : but there is no good work whereof there is in the 
mind no thought. And thus in both cases Songs are used, 
not in both eases Psahus : and yet, as 1 have said, generally 



314 God, i. e. Christ, arisen, hath put his enemies toJJight. 

PsAi.M they are called Psalms, not Songs ; and the book of Psalms, 
^^"^' not of Songs. And if the meanings of the words be under- 
stood and examined, where tlie till(' is only oj' a Psalm, and 
where onl}' of a Song, and where not the Psalm of a Song, 
as in this, but the Song of a Psalm is inscribed; I know not 
whether this difference can be proved. In fine, as we com- 
menced, leaving these things to those who are able and who 
have opportunity to make such distinctions, and to define 
them by a certain rule for the differences ; let us, as far as 
we are enabled by the help of the Lord, consider and treat of 
the text of this Psalm. 

2. Ver, I. Let God rise vp, and let His enemies be 
scattered. Already this hath come to pass, Christ hath risen 

E.om. 9, up. Who is over all things, God blessed for ever, and His 
enemies have been dispersed through all nations, to wit, the 
Jews ; in that very place, where they practised their enmities, 
being overthrown in war, and thence through all places 
dispersed : and now they hate, but fear, and in that very fear 
they do that which followeth, And let them that hate Him 
fieefrom His face. The flight indeed of the mind is fear. 
For in carnal flight, whither llee they from the face of Him, 

1 effec- \Yi^o everywhere sheweth the efficacy' of His presence? 

turn. '' , •' ^ 

Ps. 139, Whither shall I depart, saith \\e,Jrom Thy Spirit, and from 

^' Thy face whither shall I flee? With mind, therefore, not 

with body, they flee; to wit, by being afraid, not by being 

hidden ; and not from that face which they see not, but from 

that which they are compelled to see. For the face of Him 

hath His presence in His Church been called. Whence to 

Mat.26, them at enmity with Him He said. Hereafter ye shall see 

^f- ^"'^ the Son of Man cominq in clouds. Even as He hath come 

24, 30. -^ •'. 

in His Church, spreading Her abroad in the whole round 
world, wherein His enemies have been dispersed. But He 

Is. 5, 6. hath come in such clouds as He speaketh of, in, "/ ivill 
command My clouds, that they rain not upon it rain^ Let 
them, therefore, that hate Him flee from the face of Him : 
let them be afraid at the presence of His holy believers, of 

Mat.25, whom He saith. In as much as to one of 3Iy least ones ye 
have done it, to Me ye have done it. 

3. Ver. 2. As smoke faileth, let them fail. For they lifted 
up themselves from the fires of their hatred unto the vapour- 



Fire of repentance, or of judgment, melteth sinners. 315 

iiig of pride, and against Heaven setting their mouth, and Ver. 
shouting, Crucify, Crucify, Him taken captive they derided, .\'^' 
Him hanging they mocked: and being soon conquered bye. 
that very Person against Whom they swelled victorious, they 
vanished away. As wax melletli from the face of fire, so let 
sinners perish from the face of God. Though perchance in 
this passage he hath referred to those men, whose hard- 
heartedness in tears of penitence is dissolved : yet this also 
may be understood, that he threateneth future judgment ; 
because though in this world like smoke, in lifting up them- 
selves, that is, in priding themselves, they have melted away, 
there will come to them at the last final damnation, so that 
from His face they will perish for everlasting, when in His 
own glory He shall have appeared, like fire, for the punish- 
ment of the ungodly, and the light of the righteous. 

4. Lastly, there followeth, (ver. 3.) And let just men be 
joyous, and exult in the sight of God, let them delight in 
gladness. For then shall they hear. Come, ye blessed of 3Iy ^^t.25, 
Father, receive ye the kingdom. Let them be Joyous, therefore, 

that have toiled, and exult in the sight of God. For there 
will not be in this exultation, as though it were before men, 
any empty boasting ; but (it will be) in the sight of Him who 
unerringly looketh into that which He hath granted. Ze^Ps.2,Ji. 
them delight in gladness: no longer exulting with trembling, 
as in this world, so long as human life is a trial upon earth. J'^^ 7,1. 

5. Secondly, he turneth himself to those very persons to 
whom he hath given 30 great hope, and to them while here 
living he speaketh and exhorteth : (ver. 4.) Sing ye to God, 
psalm ye to His name. Already on this subject in the expo- 
sition of the Title we have before spoken that which seemed 
meet. He singeth to God, that liveth to God: He psalmeth 
to His name, that worketh unto His Glory. In singing thus, . 
in psalming thus, that is, by so living, by so working, a way 
make ye to Him, he saith, tJtat hath ascended above the is, 52 7. 
setting. A way make ye to Christ: so that through the 
beautiful feet of men telling good tidings, the hearts of men 
believing may have a way opened to Him. For the Same is 

He that hath ascended above the setting: either because the 
new life of one turned to Him receiveth Him not, except the 
old life shall have set by his renouncing this world, or because 



316 Joy of Resurrection. The Desolate made God's dwelling. 

Psalm He ascended above the setting, when by rising again He 
— conquered the downfall of the body. For The Lord is His 

1 Cot. 2, name. Which if they had known, the Lord of glory they 

never would have crucified. 

6. Exult ye in the siyht of Him, O ye to whom hath been 
said, Sinfj ye to God, psalm ye to the name of Him, a way make 
ye to Hi7U that hath ascended above the setting, also exult in 

2 Cor, 6, the sight of Him : as if sorrow/til, yet alway rejoicing. For 

while ye make a way to Him, while ye prepare a way whereby 

He may come and possess the nations, ye are to suffer in the 

sight of men many sorrowful things. But not only faint not, 

but even exult, not in the sight of men, but in the sight of 

Rom.l2, God. " In hope rejoicing, in tribulation enduring :"" exult ye 

in the sight of Him. For they that in the sight of men 

trouble you, shall be troubled by the face of Him, (ver. 5.) 

the Father of orphans and Judge of widows. For desolate 

they suppose them to be, from whom ofttimes by the sword 

Mat.io, of the Word of God both parents from sons, and husbands 

^^* from wives, are severed : but persons destitute and widowed 

have the consolation of the Father of orphans and Judge of 

widows: they have the consolation of Him that say to Him, 

Ps. 27, For my father and my mother have forsaken me, but the 

■^'y\ Lord hath taken up me: and they that have hoped in the 

5, 5. Lord, continuing in prayers by night and by day : by whose 

face those men shall be troubled when they shall have seen 

Johnl2 themselves prevail nothing, for that the whole world hath 

^^- gone away after Him. 

7. For out of those orphans and widows, that is, persons 
destitute of partnership in this world's hope, the Lord for 
Himself doth build a Temple : whereof in continuation he 
sailh. The Lord is in His holy place. For what is His place 
V. 6. he hath disclosed, when he sailh, God that maketh to dwell 
men of one mood in a house : men of one mind, of one sen- 
timent : this is the holy place of the Lord. For when he 
had said, The Lord is in His holy place : as though we were 
inquiring in what place, since He is every where wholly, and 
no place of corporal space containeth Him ; forthwith he 
hath subjoined somewhat, that we should not seek Him apart 
from ourselves, but rather being of one mood dwelling in a 
house, we should deserve that He also Himself deign to 



Grace fits men for God to inhabit. 317 

dwell among us. This is the holy place of the Lord, the Ver. 
thing that most men seek to have, a place where in prayer '- — 



they may be hearkened unto. Let themselves be therefore 
that which they seek, and what they speak of in their hearts, 
that is, in such chambers of theirs let them afflict themselves, Ps. 4, 4. 
dwelling of one mood in a house ; as that by the Lord of the 
great house they may be dwelled in, and by themselves may 
be hearkened to. For there is a great house, wherein not 2 Tim. 
only golden vessels are, and silver vessels, but also wooden ^'^^" 
and earthen. And some indeed there are unto honour, 
others for dishonour; but if any shall have purged their 
own selves from the vessels of dishonour, they shall be of one 
mood in the house, and shall be the holy place of the Lord. 
For as in a great house of a man, the Lord thereof doth not 
abide in every place whatsoever, but in some place doubtless 
more private and honourable : so God dwelleth not in all 
men that are in His house, (for He dwelleth not in the 
vessels of dishonour,) but His holy place are they whom 
He maketh to dwell of one mood, or of one manner^ in a 
house. For what are called TqoTtoi in Greek, by both modi 
and mores, (moods, and manners,) in Latin may be inter- 
pi'eted. Nor hath the Greek writer. Who maketh to dwells 
but only, maketh to dwell. The Lord, then, is in His holy 
place. What is that place? God Himself maketh it for 
Himself. For God maketh to dwell men of one mood in a 
house: this is His holy place. 

8. But to prove that by His Grace He buildeth to Himself 
this place, not for the sake of the merits preceding of those 
persons out of whom He buildeth it, see what follovveth: 
(ver. 6.) Who leadeth forih men fettered, in strength. For 
He looselh the heavy bonds of sins, wherewith they were 
fettered so that they could not walk in the way of the com- 
mandments : but He leadeth them forth in strength, which 
before His Grace they had not. Likewise men provoking 
that dwell in the tombs: that is, every way dead, taken up 
with dead works. For these men provoke Him to anger by 
withstanding justice: for those fettered men perchance would 
walk, and are not able, and are praying of God that they 
may be able, and are saying to Him, From my necessities lead Pa. 25 
me forth. By whom being heard, they give thanks, saying, ^^- 



318 Some raised to Life that loere ' buried' in sin. 

Psalm TAou hast broken asunder my bonds. lUit these provoking 
„"-i-r^men that dwell in the tombs, are of that kind, which in 

Vs. 116, . ' , ' 

16. another passage the Scripture poinleth out, saying, From a 
\7^^i'. ^^^^ man, as from one that is not, confession j^crisheth. 
Prov. Whence there is this saying, When a sinner shall have come 
' ' into the depth of evil thinfjs, he dcspiseth. For it is one 
thing to long for, another thing to fight against righteous- 
ness : one thing from evil to desire to be delivered, another 
thing one's evil doings to defend rather than to confess: 
both kinds nevertheless the Grace of Christ leadeth forth in 
strength. With what strength, but that wherewith against 
sin even unto blood they are to strive? For out of each kind 
are made meet persons, whereof to construct His holy place; 
those being loosened, these being raised to life. For even 
Lulceis, of the woman, whom Satan had bound for eighteen years, 
Johnii by His command He loosed the bonds; and Lazanis' death 
^^- by His voice He overcame. He that hath done these things 
in bodies, is able to do more marvellous things in characters, 
V. 5. and to make men of one mood to dwell in a house : leading 
forth men fettered in strength, likewise men provoking that 
dwell in the tombs. 

9. Ver. 7. O God, when Thou wentest forth before Thy 
people. His going forth is perceived, when He appeareth 
in His works. But He appeareth not to all men, but to 
them that know how to spy out His works. For I do not 
now speak of those works which are consjiicuous to all men, 
Heaven and earth and sea and all things that in them are ; 
but the works whereby He leadeth forth men fettered in 
strength, likewise men provoking that dwell in the tombs, 
and maketh them of one manner to dwell in a house. Thus 
He goeth forth before His people, that is, before those that 
do perceive this His Grace. Lastly, there followeth. When 
Thou wentest by in the desert, (ver. 8.) the earth was moved. 
A desert were the nations, which knew not God : a desert 
they were, where by God Himself no law had been given, 
where no Prophet had dwelled, and foretold the Lord to 
come. When, then, Thou wentest by in the desert, when 
Thou wast preached in the nations ; the earth teas moved^ to 
the faith earthly men were stirred up. But whence was it 
moved ? For the heavens drojoped from the face of God. 



Dijjiculties in taking this Psahn literally. 319 

Perchance here some one calleth to mind that time, when in Veu. 

9. 

the desert God was going over before His people, before the 



sons of Israel, by day in the pillar of cloud, by night in theExod. 
brightness of fire ; and determiueth that thus it is that the ' 
heavens dropped from the face of God, for manna He rained Exod. 
upon His people : that the same thing also is that which ' 
followeth. Mount Sina from the face of the God of Israel,^.^. 
(ver. 9.) with voluntary rain severing God to Thine inherit- 
ance, namely, the God that on Mount Sina spake to Moses, 
when He gave the Law, so that the manna is the voluntary 
rain, which God severed for His inheritance, that is, for His 
people; because them alone He so fed, not the other nations 
also : so that what next he saith, and it ivas weakened, is 
understood of the inheritance being itself weakened; for 
they murmuring, fastidiously loathed the manna, longing for Numb, 
victuals of flesh, and those things on whicli they had been ' ''' * 
accustomed to live in Egypt. But in tliese words, if the 
exact meaning only of the letter, not a spiritual sense, be to 
be looked for, it ought to be shewn according to an exact 
corporal sense of them, who at that time, being fettered, and 
even dwelling in the tombs, were led forth in strength. 
Secondly, if that people, to wit that inheritance of God, who 
with loathing rejected the manna, was made weak, there 
ought not to follow, But Thou didst perfect it: but, But^^mh. 
Thou didst smite it. For God being offended by those ^^''•'^^• 
murmurings and loathings, a mighty plague followed. Lastly, 
all those men in the desert were stricken down, nor were any 
of them except two found worthy to go into the land of Numb. 
promise. Although even if in the sons of them that inherit- 34' * 
ance be said to have been perfected, we ought more readily 
to hold to a spiritual sense. For all those things in a figure 1 Cor. 
did happen to them; until the day should break, and thegoi'.go" 
shadows should be removed. 2, 17. 

10. May then the Lord open to us that knock; and may 
the secret things of His mysteries, as far as Himself vouch- 
safeth, be disclosed. For in order that the earth might be 
moved to the Truth when into the desert of the Gentiles 
the Gospel was i;)assing, the Heavens dropped from the face 
of God. These are the Heavens, whereof in another Psalm 
is sung. The Heavens are telling forth the glory of God. For Ps.i9,i. 



320 Tlie work not less God''s because through men. 

Psalm of these a little after is there said : There are neither speeches 
Pg ^Q nor discourses, wherein the voices of them are not heard: 
3. &c. into every land the snnnd of them hath gone forth, and into 
the ends nf the earth the words of them. However, to those 
heavens must not be ascribed so great glory, as though from 
men that Grace came into the desert of the Gentiles, that the 
earth might be moved to the Truth. For the Heavens 
dropped not from themselves, but from the face of God, to 
wit, lie dwelling in them, and making them of one manner 
to dwell in a house. For the same also are the mountains, 
Ps. 121, whereof is said, I have lifted mine eyes to the mountains^ 
whence shall come help to me. And nevertheless, lest on 
men he should seem to have set hope, immediately he hath 
ib. 2. added, My help is from the Lord, Who hath made Heaven 
Ps.7€,4.a)td earth. For to Him in another place is said. Thou 
enlightening marvellously, from (he everlasting mountains : 
though it be from the everlasting mountains ; nevertheless it 
is Thou enlightening marvellously. So here also, the Heavens 
dropped; hut frotn the face of God. For even these very 
Ephes. persons have been saved through faith , and this not ofthem- 
^^^ selves, but God\s gift it is, not of works, lest perchance any 
man should be lifted up. For of Himself we are the uork- 
ver. 5. Tnanship, ' that maketh men of one mood to dwell in a house.* 
11. But what is that which {oWowQih, Mount 8ina from 
the face of the God of Israel ? Must there be understood 
dropped; so that wdiat he hath called by the name of Heavens, 
the same he hath willed to be understood under the name of 
Mount Sina also; just as we said that those are called 
mountains, which were called Heavens ? Nor in this sense 
ought it to -move us that He saith mountain, not mountains, 
while in that place they were called Heavens, not Heaven : 
Pa. 19,1. for in another Psalm also after it had been said, The Heavens 
are telling forth the glory of God: after the manner of Scrip- 
ture repeating the same sense in different words, subsequently 
ib. there is said, And the firmament telleth the uorks of His 
hands. First he said Heavens, not Heaven : and yet after- 
wards not firmaments, but firmament. For God called the 
Qgj, J firmament Heaven, as in Genesis hath been written. Thus 
8. then Heavens and Heaven, mountains and mountain, are not 

a different thing, but the very same thing: just as Churches 



How the Law is ' made jwrfecf by the gift of Grace. 321 

Tuany, and the One Church, are not a different thing, but the Ver. 
very same thin^. Why then Mount Sina, lahich gendereth 



Gal. 4, 

unto bondage? as saith the Apostle. Is perchance the Law 24. 
itself to be understood in mount Sina, as that which the 
Heavens dropped from the face of God, in order that the 
earth might be moved? And is this the very moving of the 
earth, when men are troubled, because the Law they cannot 
fulfil ? But if so it is, this is the voluntary rain, whereof in 
confirmation he saith, Voluntary rain God severing to Thine 
inheritance : because He hath not done so to any nation, ^'^■^'ih 

'20. 

and His judgment He hath not manifested to them. God 
therefore set apart this voluntary rain to His inheritance 
because He gave the Law. And there teas made weak, 
either the Law, or the inheritance. The Law may be under- 
stood to have been made weak, because it was not fulfilled ; 
not that of itself it is weak, but because it maketh men weak, 
by threatening punishment, and not aiding through grace. 
For also the very word the Apostle hath used, where he saith, 
For that which was impossible of the Law, wherein it was'R'<'^^- 8, 
made weak through thejlesh: willing to intimate that through 
the Spirit it is fulfilled: nevertheless, itself he hath said is 
made weak, because by weak men it cannot be fulfilled. 
But the inheritance, that is, the people, without any doubt is 
understood to have been made weak by the giving to them of 
the Law. For the Law came in, that transgression might Rom. 5, 
abound. But that which followeth, But Thou hast made it 
'perfect, to the Law is thus referred, forasmuch as it is made 
perfect, that is, is fulfilled after that which the Lord saith in 
the Gospel, / have not come to annid the Law, but to fulfil. Matt. 5, 
Whence also the same Apostle, who had said that the Lawjio,^,g 
was made weak through the flesh, because flesh fulfillelh not^* 
that which through the Spirit is fulfilled, that is, through 
spiritual grace; saith also. That the righienusne!<s of the 'Rom. f^, 
Lmv might he fnlfUed in vs, tvho ?ralk not after the flesh, ' 
hut after the Spirit. This is then the sense of. But thou 
hast made it perfect ; namely, that The fulness of the Law is Rom.ia 
love ; and. The love of God is shed abroad in our hearts, not ii^- 
through ourselves, but, through the Holy Spirit that hath 5. ' ' 
been given to us ; this is, But Thou hast made it perfect, 
if He be understood lo have made perfect the Law; but if 

VOL. III. Y 



322 Tke ' voluntary rain' best understood of Grace. 

Psalm the inheritance, more easy is the understanding thereof. For 
if for this reason the inheritance of God is said to have been 
made weak, that is, the people of God to have been made 
Horn, 5, weak by the giving of the Law, to wit, because the Law 
entered in, in order that transgression niiglit abound: then 
also that which followeth, But Thou hast made it perfect, is 
ibid. understood by that which also in the Apostle followeth, but 
where transgression abounded, (jrace did more abound. For 
Ps.16,4. transgression being abundant, the weaknesses of them were 
multiplied, and afterwards they made haste: because they 
groaned and called upon Him; in order that by His aid there 
might be fulfilled that, which by His command was not ful- 
filled. 
Grace 12. There is in these words yet another sense: which 
luntary seemeth to mc more to approve itself. For much more in 
ram. accordance with the context, grace itself is understood to be 
the voluntary rain, because with no preceding merits of works 
Rom. it is given gratis. For if grace, no lo}tger of works: otherwise 
ic'or.i5 5'^'^ce no longer is grace. For unworthy I am, he saith, to be 
9- 10. called an Apostle, because I persecuted the Church of God: 
but by the grace of God I am what I atn. This is the 
James voluntary rain. For voluntarily He hath begotten us nith 
' ' the word of Truth. This is the voluntary rain. Thence 
Ps,5,i2. elsewhere is said, With the buckler of Thy goodwill Thou 
hast crowned us. That rain, when God was going over in 
the desert, that is, was being preached in the nations, the 
Heavens dropped: not however from themselves, hni from 
1 Cor. the face of God, since even they themselves by the grace of 
' * God are what they are. And therefore. Mount Sina, he 
himself also who laboured more than they all, yet not he 
himself, but the grace of God with him, in order that more 
abundantly he might drop upon the nations, that is, upon 
Rom. the desert, where Christ had not been preached, lest upon 
Philip, another's foundation he should build ; he himself, I say, was 
3, &• an Israelite of the family of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin : 
Gal. 4, and he himself therefore unto bondage had been gendered, 
bein^ of the earthly Jerusalem, which is in bondage with her 
sons, and so he persecuted the Church. For what he himself 
Gal. 4, hath intimated: As then he that after the flesh had been 
^^' begotten was persecuting him that after the Spirit had been 



What is meant by ' Mount Sina,' or ' the God of Sina.' 323 

begotten, even so now. But raercy he obtained, because Ver. 
ignorant he did it in unbelief. We wonder, then, how ihe—^ — 

° 1 Inn. 

Heavens dropped from the face of God: let us wonder more, i, ]3. 
how did Mount Sina, that is, he that before was perse- Plii'ip. 
culing, a Hebrew of the Hebiews, after the Law a Pharisee. ' 
But why should we wonder ? For not from himself, but as 
follovveth from the face of the God of Israel, of whom he 
saith himself, and upon the Israel of God: of whom the^ai.c, 
Lord saith, Behold an Israelite indeed, in wliom guile is not.. \ohn i, 
This voluntary rain then, with no merits of good works pre- '" 
ceding, God set apart for His inheritance. And it was made 
weak. For he acknowledged himself not to be any thing of 
himself; that not to his own powers, but to the grace of God 
must be ascribed what he is. He acknowledged that which 
hath been said. In my infirmities I tvill glory. He acknow- 2 Cor. 
ledged that which hath been said. Be not highminded, i«^i{om. 
fear. He acknowledged that which hath been said. But to^^^ '"• 
humble men He giveih grace. And it was made weak, but a, g. 
Tliou hast made it perfect: because virtue in weakness is 2 Cor. 
perfected. Some copies indeed, both Latin and Greek, have ' 
not Mount Sina; hxxi, from the face of the God of Sina, 
from the face of the God of Israel. That is, The Heavens 
dropped from the face of God: and, as if enquiry were made 
of what Qio^, from the face of the God, he saith, of Sina, 
from the face of the God of Israel, that is, from the face of 
the God that gave the Law to the people of Israel. Why 
then the Heavens dropped from the face of God, from the 
face of this God, but because thus was fulfilled that which 
had been foretold, Blessing He shall give that hath given thepB.84,6. 
Law? The Law whereby to terrify a man that relieth on^^l^*^"^* 
human powers; blessing, whereby He delivereth a man thatVulg. 
hopeth in God, Thou then, O God, hast made perfect gof"^ ^ 
Thine inheritance ; because it is made weak in itself, in order 
that it may be made perfect by Thee. 

13. Ver. 10. Thine animals shall dwell therein. Thine, 
not their own ; to Thee subject, not for themselves free; for 
Thee needy, not for themselves sufficient. Lastly, he con- 
tinueth, Thou hast prepared iti Thine own sweetness for the 
needy, O God. In Thine own sweetness, not in his meetness. 
For the needy he is, for he hath been made weak, in order 

Y 2 



3*24 Tlu: Word yiven as food to the Preachers of the Gospel. 

PsAi.M that he may be made perfect : he hath acknowledged himself 

indigent, that he may be replenished. This is that sweetness, 

Ps. 85, whereof in another place is said. The Lord shall give siceel- 
^^' ness, and our land shall give her fruit : in order that a good 
work may be done not for fear, but for love ; not for dread of 
punishment, but for love of righteousness. For this is true 
and sound freedom. But the Lord hath pre])ared this for 
one wanting, not for one abounding, whose reproach is that 
Ps. 123, poverty : of which sort in another place is said, Reproach to 
these men that abound, and contempt to proud men. For 
those he hath called })roud, whom he hath called them 
that abound. 

14. Ver. 11. The Lord shall give the Word: to wit, food 
for His animals which shall dwell therein. But what shall 
these animals work to whom He shall give the Word ? What 
but that which foUowelh "^ To them preaching the Gospel 
in much virtue. With what virtue, but with that strength 
wherein He leadeth forth men fettered ? Perchance also here 
he speaketh of that \irtue, wherewith in preaching the Gospel 
they wrought wondrous signs. 

15. Who then shall give the Word to men preaching the 
Gospel with much virtue ? (Ver. 12.) The King, he saith, of 
the virtues of the Beloved. The Father therefore is King 
of the virtues of the Son. For the Beloved, when there is 
not specified any person that is beloved, by a substitution of 
name, of the Only Son is understood. Is not the Son 
Himself King of His virtues, to wit of the virtues serving 
Himself.? Because with much virtue the King of Virtues 
shall give the Word to men preaching the Gospel, of Whom 

Ps. 24, it hath been said, The Lord of Virtues, He is the King of 
^^' Glory ? But his not having said King of Virtues, but King 
of the Virtues of the Beloved, is a most usual expression in 
the Scriptures, if any one observe : which thing chiefly 
appeareth in those cases where even the person's own name 
is already expressed, so that it cannot at all be doubted that 
it is the same person of whom something is said. Of which 
sort also is that which in the Pentateuch in many passages is 
found : And Moses did it, as the Lord commanded Moses. He 
said not that which is usual in our expressions, And Moses did, 
as the Lord commanded him; but, 'Moses did as the Lord 



Repetition of names. Who is ' Kintj of the Virtues.'' 325 

commanded Moses,' as if one person were the Moses whom He Ver. 
commanded, and another person the Moses who did, whereas ^^' 
it is the very same. In the New Testament such expressions 
are most difficult to find. From thence nevertheless is that 
which the Apostle saith, Concerning His Son Who was made ^om.i, 
for Him of the seed of David after the Jlesh, Who was pre- 
destined to be the Son of God in virtue after the Spirit of 
sanciification by the resurrection of the dead of Jesus Christ 
our Lord: as though one person were the Son of God who was 
made of the seed of David after the flesh, and another person 
Jesus Christ our Lord, whereas He is one and the same. 
But in the old Books this expression is frequent : and there- 
fore when it is used somewhat obscurely, by evident instances 
of the like kind it must be understood ; as in this Psalm, 
whereof we are treating, somewhat obscurel}' it hath been 
used. For if Jesus Christ were said to be King of the virtues 
of Jesus Christ, it would be as clear as this, Moses did as the 
Lord commanded Moses : but because there hath been said, 
King of the virtues of the Beloved^ it is no slight matter that 
it should come to pass that the Same is King of the virtues, 
as is also the Beloved. Tlie King, therefore, of the virtues 
of tit e Beloved, thus may be understood, as if it were to be 
said, the King of His virtues, because both King of Virtues 
is Christ, and the Beloved is the very same Christ. However, 
this sense hath not so great urgency, as that no other can be 
accepted : because the Father also may be understood as 
King of the virtues of His Beloved Son, to Whom the 
Beloved Himself saith, All 31ine are Thine, and Thine Mine. Johni7, 
But if perchance it is asked, whether God the Father of the ^^' 
Lord Jesus Christ can be called King also, I know not 
whether any one would dare to withhold this name from 
Him in the passage where the Apostle saith. But to the King l Tim. 
of ages, immortal, invisible, the only God. Because even if ' 
this be said of the Trinity itself, therein is also God the 
Falhei'. But if we do not carnally understand, O God, Thy^s.l2 I. 
Judgment to the King give Thou, and Thy justice to the 
Son of the King : I know not whether any thing else hath 
been said than, ' to Thy Son.' King therefore is the Father 
also. Whence that verse of this Psalm, Ki)tg of the virtues 
of the Beloved, in cither way may be understood. When 



326 Christ beautifies His house with spoils of Satan. 
PsAi.M therefore he had said, The Lord shall give the fVord to men 

LXVIII 

' preaching the Gospel uith much virtue: because virtue itself 

by Him is ruled, and serveth Hiin by Whom it is given ; 
the Lord Himself, he saith, Who shall give the Word to men 
preaching the Gospel with much virtue, is the King of the 
virtues of the Beloved. 

16. In the next place there followeth, 0/ the Beloved, attd 
of the beauty of the House to divide the spoils. The repe- 
tition belongeth to eulogy: though this repetition all the 
copies have not, and the more careful mark it with a star 
put before it, which marks are called asterisks, whereby 
they would have to be noted, that there are not in the 
Septuagint Version, but there are in the Hebrew, those words 
which are distinguished by such marks. But whether it be 
repeated, or whether it be received as spoken once, the word 
»'Z)/- which hath been set down, namely. Beloved^, I suppose 
which ^^^* ^^^^ must be understood that which followeth, and of 
signifies f/ig heautu of a house to divide the spoils; as if there were 

3i loVG of *" 

choice, said. Chosen even to divide the spoils of the beauty of a house, 
that is, Chosen even for dividing the spoils. For beautiful 
Christ hath made His House, that is, the Church, by dividing 
to Her spoils : in the same manner as the Body is beautiful 
in the distribution of the members. ' Spoils' moreover those 
are called that are stripped off" from conquered foes. What 
this is the Gospel adviselh us in the passage where we read, 

Mat. 12, No one goetli into the house of a strong 'man to spoil his 
vessels, unless first he shall have bound the strong man. 
Christ therefore hath bound the devil with spiritual bonds, 
by overcoming death, and by ascending from Hell above the 
Heavens : He hath bound him by the Sacrament of His 
Incarnation, because though finding nothing in Him deserving 
of death, yet he was permitted to kill: and from him so 
bound He took away his vessels as though they were spoils. 

Ephes. por he was working in the sons of disobedience, of whose 

2 2. 

' * unbelief he made use to work his own will. These vessels 

the Lord cleansing by the remission of sins, sancliiying these 

spoils wrested from the foe laid prostrate and bound, these 

Ephes. He hath divided to the beauty of His House; making some 

I'cor apostles, some prophets, some pastors and doctors, for the 

12, 12. 'svork of the ministry, for the building up of the Body of 



Construction of the Text. 327 

Christ. For as the body is one, aud hath many members, Vkr. 
and though all the members of the body are many, the body .„ ' - 
is one: so also is Christ. Are all Apostles? Are a// 29. 
Prophets? Are all Powers? Have all the gifts of healinys? 
Do all speak with tongues ? Do all interpret? But all these i Cor. 
Hangs worketh one and the same Spirit, dividing to each one ' 
his own gifts, as He willeth. And such is the beauty of the 
house, whereto the spoils are divided, that a lover thereof with 
this fairness being enkindled, crieth out, O Lordy 1 have loved Ps. 26, 
the grace of Thy House. 

17. Now in that which followeth, he turneth himself to 
address the members themselves, whereof the beauty of the 
House is composed, saying, (ver. 13.) If ye sleep in the 
midst of the lots, wings of a dove silvered, and between the 
shoulders thereof in the freshness of gold. First, we must 
here examine the order of the words, in what manner the 
sentence is ended; which certainly awaiteth,when there is said. 
If ye sleep: secondly, in that which he saith, namely, wings 
of dove silvered, whether in the singular number it must be 
understood as being, ' of this wing'' thereof, or in the pluraP ' tujus 
as, ' these wings'.' But the singular number the Greek ex-H'h"^ 
cludeth, where always in the plural we read it written. ButP^°°*' 
still it is uncertain whether it be, these wings ; or whether, 
' O ye wings,' so as that he may seem to speak to the wings 
themselves. Whether therefore by the words which have 
preceded, that sentence be ended, so that the order is, The 
Lord shall give the Word to men preaching the Gospel with 
much virtue, if ye sleep in the midst of the lots, O ye wings 
of a dove silvered: or by these which follow, so that the order 
is. If ye sleep in the midst of the lots, t]ie wings of a dove 
silvered with snow shall be whitened in Selmon : that is, the 
wings themselves shall be whitened, if ye sleep in the midst 
of the lots : so that he may be understood to say this to them 
that are divided to the beauty of the House, as it were spoils, 
that is, if ye sleep in the midst of the lots, O ye that are 
divided to the beauty of the House, through the manifest- 1 Cor. 
ation of the Spirit unto profit, so that to one indeed is given ^^' '^' 
through the Spirit the word of wisdom, to another the word of 
knowledge after the same Spirit, to another faith, to another 
kinds of healings in the same Spirit, Sfc, if then ye sleep 



328 ' Sleeping betwixt tJic lots,' re^tiiKj on loth Tentuments. 

Psalm in llie midst of the lots, then the wings of a dove silvered 
' with snow shall be whitened in Schnon. It may also be thus: 
If ye leitKj the iviiujs of a dove silvered, sleep in the midst of 
the lots, icith sfio/r they shall be uhite/ied in Seli/io/t, so as 
that those men be understood who through grace receive 
remission of sins. "Whence also of the Church Herself, is 
said in the Song of Songs, JV/tO is bhe that (joeth up ivhiiened^ 
For this promiseof Godisheldoiitihrough the Prophet, saying, 
If your sins shall have been like scarlet , like snoir I u ill nhiten 
them. It may also thus be understood, so that in that which 
hath been said, wings of a dove silvered, there be understood, 
ye shall be, so that this is the sense, O ye that like as it were 
spoils to the beauty of the house are divided, if ye sleep in 
the midst of t lie lots, wings of a dove silvered ye shall be: 
that is, into higher places ye shall be lifted up, adhering 
however to the bond of the Church. For I think no other 
dove silvered can be better perceived here, than that whereof 

Sonp of hath been said, One is My dove. But silvered She is because 
' ' with divine sayings she hath been instructed : for the sayings 

Ps. 12, of the Lord in another place ai"e called silver with fire refined^ 
purged sevenfold. Some great good thing iherelbre it is, to 
sleep in the midst of the lots, which some would have to be 
the Two Testauients, so that to ' sleep in the midst of the 

1 i^fiig^ lots'' is to rest on the authority of those Testaments, that is, 

medws ^q acquiesce in the testimony of either Testament : so that 

cIetos 

whenever any thing out of them is produced and proved, all 
strife is ended in peaceful acquiescence. But if so it be, of 
what else do men preaching the Gospel with much virtue 
seem to be reminded, but that the Lord shall give them the 
Word that the}' may be able to preach, if only they sleep in 
the midst of the lots ? For to them the Word of Truth is 
given, if only the authority of the two Testaments is not 
forsaken by them : so that they themselves are also the 
wings of a dove silvered, by the preaching of whom the 
glory of the Church is borne unto Heaven. 

18. Betueen the shoulders, however. This is indeed a 
part of the body, it is a part about the region of the heart, at 
the hinder parts however, that is, at the back : which part of 
that dove silvered he saith is ' in the greenness of gold,' that 
is, in the vigour of wisdom, which vigour I think cannot be 



Wings iff the duve, the Tiuo Commandments. 3*29 

better understood than by love. But why on the back, and "^^ek. 
not on the breast? Ahhough I wonder in vvliat sense this „;-'-- 
word is put in another Psalm, where there is said, Beliceen 
His shoulders He shall overshadoiv thee, and under His 
icings thou shall hope : forasmuch as under wings there 
cannot be overshadowed any thing but what shall be 
under the breast. And ivi Latin, indeed, between the 
shoulders, perchance in some degree of both parts may be 
understood, both before and behind, that we may take 
shoulders to be the parts which have the head betwixt them ; 
and in Hebrew perchance the word is ambiguous, which 
may in this manner also be imderstood : but the word that 
is in the Greek, y^srafgeva.^ signifieth not any thing but at 
the back, which is between the shoulders. Is there for 
this reason there the greenness of gold, that is, wisdom 
and love, because in that phice there are in a manner the 
roots of the wings ? or because in that place is carried that 
light burden ? For what are even the wings themselves, but 
the two commandments of love, whereon hangeth the whole Mat.22, 
Law and the Prophets? what is that same light burden, but^^' 
that same love which in these two commandments is fulfilled? I^o^e. 
For whatever thing is difficult in a commandment, is a light 
thing to a lover. Nor on any other account is rightly under- 
stood the saying, 3fy burden is light, but because He giveth Mat. ii 
the Holy Spirit, whereby love is shed abroad in our hearts, ^' 
in order that in love we may do freely that which he that 5. 
doeth in fear doeth slavishly ; nor is he a lover of what is 
right, when he would prefer, if so be it were possible, that 
what is right should not be commanded. 

19. It may also be required, when it hath not been said, 
if ye sleep in the lots, but in the midst oj' the lots ; what 
this is, in the midst of the lots. Which expression indeed, if 
more exactly it were translated from the Greek, w ould signify, 
in the midst between the lots^, which is in no one of the inter- 
preters I have read : therefore I su])pose, that what hath been 
said signifieth much the same, to wit the expression, in the 
midst of (lie lots. Hence therefore what seemeth to me I 
will explain. Ofttimes this word is wont to be used for 

^ ' Inter medium cleiorum." The other might mean, between or among the 
the middlemost lots. 



PSA 
LX 



330 The ' lots,' the Two Testaments ; ' sleep,' their agreemeiit. 
ALM uniting and pacifying one thing and another, that they 



may not niulually disagree: as when God is estabUshing His 
' *^sfa- covenant' between Hiraself and His people, this word the 

mentum ^. ^ r • •> • -x • ^ • • 

Scripture useth; for instead of that expression which is in 
Latin between Me and you, the Greek hath, in the midst of 
Me and you. So also of the sign of Circumcision, when God 

Gen. 17, speaketh to Abraham, He saith, TJiere shall be a testament 

' ' between Me and thee and all thy seed : which the Greek hath, 

in the midst of Me and thee, and the midst of thy seed. 

Gen. 9, Also when He was speaking to Noe of the bow in the clouds 
to establish a sign, this word very often He repeateth : and 
that which the Latin copies have, between Me and you, or 
between Me and every living soul, and whatever suchlike 
expressions there are used, is found in the Greek to be, in the 
middle of Me and you, which is «va jw,£Vov. David also and 

1 Sam. Jonathan establish a sign between them, that they may not 

disagree with a difference of thought : and that which in Latin 
is expressed, between both, in the middle of both, the Greek 
hath expressed in the same word, which is ava j^eo-ov. But 
it was best that in this passage of the Psalms our translators 
said not, ' among the lots,' which expression is more suited 
to the -Latin idiom; but, in the midst of the lots, as though 
' in the midst between the lots,' which rather is the reading 
in the Greek, and which is wont to be said in the case of 
those things which ought to have a mutual consent. The 
Scripture therefore commandeth to sleep in the midst of the 
lots, them that either are the wings of a dove silvered, or by 
this it is granted to them to be so. Furthermore, if these lots 
signify the two Testaments, of what else are we admonished 
but that against the mutual agreement of the Testaments' 
we should not fight, but in understanding them should 
acquiesce, and ourselves should be the sign and evidence of 
their agreement, w'hile we perceive that the one saith nothing 
against the other, and with peaceful admiration, like a vision 

2 cleros in sleep, we prove it ? But why in the ' lots-" the Testaments 

should be perceived, though this word is Greek, and the 
Testament is not so named, the reason is, because through a 
testament is given inheritance, which in Greek is called 

* Ben. ' Testamentis inter se con- ' ea Testamenta inter se cousentire.' 
sentientibus.' Most Mss. (and Oxf.) 



'Lots,' the two Inheritances; ^ Sleep,'' waiting for the better. 331 

xKrigovoiJi,iix, and an heir xA»]povojaof. Now xXrigog in Greek is Vbr. 

the term for lot, and ]ots according to the promise of God — 

are called those parts of the inheritance, which were distri- 
buted to the people. Whence the tribe of Levi was com- Numb. 
manded not to have lot among their brethren, because they '^' ^^* 
were sustained by tithes from them. For, I think, they that 
have been ordained in the grades of the Ecclesiastical 
Ministry have been called both Clergy and Clerks, because 
Matthias by lot was chosen, who we read was the first that-^^ts i, 

. . 26. 

was ordained by the Apostles. Henceforth, because of in- 
heritance which is given by testament, as though by that 
which is made that which maketh, by the name of ' lots' the 
Testaments themselves are signified. 

20, Nevertheless, to me here another sense also occurreth, 
if I mistake not, to be preferred ; understanding by cleri the 
inheritances themselves: so that, whereas the inheritance of 
the Old Testament, although in a shadow significant of the 
future, is earthly felicity; but the inheritance of the New 
Testament is everlasting immortality; to ' sleep in the midst 
of the lots' is not too earnestly now to seek the former, and 
still patiently to look for the latter. For they that serve God 
for the sake of these things, or rather for the sake of these 
things will not serve Him, while they are seeking felicity in 
this life and in this earth, have their sleep taken from them, 
and they sleep not. For with inflamed desires being phren- 
sied, unto crimes and outrages they are hurried forward, 
and they rest not at all; longing to get, fearing to lose. But Prov.i, 
he that heareth me, saith Wisdom, shall dwell in hope, and 
he shall rest without fear from all malice. This is, as far as 
I see, to sleep in the midst of the lots, that is, in the midst 
between the inheritances; not yet in reality, but yet in hope 
of heavenly inheritance to dwell, and already to be un- 
troubled with the desire of earthly felicity. But when there 
shall have come that which we hope for, no longer between 
two inheritances we shall rest; but in the new and true 
inheritance, whereof the old was a shadow, we shall reign. 
Wherefore even if we shall have understood that which hath 
been said, If ye sleep in the midst of the lots, as though it 
had been said, if ye die between the midst of the lots, as 
though the Scripture in its wonted manner had called this 



332 Or ^ sleep' may he death ; icin(/s, praise of sanctity. 
PsAi,M death of tlie flesh a sleep ; it is a death most desirable, that 

I.XVIII. . . 

in restraining the desires from earthly things, in the hope of 

the heavenly inheritance, a man, persevering even unto the 
end, should so close the last day of this life. For so, sleep- 
ing in the midst between the lots, shall tliey be the wings 
of the dove silvered, as that, in the time wherein they 
1 Thess. shall rise again, they shall be caught up in the clouds to 
^y '^- meet Christ in the air, and shall live alway hereafter with the 
Lord : or else surely so it is, because through those that do 
so live, as the more securely, so the more highly the Ciiurch 
is extolled, and on wings, so to speak, of exalted praise she is 
•c jyg uplifted. For not without cause hath been said, Before death 
11, 28. jjraise not any man. All the holy men of God therefore, 
from the beginning of mankind, even unto the time of the 
Apostles, (because even they knew liow themselves to say, 
Jer. 17, The day of a inan I have not coveted, Thou knouest: and, 
If* gy One ' thing I have sought of the Lord, this I will require,) 
4. and after the time of the Apostles, from which time the 

imani difference of the two Testaments more clearly lialh been 
revealed, the Apostles themselves and the blessed martyrs, and 
the rest of just men, like rams, and the sons of rams, even unto 
this time have slept in the midst of the lots, the earthly king- 
dom's felicity already contemning, and for the kingdom of 
Heaven's Eternity hoping, and not yet holding. And be- 
cause so well they have slept, on them, as it were on wings 
now flieth, and with praises is exalted, the Church : to wit, 
the Dove silvered, in order that by this fame of theirs, 
posterity having being invited to imitate them, while in like 
manner the rest also sleep, there may be added wings 
whereby even unto the end of the world sublimely she may 
be preached. 
^ Super- 21. Ver. 14. IVhile He Tliat is above the heavens^ dis- 
cwlestts iif^gnifiJtctlt kings over Her, uith snow they shall be made 
nhilc in Sehnon. While He above the heavens. He that 
ascended over all heavens that He might fulfil all things, 
tchile He distingiiislieiJi kings over Her, that is, over that 
same Dove silvered. For the Apostle continueth and sailh, 
Ephes. iind He hath Himself given some for Apostles, and some 
4, 11. Prophets, and some Evangelists, and some Pastors and 
Teachers. For what other reason is there to distinguish 



Kings in the Chnrch cleansed in the Shndoioing of the Spirit. 333 

kings over Her, save for the work of the Ministry, for the Veu. 
edification of the Body of Christ : when she is indeed — 



Herself the Body of Christ ? But they are called kings from 
ruling: and what more than the lusts of the flesh, that sin Rom. 6, 
may not reign in their mortal body to obey the desires ^ • ^ • 
thereof, that they yield not their members instruments of 
iniquity unto sin, but yield themselves to God, as though 
from the dead living, and their members instruments of 
righteousness to God ? For thus shall the kings be dis- 
tinguished from foreigners, because they draw not the yoke 
with unbelievers: secondly, in a peaceful manner being dis- 
tinguished from one another by their proper gifts. For noti Cor. 
all are Apostles, or all Prophets, or all Teachers, or all have ^^' ^^' 
gifts of healings, or all with tongues do speak, or all interpret. 

But all these thinc/s ivorketh one and the same Spirit, i Cor. 

. ..12,11. 

dividing proper gifts to each one as He willeth. In giving 

which Spirit He that is above the Heavens distinguisheth 
kings over the Dove silvered. Of which Holy Spirit, when, 
sent to His Mother full of grace, the Angel was speaking, to 
her enquiring in what manner it could come to pass that 
she was announced as going to bear, seeing she knew not a Luke l, 
man: The Holg Spirit, He saith, shall come over upon thee, 
and the Virtue of the Most Highest shall overshadow thee. 
What is, ' shall overshadow thee,' but shall make a shadow ? 
Whence also those kings, while, with the grace of the Spirit 
of the Lord Christ they are distinguished over the Dove 
silvered, with snow shall be made white in Selmon, For 
Selmon is interpreted shadow. For not by their merits or 
their own virtue they are distinguished. For who, he saith, l Cor. 4, 
distinguisheth thee ? But what thing hast thou which thou '' 
hast not received? In order that therefore they may be dis- 
tinguished from ungodly men, they receive remission of sins from 
Him who saith, If your sins shall have been like scarlet, as Is^a. 1, 
thoucjh snow Iwillmake them white. Behold in what manner 
with snow they shall be made white unto Selmon, in the grace 
of the Spirit of Christ, whereby to them their proper gifts 
have been distributed: whereof hath been said that which I 
have quoted above. The Holy Spirit shall co}?ie over upoji Luke ], 
Thee, and the virtue of the 3Iost Highest shall overshadotv 
Thee, that is, shall make a shadow for Thee, wherefore that 



334 Brightness of Grace, in the shadow of Christ's Body. 

Psalm Holy Thi)uj uhich shall be horn of Thee, shall be called the 

— '- Son of God. Thai shadow again is understood of a defence 

against the heat of carnal lusts : whence not in carnal con- 
cupiscence, but in spiritual belief, the Virgin conceived 
Christ. But the shadow consisteth of light and body: and 
John 1, further. The Word that was in fhe beginning, that true 
ib. 9. Light, in order that a noon-day shadow might be made for 
ib. 14. us; the Word, I say, was made Flesh, and dwelled in us. 
To God, to wit, man, as though to Light a body, was added, 
and them that believe on Him with the shadow of protection 
He hath covered. For He is not such a shadow as that 
Wisd.S, whereof is said, All those tJiinys have passed aivay like a 
shadow : nor such a shadow as that whereof sailh the Apostle, 
Coloss. Lei no man judge you in meat and drink, or in regard of a 
' ' festival, or a new moon, or Sabbaths, which is a shadow of 
things future : but such as that whereof hath been written, 
Ps.i7,8.njq(;lgf th£ shadow of Thy wings protect me. While then He, 
that is above the Heavens, distinguisheth kings over the 
Dove silvered, let not their own merits exalt them, let them 
not trust in their own virtue ; for with snow they shall be 
made white unto Selmon, with grace they shall be made to 
shine bright in the pi'otection of the Body of Christ. 

22. But this mountain subsequently he calleth the moun- 
tain of God, a mountain fruitful, a mountain full of curds, 
or a mountain fat. But here what else would lie call fat 
but fruitful? For there is also a mountain called by that 
name, that is to say, Selmon. But what mountain ought we 
to understand by the tnountain of God, a mountain fruitful, 
a mountain full of curds, but the same Lord Christ.? Of 
Is. 2, 2. whom also another Prophet saith, TJtere shall he manifest in 
the last times the mountain of the Lord prepared on the top 
of ike mountains? He is Himself the 'Mountain full of 
' incase- curds ',' because of the babes to be fed with grace as though 
1 Cor. It were with milk ; a mountain rich to strengthen and enrich 
^' ^' them by the excellence of the gifts; for even the milk itself 
whence curd is made, in a wonderful manner signifieth 
grace; for it floweth out of the overflowing of the mother's 
bowels, and of a sweet compassion unto babes freely it is 
poured forth. But in the Greek the case is doubtful, whether 
it be the nominative or the accusative : for in that language 



Christ the ' Mountain,' not as other Mountains. 335 

mountain is of the neuter gender, not of the masculine : Veb, 
therefore some Latin translators have not translated it, unto — - 
the Mountain of God, but, the Mountain of God. But 1 think, 
unto Salmon the Mountain of God, is better, that is, unto the 
Mountain of God which is called Selmon : according to the 
interpretation which, as we best could, we have explained 
above. 

23. Secondly, in the expression, Mountain, of God, Moun- 
tain full of curds, Mountain fruitful, let no one dare from 
this to compare the Lord Jesus Christ with the rest of the 
Saints, who are themselves also called mountains of God : 
for we read, Th>j righteousness is like the mountains of Qod: P«. 36, 
whence the Apostle saith, that we may be the righteousness ^cor. 5 
of Qod in Him. Of which mountains also in another place 2i- 
is said, Thoib enlightening marvellously f rain the everlasting Ps.76,'i. 
mountains : because to them life everlasting hath been given, 
and through them the preeminent authority of the Holy 
Scriptures hath been established; but with Him enlightening 
by means of them, to Whom is said. Thou enlightening. For, 
f have lifted up mine eyes unto the Mountains, whence there Ps. 121, 
shall come help to me : and yet my help is not from those ' 
same mountains of themselves ; but, my help is from the Lord, Ibid. v. 
who hath made Heaven and earth. For one of those very 
mountains greatly excelling, when he had said, that he 
laboured more than they all; saith, yet not I, hut the grace '^ Cor. 
of God with me. That no one therefore might dare even to ' 
compare the Mountain beautiful in form before the sons qf^s. 45, 
men, with mountains the sons of men ; for there were not 
wanting men to call Him, some John Baptist, some Elias, ^^^-16, 
some Jeremias, or one of the Prophets ; He turneth to them 
and saith, (ver, 16.) Why do ye imagine^ mountains fulV ^^''^V^: 
of curds, a mountain, he saith, wherein it hath pleased Qod 
to dwell therein ? " Why do ye imagine^ P" For as they are a ^or ' /oo/t 
light, because to themselves also hath been said, Ye are the^^.^"^Q 
Light of the world,hi\t some thing different halh been called ^^• 
the true Light which enlighteneth every mail: so they are John 1, 
mountains ; but far different is the Mountain prepared on the jgai, 2 
top of the mountains. These mountains therefore in bearing^- 
that Mountain are glorious : one of which mountains saith, 
" but from me far he it to glory, save in the Cross of our Lord^^^- 6, 

14. 



33C God in Christ otherwise thnn as in the Saints. 

Psalm Jesits Christ, through Whom to me theworldhaih been crucified., 

FCorTT cindlto the norld : so that he that glorieth, not in himself, hut 

^^' in the Lord may glory.'''' IVhg then do ye imagine mountains 

full of curds, tliat Mountain ivherein it hath pleased Cod to 

dwell therein ? Not because in other men He dwelleth not, 

Coloss. Imt bt^canse in them throufijh Him. For in Him dwelleth all 

2 y. . 

\']i']j^asf he fulness of the Codhead, not in a shadow, as in the temple 

^' ^"- made by king Solomon, but bodily, that is, solidly and truly. 

2 Cor 5, Yor Cod was i n Christ reconcili)ia the xorld to Himself. Which 
19. 

whether we take to be spoken of the Father, because Ho 

JobnU, grjij-]^ Himself, But the Father in 3Ie abiding Hiniself doeth 

His ivorks : I in the Father and the Father in Me : or 

whether thus it be understood, God was in Christ, the Word 

was in Man: yet the Word was in the flesh in such a manner 

John 1, that the Word made flesh was even properly named as One', 

/'*■, that is, man to the Word in the one Person of Christ was 

' solus. ' 

conjoined. Why then do ye imagine mountains full of 
curds, that mountain ivherein it hath pleased God to dwell 
in Him ? Far otherwise indeed than in those mountains, 
whereof ye imagine even this Mountain to be one. For not 
because through the grace of adoption they are sons of God, is 
therefore any one of them the Only-Begotten, to Whom He 
Ps, 110 should say, Sit on My right hand, until I lay Tliine enemies 
'• beneath Thy feet. For the I^ord shall inhabit even unto the 

end: that is, those mountains not to be compared with this 
Mountain, the Lord Himself shall inhabit. Who is the 
Isa. 2, Mountain prepared on the top of the mountains; in order 
^* that He may conduct them unto the end, that is, unto Him- 

Rom.io, self, to be beheld as He is, as God. For the end of the Law 
*• is Christ for righteousness to every one believing. God there- 

fore it hath pleased to dwell in that mountain, Which hath 
been prepared on the top of the mountaii;s: to Whom He 
Matt. 3, saith, 77/0// art My beloved. Son, in IJ'hom I have been well 
pleased. But that same Mountain is the Lord, "Who shall 
inhabit other mountains unto the end, on the top of whom 

1 Tim. JJe hath been i)rcpared. For there is One God, and One 

2 5 

' ' Mediator of God and men, the Man Christ Jesus, Mounia'm 
Johnir, qC mountains, as Saint of saints. Whence He saith, ' / in 

23. 

them and Thou in Me.' Why then do ye imagine mountains 
full of curds, the mountain icherein it hath pleased God to 



Ten thousands of the Church are God's Chariot. 337 
dwell in Him ? For those mountains full of curds that Ver. 

] 7 

Mountain the Lord sliall inhabit even unto the end, that '— 



something they may be to whom He saith, ybr without 7l/eJohni6, 
nothing ye are able to do. 

24. Thus cometh to pass that also which followeth ; (ver. 
17.) The Chariot of God is of ten thousands manifold: or 
of tens of thousands manifold: or, ten times thousand times 
manifold. For one Greek word, which hath there been 
used, fcvgioTrXocaiov, each Latin interpreter hath rendered as 
best he could, but in Latin it could not be adequately 
expressed : for a thousand with the Greeks is called %/x*«j 
but [xugidts^ are a number of tens of thousands: for one y-vgioig 
are ten thousands. Thus a vast number of saints and be- 
lievers, who by bearing God become in a manner the chariot ' ' see St. 
of God, he hath signified under this name. By abiding in rius 
and guiding this. He conducteth it, as though it were His Hom. i. 
Chariot, unto the end, as if unto some appointed place. For, 
the beginning is Christ; secondly, they that are of Christ, at l Cor. 
the appearing cf Him; then the end. This is Holy Church : ^' ^' 
which is that which followeth, thousands of men rejoicing. 
For in hope they are joyful, until they be conducted unto Rom. 
the end, which now they look for through patience. For ' 
admirably, when he had said, Thousands of men rejoicing: 
immediately he added. The Lord is in them. That we may 
not wonder why they rejoice, The Lord is in them. For Acts 14, 
through many tribulations we must needs enter into the * 
kingdom of God, but. The Lord is in them. Therefore even 2 Cor. 6, 
if they are as it were sorrowful, yet alway rejoicing, though ^^" 
not now in that same end, to which they have not yet come, 
yet in hope they are rejoicing, and in tribulation patient : 
for. The Lord is in them, in Sina in the holy jjlace. In the 
interpretations of Hebrew namess we find Sina interpreted 
commandment : and some other interpretations it has, but I 
think this to be more agreeable to the present passage. For 
giving a reason why those thousands rejoice, whereof the 
Chariot of God doth consist, The Lord, he sailh, is in them, 
in Sina in the holy jjlace: that is, the Lord is in them, in 
the commandment; which commandment is holy, as saith 
the Apostle : Therefore the law indeed is holy, and the com- Rom. 7 
mandment is holy, and just, and good. But what would the ^^• 

VOL. III. z 



338 Our Lord, ascending, gave gifts, and received in His Body. 

rsAi.M commandment profit, unless the Lord were there, of Whom 
HY^ it is said, For God it is that worketh in you both to will and 

Philip. "^ 

2, 13, to work according to good will? For commandment without 

2Cor.3, j^i^p Lord's aid is letter killing. For, the Law entered in, that 

Rom. 5, there might abound transgression. But because the fulness 

Rom. 13 ^f ^^^^ Laiv is Love, therefore through Love the Law is 

10. fulfilled, not through fear. For the Love of God hath been 

5. " ' ' shed abroad in our hearts through the Huly Spirit, Which 

hath been given to us. Therefore these thousands do 

rejoice. For they do the righteousness of the Law so far 

as they are aided by the Spirit of Grace : for the Lord is in 

them, in Sina in the holy place. 

25. In the next place, turning his address to the Lord 
Himself, (ver. 18.) Thou hast gone up, he saith, 07i high, 
Thou hast led captivity captive. Thou hast received gifts in 
men. Of this the Apostle thus maketh mention, thus ex- 
Eph. 4, poundeth in speaking of the Lord Christ : But unto each 
one of us, he saith, is given grace after the measure of the 
giving of Christ : for which cause he saith, He hath gone 
up on high. He hath led captive captivity, He hath given 
gifts to men. But that He hath gone up, what is it, hut 
that also He hath gone down iyito the lower parts of the earth ? 
He that hath gone down is the Same also that hath gone up 
above all Heavens, that He might fulfil all things. To Christ 
therefore without doubt hath been said, Thou hast gone up 
on high, TJiou hast led captivity captive. Thou hast received 
gifts in men. And let it not move us that the Apostle making 
mention of that same testimony saith not, Thou hast received 
giftsin men ; but, He hath given gifts unto men. For he with 
Apostolic authority hath spoken thus according to the faith 
that the Son is God with the Father. For in respect of this 
He hath given gifts to men, sending to them the Holy Spirit, 
Which is the Spirit of the Father and of the Son. But foras- 
much as the self-same^ Christ is understood in His Body 
which is the Church, wherefore also His members are His 
1 Cor. saints and believers, whence to them is said. But ye are the 
12, 27. ^oc?y of Christ, and the members, doubtless He hath Himself 
also received gifts in men. Now Christ hath gone up on 
Mnrkl6,high, and sitteth at the right hand of the Father: but unless 
He were here also on the earth, He would not thence have 



' Captivity led captive,* the enemy or his prisoners. 339 

cried, Saul, Saul, why persfcuiest thou Me? When the Same Ver. 
saith Himself, Inasmuch as to one of My least ye have done ' ' 
it, to Me ye have done it : why do we doubt that He receiveth 4. 
in His members, the gifts which the members of Him re- 4,^^ ' ' 
ceive ? 

26. But what is, Thou hast led captivity captive? Is it 
because He hath conquered death, which was holding captive 
those over whom it reigned ? Or hath he called men them- 
selves captivity, who were being held captive under the 
devil ? Which thing's mystery even the title of that Psalm 

doth contain, to \vit, ivhen the house was beina builded a/Ze-r see Title 
. . . . Ps. 95. 

the captivity : that is, the Church after the coming in of the Vuig. " 

Gentiles. Calling therefore those very men who were being 
held captive a captivity, as when ' the service '' is spoken of militia 
there are understood those that serve also, that same cap- 
tivity he saith by Christ hath been led caj)tive. For why 
should not captivity be happy, if even for a good purpose 
men may be caught ? Whence to Peter hath been said. From Luke 5, 
henceforth thou shall catch men. Led captive therefore they * 
are because caught, and caught because subjugated, being 
sent under that gentle yoke, being delivered from sin whereof Mat.ii, 
they were servants, and being made servants of righteousness Ro^_ g 
whereof they were children. Whence also He is Himself in ^^• 
them. That hath given gifts to men, and hath received gifts 
in men. And thus in that captivity, in that servitude, in 
that chariot, under that yoke, there are not thousands of men 
lamenting, but thousands of men rejoicing. For the Lord v. 17. 
is in them, in Sina, in the holy place. With which sense 
agreeth another interpretation also, whereby Sina is inter- 
preted ' measure.' For concerning these gifts of spiritual 
gladness the Apostle speaking, saith, that whereof I have 
made mention above, but to each one of us hath been given EY>h, 4, 
grace after the measure of the giving of Christ. And in the '' 
next place there followeth that which here also follovveth : 
Wherefore he saith, He hath gone up on high. He hath led^^h.'i, 
captivity captive. He hath given gifts to men : which here is, * 
Thou hast received gifts in men. What is more unanimous 
than this and that truth ? What more evident ? 

27. But what next doth he adjoin ? (Ver. 18.) For they that 
believe not to dwell: or, as some copies have, For not believing 

z2 



340 Dwellbuj in God by faith. His daily praise. 

Psalm to dwell: for what else are men not believing, but they that 
— ^^' believe not? To whom this hath been said, is not easy to 
perceive. For as though a reason were being given of the 
above words, when it had been said, Thou hast led captivity 
captive f Thou hast received gifts in 7nen : there hath been added 
in continuation, for they that believe not to dwell, tliat is, not 
believing that they should dwell. What is this ? Of whom 
saith he this? Did that captivity, before it passed into a 
good captivity, shew whence it was an evil captivity ? For 
through not believing they were possessed by the enemy, 
Eph. 2, tJuit workelh in the .sons of unbelief: among whom ye were 
sometime, while ye were living among them. By the gifts 
therefore of His grace. He that hath received gifts in men, 
hath led captive that captivity. For they believed not that 
they should dwell. For faith hath thence delivered them, 
in order that now believing they may dwell in the House of 
God, even they too becoming the House of God, and the 
Chariot of God, consisting of thousands of men rejoicing. 

'28. Whence he that was singing of these things, in the 
Spirit foreseeing then), even he too being fulfilled with joy 
> eruc- hath burst forth ' a hymn, saying, Tlte Lord God is blessed, 
*^^^' (ver. 19.) blessed is tlte Lord God from day unto day. Which 
some copies have, by day daily, because the Greeks have it 
thus, Yi[xsgav xa9' ri[ji,sgixv : which more exactly would be 
expressed by, by day daily. Which expression I think 
signifieth the same as that which hath been said, to w'\t,fro?n 
day unto day. For daily this He doeth even unto the end, 
He leadeth captive ca])livity, receiving gifts in men. 

29. And because He leadeth that chariot unto the end. 
He continue th and saith, A prosperous journey there shall 
make for us the God of our healths, (ver. 20.) our God, the 
God of making men safe. Highly is grace here com- 
mended. For who would be safe, unless He Himself should 
make whole ? But that it might not occur to the mind, Why 
then do we die, if through His grace we have been njade 
safe? immediately he added below, and the Lordosis the out- 
going of death : as though he were saying, Why are thou 
indignant, O lot of humanity, that thou hast the outgoing of 
death ? Even thy Lord's outgoing was no other than that of 
death. Rather therefore be comforted than be indignant: 



Death accepted by Our Lord. Heads of the enemy broken. 341 

for even the Lord's is the outgoing of death. For by hope Ver. 
we have been saved: but if that which ive see not we horn — '- — '- 
ybr, through patience we wait for it. Patiently therefore 24. 
even death itself let us suflTer, by the example of Him, who 
though by no sin He was debtor to death, and was the Lord, 
from Whom no one could take away life, but Himself laid it 
down of Himself, yet had Himself the outgoing of death. 

•30, Ver. 21. Nevertheless, God shall break in pieces the 
heads of His enemies, the scalp of hair of men umlhing on 
in their transgressions: that is, too much exalting themselves, 
being too proud in their transgressions: wherein at least they 
ought to be humble, saying, Lord, be Thon merciful to me Luteis, 
a sinner. But He shall break in pieces their heads : for he 
that exalteth himself shall be humbled. And thus though T-'»tei8, 

14. 

even of the Lord be the outgoing of death : nevertheless the 
same Lord, because He was God, and died after the flesh of 
His own will, not of necessity, shalP break in pieces the heads ' O^f. 
of His enemies: not only of those who mocked and crucified' aid' 
Him, and wagged their heads, and said, Lf Son of God He^^^'^'^y 
is, let Him come down from the Cross; but also of all men 
lifting up themselves against His doctrine, and deriding His 
death as though it were of a man. For that very same One Mat.27, 

. 42. 

of Whom hath been said, Others He saved. Himself He can- 
not save, is the God of our healths, and is the God of saving 
men: but for an example of humility and of patience, and to 
efface the handwriting of our sins, He even willed that the 
outgoing of death should be His own, that we might not fear 
that death, but rather this from which He hath delivered us 
through that. Nevertheless, though mocked and dead, He 
shall break- in pieces the heads of His enemies, of whom He^ Oxf. 
saith. Raise Thou me up, and I shall render to them:i^^^^Y. 
whether it be good things for evil things, while to Himself^'^' 

. . Ps. 41 

He subdueth the heads of them believing, or whether justio. ' 
things for unjust things, while He punisheth the heads of 
them proud. For in either way are shattered and broken 
the heads of enemies, when from pride they are thrown down, 
whether by humility being amended, or whether unto the 
lowest depths of hell being hurled. 

31. Ver. 22. The L^ord hath said, Out of Basan L will he 
turned: or, as some copies have. Out of Basan I will turn. 



3J2 God turns to us when we acknowledge our need. 

Psalm For lie turnetl) that we may be safe, of Whom above hath 

— ~ — ^been said, God of our healths, and God of saving men. For 

Ps. 80, to Him elsewhere also is said, O God of virtues, turn Thou 
its, and shew Thi/ face, and safe ue shall be. Also in another 

Ps. 85, place, Turn ns, God of our healths. Ent he hath said, 
Out of Basan J will turn. Basan is interpreted confusion. 
What is then, I will turn out of confusion, but that there is 
confounded because of his sins, he that is ])raying of the 
mercy of God that they may be put away ? Thence it is 

LulcelS, that the Publican dared not even to lift up his eyes to 
Heaven : so, on considering himself, was he confounded ; 

ib. 14. but he went down justified, because the Lord hath said, Out 
of Basan I will turn. Basan is also interpreted drought: and 
rightly the Lord is understood to turn out of drought, that 
is, out of scarcity. For they that think themselves to be in 
plenty, though they be famished ; and full, though they be 

Matt. 5, altogether empty; are not turned. For, blessed they that 
hunger and thirst for righteousness, for the same shall be 
filled. Out of that drought the Lord doth turn them : for 

Ps. 143, concerning a dry soul to Him is said, I have stretched out 

^' my hands to Thee, my soul is like earth without water to 

Thee. That also which other copies have, Out of Basan I 
ivill be turned, hath not an impertinent sense. For there 

Zech. i,is turned to us even He Himself Who saith, Turn ye to Me, 
and I H ill he turned to you : and He will not, if we be 

Ps. 51, without confusion, where our sin is before us alway ; and if 
we be without drought, whereby we long for the rain of Him 

V. 9. that hath set apart a voluntary rain for His inheritance. 
For by drought it hath been made weak, but He being turned 

Ps. 71, hath made it perfect Himself, to Whom is sa.\d, And being 
turned Thou hast made me alive. The Lord, then, hath 
said, Out of Basan I nil I turn, uill turn trnto the deep of 
the sea. If, Luill turn, why, unto the deep of the sea ? Unto 
Himself indeed the Lord turneth, when savingly He turnetb, 
and He is not surely Himself the deep of the sea. Doth 
perchance the Latin expression deceive us, and hath there 
been put unto the deep, for a translation of what signifieth 
deeply? For He dolh not turn Plimself: but He turneth 
those that in the deep of this world lie sunk down with 
the weight of sins, in that place where one that is turned 



Foot of Christ stained icith blood in His Martyrs. 343 

sailli, From the depths I have cried to Thee, O Lord. But if "^er. 
it is not, I will turn., but, / will he turned unto the deep of y^ ' ■ 
the sea ; our Lord is understood to have said, how by His l. 
own mercy He was turned even unto the deep of the sea, 
to deliver even those that were sinners in most desperate 
case. Though in one Greek copy I have found, not, unto the 
deep, but, in the depths, that is, sv /3u9o»j : vvliich strengtheneth 
the former sense, because even there God turneth to Himself 
men crying from the depths. And even if He be under- 
stood Himself there to be turned, to deliver such sort also, 
it is not beside the purpose: and so then He turneth, or 
else to deliver them is so turned, that His foot is stained 
in blood. Which to the Lord Himself the Prophet speaketh: 
(ver. 23.) That Thy foot may be stained in blood: that is, in 
order that they themselves who are turned to Thee, or to 
deliver whom Thou art turned, though in the deep of the sea 
by the burden of iniquity they may have been sunk, may 
make so great proficiency by Thy Grace, (for where there 
hath abounded sin, there hath superabounded grace,) that Rom. 6, 
they may become Thy foot among Thy members, to preach ^^' 
Thy Gospel, and for Thy name's sake drawing out a long 
martyrdom, even unto blood they may contend. For thus, 
as I judge, more meetly is perceived His foot stained in 
blood. 

32. Lastly, he addeth. The tongue of Thy dogs out of enemies 
by Himself, calling those very same that had been about to 
strive for the faith of the Gospel, even dogs, as though 
barking for their Lord. Not those dogs, whereof saith the 
Apostle, Beware of dogs : but those that eat of the crumbs Philip, 
which fall from the table of their masters. For having con-^'^' 
fessed this, the woman of Canaan merited to hear, O wonan, Mat.is, 
great is thy faith, be it done to thee as thou wilt. Dogs ^^* ^^' 
commendable, not abominable ; observing fidelity towards 
their master, and before his house barking against enemies. 
Not only of dogs he hath said, but of Thy dogs: nor are their 
teeth praised, but their tongue is: for it was not indeed to no 
purpose, not without a great mystery, that Gedeon was bidden 
to lead those alone, who should lap the water of the riverjudg. 7, 
like dogs; and of such sort not more than three hundred^- 
among so great a multitude were found. In which number 



344 His enemies made Hisfaithfid ' dogs' His coming in the Clouds, 

Psalm is the sign of the Cross because of the letter T, which in the 
^^-- Greek numeral characters signifieth three hundred. Of such 
Ps. 59, dogs in another Psalm also is said, They shall be turned at 
even, and hunger they shall suffer as dogs. For even some 
Isa. 56, dogs have been reproved by the Prophet Isaiah, not because 
ihey were dogs, but because they knew not how to bark, 
and loved to sleep. In which place indeed he hath shewn, 
that if they had watched and barked for their Lord, they 
would have been praiseworthy dogs : just as they are praised, 
of whom is said, The tongue of Thy dogs. And these never- 
theless the Prophet hath foretold out of enemies are to be, 
by means of that turning, whereof alone he was speaking. 
Ps. 59, Whence also saith that Psalm, 77iey shall be turned at even, 
and hunger they shall suffer as dogs. In the next place, as 
though to men inquiring whence they should have this so 
great good, as that they should become dogs of Him, Whose 
enemies they had been : it is replied, /rom Himself. For 
thus we read, The tongue of TJiy dogs out of enemies" from 
Himself. By His own love indeed, by His own mercy, by 
His own grace. For when would they have that power of 

Bom. 5, themselves ? For when enemies we were, we were reconciled 
10. . 

to God. through the death of His Son : to this end even the 

Lord's portion hath been the outgoing of death. 

.33. Vei". 24. There have been seen Thy steps, God. 

The steps are those wherewith Thou hast come through the 

world, as though in that chariot Thou wast going to traverse 

the round world ; which chariot of clouds He intimateth to 

be His holy and faithful ones in the Gospel, where He saith, 

?*^^i^ From this ii?iie^ ye shall see the Son of 3Ian coming in the 
13,26. . -^ . "^ . -^ 

1 a modo clouds. Leaving out that coming wherein He shall be Judge 

^ ]""■ of quick and dead. From this time, He saith, ye shall see the 
Son of 3Ian coming in clouds. These Thy steps have been 
seen, that is, have been manifested, by the revealing the 
grace of the New Testament. Whence hath been said, 

Rom. 10, fjQid beautiful are the feet of them that proclaim peace, 
that proclaim good things .' For this grace and those steps 
were lying hid in the Old Testament : but when there came 

^**'' ^> the fulness of time, and it pleased God to reveal His Son, 

* ' e.r itiimicis.^ He takes it as he uses ' ex Christiano,' in the Appendix to 
the exposition of Ps. 62. 



that is, in His Saints. ' Timbrels,'' thejlesh chastened. 345 

that He might be proclaimed among the Gentiles, there were Ver^ 
seen Thy steps, O God: the steps of my God, of Ihe^ King ^-^~ 
Who is in the holy place. In what holy place, save in His Mss. 
Temple? For the Temple of God is holy, he saith, which ye ^ ^^^^ 
are. 3' '7. 

34. But in order that those steps might be seen, (ver. 25.) 
there went before princes conjoined iviih men psalining, in 
the midst of damsels players on timbrels. The princes are 
the Apostles : for they went before, that the peoples might 
come in multitudes. They went before proclaiming the New 
Testament : conjoined loith men psalming, by whose good 
works that were even visible, as it were with instruments of 
praise, God was glorified. But those same princes are in the 
midst of damsels players on timbrels, to wit, in an honourable 
ministry: for thus in the midst are ministers set over new 
Churches ; for this is damsels: with flesh subdued praising 
God ; for this is players on timbrels, because timbrels are 
made of skin dried and stretched. 

35. Therefore, that no one should take these words in a 
carnal sense, and by these words should conceive in his mind 
certain choral bands of wantonness, he continueth and saith, 
(ver. 26.) In the Churches bless ye the Lord : as though he 
were saying, wherefore, when ye hear of damsels, players on 
timbrels, do ye think of wanton pleasures? In the Churches 
bless ye the Lord. For the Churches are pointed out to you 
by this mystic intimation : the Churches are the damsels, 
with new grace decked : the Churches are the players on the 
timbrels, with chastened flesh being spiritually tuneful. In 
the Churches, then, bless ye the Lord God from the wells of 
Israel. For from thence He first chose those whom He 
made wells. For from thence were chosen the Apostles; 

and they first heard, " He that shall have drunk of the water ^^hn 4, 
that I shall give him, shall never thirst, but there shall be 
made in him a well of water springing unto life ever lasting f^ 

36. Ver. 27. There is Benjamin the younger in a trance. 
There is Paul the last of the Apostles, who saith, For even Philip. 
lam an Israelite, out of the seed of Abraham, out of the^' ' 
tribe of Bejamin. But evidently iti a trance, all men being ^ 
amazed at a miracle so great as that of his calling. For a ' 
trance is the mind's going out: which thing sometimes chanccth 



346 Tlie Apostles Prmces. Certain Tribes tohy named. 

PsAi.M through fear; but sometimes through some revelation, the 
^^'^'"' mind suffering separation from the corporal senses, in order 
i that that which is to be represented may be represented to 
the spirit. Whence even thus may be understood that which 
here hath been written, namely, in a trance; for when to 
' Oxf. that persecutor there had been said^ from Heaven, Saul, 
i ^l'^.^^ Saul, why perseciitest thou 3Ie: there being taken from him 
aboa to the hght of the eyes of flesh, he made answer to the Lord, 
Acts 9, Whom in spirit he saw, but they that were with him heard 
'*• the voice of him replying, though seeing no one to whom he 

was speaking. Here also the trance may be understood to 
be that one of his, whereof he himself speaking, saith, that 
2 Cor. he knew a man caught up even unto the third Heaven ; but 
' ■ whether in the body, or whether out of the body, he knew 
not : but that he being caught up into Paradise, heard in- 
effable words, which it was not lawful for a man to speak. 

Princes of Juda the leaders of them, princes of Zahulon, 
princes of Nephthalim. Since he is indicating the Apostles 
as princes, wherein is even Benjamin tlie younger in a trance^ 
in which words that Paul is indicated no one doubteth ; or 
when under the name of princes there are indicated in the 
Churches all men excelling and most worthy of imitation: 
what mean these names of the tribes of Israel ? For if only 
of Juda mention were made, because the kings had been 
out of the same tribe as also the Lord Christ after the flesh ; 
then by this tribe we should suppose that there were figured 
the princes also of the New Testament : but when he addeth, 
princes of Zahulon, princes of Nephthalim, some one per- 
chance would say, that out of these tribes the Apostles were, 
but out of others they were not. Which interpretation though 
I see not how it may be proved, yet because I find not how 
it may be refuted, and since in this passage the princes of 
Churches, and the leaders of those, who in the Churches do 
bless God, I see to be commended ; not without reason even 
of this sense I approve : but the light which shineth forth out 
of the translation of the very names doth more please me. For 
the names are Hebrew : whereof Juda is said to be interpreted 
confession, Zabulon habitation of strength, Nephthalim my 
enlargement. All which words do intimate to us the most 
proper princes of the Church, worthy of their leadership, 



Christian virtues typified. Offerings of Kings. 347 

worthy of imitation, worthy of honours. For the Martyrs in Vf.r. 
the Churches hold the highest place, and by the crown of "^" " ' 



holy worth they do excel. But however in martyrdom the 
first thing is confession, and for this is next put on strength 
to endure whatsoever shall have chanced ; then after all things 
have been endured, straits being ended, breadth followeth in 
reward. It may also thus be understood ; that whereas the 
Apostle chiefly commendeth these three things, faith, hope, i Cor. 
love ; confession is in faith, strength in hope, breadth in love, ijo'mjo 
For of faith the substance is, that with the heart men believe '^^• 
unto righteousness, but with the mouth confession be made 
unto salvation. But in suff'erings of tribulations the thing 
itself is sorrowful, but the hope is strong. For, if tJuit ichich^o'"^-^, 
we see not tee hope for, through patience tue wait for it. 
But breadth the shedding abroad of love in the heart doth 
give. For love perfected casteth out fear : which fear hath i Jofm 
^orme;^/, because of the straits of the soul. The princes then ' 
of Juda are the leaders of them : that in the Churches do 
bless the Lord. The princes of Zabulon^ the princes of 
Nephthalim : princes of confession, of strength, of breadth ; 
princes of faith, of hope, of love. 

37. Ver. 28. Command, God, Thy Virtue. For oneisiCor.s, 
our Lord Jesus Christ, through V/hom are all things, and we 

in Him, of Whom we read that He is the Virtue of God and'^ Cor.i, 

24. 

the Wisdom of God. But how doth God command His 
Christ, save while He commendeth Him? For Ood commend-^"^- ^> 

8. 

eth His love in us, in that ithile yet tve icere sinners, for wsRom. 8, 
Christ died. " How hath He not also with Him given to iis'^^' 
all things?" Command, God, Thy Virtue: confirm, O 
God, that ivhich Thou hast wrought in us. Command by 
teaching, confirm by aiding. 

38. Ver. 29. From Thy Te7nple in Jerusalem, to Thee 
kings shall offer presents. From Thy Temple in Jerusalem, Gal. i, 
which is our free mother, because the same also is Thy holy 
Temple : from that Temple then, to Thee kings shall offer 
presents. Whatever kings be understood, whether kings of 

the eardi, or whether those whom " He that is above the 
heavens distinguishelh over the dove silvered;" to Thee kings i Oxf. 
shall offer presents. And what presents are so acceptable ' J^^'^^- 
as the sacrifices of praise ? But there is a noise against this accej.ta- 

blethan' 



348 Beasts of the ca7ie, men that err in Holy Scripture. 

PsAi.M praise, from men bearing the name of Christian, and having 
~ '- diverse opinions. Be there done that which followeth, 

'or * ' 

^pen: (ver. 30.) Rebuke Thou the beasts of the cane^. For both 
cane) l^^-'^sts ihcy are, since by not underslandinfi^ they do hnrt : 
calatni and beasts of the cane tliey are, since the sense of the 
Scriptures they wrest according to their own misapprehension. 
For in the cane the Scriptures are as reasonably perceived, 
as language in tougiie, according to the mode of expression 
whereby the Hebrew or the Greek or the Latin tongue is 
spoken of, or the like ; that is to say, by the efficient cause 
the thing which is being effected is implied. Now it is 
usual in the Latin language for writing to be called style, 
because with the stilus it is done: so then cane also, because 
2 Pet. 3, with a cane it is done. The Apostle Peter saith, that men 
unlearned and unstable do wrest the Scriptures to their own 
proper destruclion: these are the beasts of the cane, whereof 
liere is said. Rebuke Thou the beasts of the cane. 
See on 39. Concerning these also is that which followeth, The 
§. 21. ' congregation of bulls amid the cotes of the peoples, in order 
that there may be excluded they thai have been tried tvith silver. 
Calling them bulls because of the pride of a stiff and un- 
tamed neck : for he is referring to heretics. But by the coics 
of the peoples, I think souls easily led astray must be under- 
stood, because easily they follow these bulls. For they 
lead not astray entire peoples, among whom are men grave 
P8. 35, and stable; whence halh been written, In a people grave 1 
will praise Thee: but only the cows which they may have 
2 Tim. found among those peoples. For of these are they that steal 
' ■ '■ into houses, and lead captive silly women laden with sins, who 
are led with divers lusts, alvcay learning, and at the knowledge 
of the truth never arriving. But that which the same Apostle 
1 Cor. saith. There must also be heresies, in order that those that are 
^^' '^* approved may be made manifest among you: doth also follow 
here, in order that there may be excluded they that have been 
tried with silver, that is, they that have been proved with the 
Ps.12,6. sayings of God. For, The sayings of the Lord are chaste 
sayings, silver tried ivith thefre of earth. For, may be excluded, 
halh been said, meaning, may ap})ear, may stand forth : as 
he saith, may be made manifest. Whence also, in the art of 
the silversmith, they are called exclusores, who out of tlie 



Bulls, i. e. proud leaders, draw forth approved men. 349 

shapelessness of the lump are skilled to mould the form of Ver. 

a vessel. For many meanings of the holy Scriptures are '— 

concealed, and are known only to a few of singular intelligence, 
and are never vindicated so suitably and acceptably as when 
our diligence to make answer to heretics constraineth us. 
For then even they that neglect the pursuits of learning, 
shaking off their slumber, are stirred up to a diligent hearing, 
in order that their opponents may be refuted. In a word, 
how many senses of holy Scriptures concerning Christ as 
God have been vindicated against Photinus, how many con- 
cerning Christ as man against Manichaeus, how many con- 
cerning the Trinity against Sabellius, how many concerning 
the Unity of the Trinity against Arians, Eunomians, Mace- 
donians .? How many concerning the Catholic Church in 
the whole world spread abroad, and concerning the inter- 
mixture of evil men even unto the end of the world, how 
they are no hindrance to good men in the partaking of the 
Sacraments thereof, against Donatists, and Luciferians. and 
others, whoever they be, that with like error dissent from the 
truth : how many against the rest of heretics, whom to enu- 
merate or mention were too long a task, and for the present 
work unnecessary? Nevertheless, of these senses the tried 
vindicators either entirely would have lain concealed, or 
would not have been so eminent, as the contradictions of 
proud men have made them to be, of whom, as it were bulls, 
that is, not subject to the peaceful and gentle yoke of dis- 
cipline, the Apostle maketh mention, in the place where he 
hath said that such an one must be chosen for the Episcopate 

as is able to exhort in sound doctrine and to convince Me Tit- i, 

y. 10. 
gaiiisayers. For there are many unndy ; these are bulls with 

uplifted neck, impatient of plough and yoke: vain-talkers and 
leaders astray of minds ; which minds this Psalm hath inti- 
mated under the name of cows. To this useful purpose then 
Divine Providence alloweth bulls to be gathered together 
among the cows of the people, namely, in order that there 
may be excluded, that is, in order that there may stand forth, 
they that have been tried with silver. For to this end heresies 
are suffered to be, in order that approved men may be made 
manifest. Although thus also it may be understood, the 
congregation of bulls is among the cows of the peoples, in 



350 Chris£s ambassadors make men submit before He come. 

Psalm Order that fioin those cows may be excluded they that have 

'. been tried with silver. For tliis purpose the heretical teachers 

have, from the ears of the souls whom they endeavour to lead 
astray, to exclude them, that is, separate them, that have 
been tried with silver, that is, them that are meet to teach 
the sayings of the Lord. But whether this be the sense of 
that word, or whether it be that; there followeth, scatter 
Thou the nations vjhich woidd have war. For not amendment 
but strife they pursue. This thing then he doth prophesy, 
that they should rather be scattered themselves, that will not 
be amended, that aim to scatter the flock of Christ. But 
nations he hath called them, not because of generations of 
kindreds, but because of divers kinds of sects, wherein a chain 
of succession doth confirm the error. 

40. Ver. 31. There shall come ambassadors out of Eyijpt, 
Ethiopia shall prevent the hands of Him. Under the name 
of Effypt or of Ethiopia, he hath signified the faith of all 
nations, from a part the whole : calling the preachers of 

2 Cor. P,veconciliation ainbassadors. For Christ, he saith, we have 
'^^' an embassy, God as it loerc exhorting through us: we beseech 
you for Clirist to be reconciled to God. Not then of the 
Israelites alone, whence the Apostles wei'e chosen, but also 
from the rest of the nations that there should be preachers of 
Christian peace, in this manner hath been mystically prophe- 
sied. But by that which he saith, sliall prevent the hands 
of Him, he saith this, shall prevent the vengeance of Him : 
to wit, by turning to Ilim, in order that their sins may 
be forgiven, lest by continuing sinners they be punished. 
Ps. 95, Which thing also in another Psalm is said, Let us come 
I p^ _ before ' the face of Him in confession. As by hands he 
vent signifieth vengeance, so by face, revelation and presence, 
which will be in the Judgment. Because then, by Egypt and 
Ethiopia he hath signified the nations of the whole world ; 
immediately he hath subjoined, to God {are) the kingdoms 
of the earth. Not to Sabellius, not to Arius, not to Donatus, 
not to the rest of the bulls stiff-necked, but, to God {are) 
the kingdoms of the earth. 

41. But the greater number of Latin copies, and especially 
the Greek, have the verses so punctuated, that there is not 
one verse in these words, to God the kingdoms of the earth, 



Converts go he/ore their own ivorks with faith. 351 

but, to God, is at the end of the former verse, and so there is Ver. 

said, Ethioj^la shall come before the hands of her to God, and ^^' — 

then there followeth in another verse, (ver. 32.) Kingdoms of 

the earth, sing ye to God, psalm ye to the Lord, By which 

punctuation, doubtless to be preferred b}- the agreement of 

many copies, and those deserving of credit, there seemeth to 

me to be imphed faith which prccedeth works : becatise 

without the merits of good works through faith the ungodly 

is justified, just as the Apostle saith, To one believing in Him'Rom.4, 

that justifieth the imgod'y, his faith is counted for righteousness : ^' 

in order that afterwards faith itself through love may begin to 

work. For those alone are to be called good works, \shich Good 

ai'e done through love of God. But these faith must needs ° 

go before, so that from thence these may begin, not from 

these this: for no one worketh through love of God, except 

he first believe in God. This is faith whereof is said, For Ga\.5,Q. 

in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any tiling, nor 

uncircumcision, but faith which through love worketh. This is 

faith, whereof to the Church Herself is said in the Song of 

Songs, lliou shall come and shalt pass hence from the beginning Cant. 4, 

offaith^. For She hath come^ like the chariot of God ini^y 

thousands of men rejoicing, having a prosperous course, and' The 

She hath passed over from this world to the Father: in oxiS.Q\ Xnana' 

that there may come to pass in Her that which the Bride- ^^^f- 

. Mss. 

groom Himself saith. Who hath passed hence from this 'shall 

world to the Father, / will that where I am, these also may be f °'J^^n 

with Me: but from the beginning of faith. Because then in pass.' 

order that good works may follow, faith doth precede ; and j ° ' 

there are not any good works, save those which follow faith pre- Jo^miT, 

ceding: nothing else seemeth to have been meant in, Ethiopia 

shall coyne before the hands of her to God, but, Ethiopia shall 

believe in God. For thus she shall come before the hands of 

her, that is, the works of her. Of whom, except of Ethiopia 

herself? For this in the Greek is not ambiguous: for the 

word of her^ \\\exe in the feminine gender most clearly ^Lat. 

hath been put down. And thus nothing else hath been said^^'J^^^ 

than Ethiopia shall come before her hands to God, that \%,ot her 

by believing in God she shall come before her works. For, 

/ judge, saith the Apostle, that a man is justified through Rom. 3, 

faith without the works of the Law. Is He God of the Jews ' ''^' 



352 Ifesurrection and Ascension of Christ. 

Psalm 0///// ? Is He not also of the Genfiles? So tlien Ethiopia, 
3i^ZiiL which sccmetli to be the utmost liiuit of the Gentiles, is 
justified through faith, without llie works of the Law. For, 
in order to be justified, she doth not glory of the works of 
the Law, nor setteth her merits l)efore faith, but by faith she 
Cometh before her own works. The greater number of copies 
indeed have not hands, but hand: which hath the same 
force, seeing that instead of works it is put. But I should 
have preferred that the liatin interpreters had thus translated 
it : Ethiopia shall come before her oirn hands, or, her hand, to 
God: for this would be more plain than what now hath been 
' or, o/ sa.\d, of her^ : and with no injury to truth this might have 
been done, because in the Greek language that pronoun 
may be understood to signify not only of her, but also her 
own, singular or plural : her ov:n, I mean, singular, '\i hand ; 
but her own, plural, if hands. For the expression in Greek, 
p^^sT^a avT^?, which most copies have, both of hand of her and 
her own hand may he understood: but that which is un- 
common in the Greek copies, x^^^"-^ "WT^f, by both hands of 
^^iias her and her own^ hands, in Latin may be expressed. 

42. Henceforward, as if through prophecy all things had 

been discoursed of which now we see fulfilled, he exhorteth 

to the praise of Christ, and next He foretelleth His future 

Advent. Kingdoins of earth, sing ye to God, psalm ye to 

the Lord : psalm ye to Qod, (ver. 33.) Who hath ascended 

above the Heaven of Heavens to the East. Or, as some copies 

have it, Who hath ascended above the Heaven of Heaven to 

the East. In these words he perceiveth not Christ, who 

believeth not His Resurrection and Ascension. But hath not 

to the East, which he hath added, expressed the ver}' spot ; 

since in the quarters of the East is where He rose again, 

and whence He ascended } Therefore above the Heaven of 

Heaven He sitteth at the right hand of the Father. This is 

Ephes. what the Apostle saith, the Same is He that hath ascended 

4> ^^' above all Heavens. For what of Heavens doth remain after 

the Heaven of Heaven? Which also we may call the 

Gen. 1, Heavens of Heavens, just as He hath called the firmament 

^' Heaven : which Heaven, however, even as Heavens we read 

Ps. 148 of, iu the place where there is written, and let the waters 

4. which arc above the Heavens praise the name of the Lord. 



Saints the ' clonds' with which Christ shall come. 353 

And forasmuch as from thence He is to come, to judge Vee^ 
quick and dead, observe what followeth : behold. He *^^'^^^XctsT7 
give His voice, the voice of power '^. He that like alambii. 
before the shearer of Him was without voice, behold «/'a/^isa. 53, 
give His voice, and not the voice of weakness, as though to 7. 
be judged ; but the voice of power, as though going to judge. 
For God shall not be hidden, as before, and in the judgment 
of men not opening His mouth ; but God shall come manifest, Ps. 50, 
our God, and He shall not be silent. Why do ye despair, ye 
unbelieving men ? Why do ye mock ? What saith the evil 
servant? My Lord delayelh to come. Behold, He shall give ^^^^el2, 
His voice, the voice of power. 

43. Ver, 34. Give ye glory to God, above Israelis the magni- 
ficence of Him. Of whom saith the Apostle, Upon the Israel of Ga.1. 6, 

God. For 7iot all that are out of Israel, are Israelites : for there j^^j^^ g^ 
is also an Israel after the flesh. Whence he saith, See ye Israel^- ^^^ 
after the flesh. For not they that are sons of the flesh, are sons ip^ is. 
of God, but sons of promise are counted for a seed. Therefore ^ "^' ®' 
at that time when without any intermixture of evil men His 
people shall be, like a heap purged by the fan, like Israel in Matt, 3, 
whom guile is not, then most preeminent above Israel ^^^^ ^ 
shall be the magnificence of Him: and the virtue of Him in 47. 
the clouds. For not alone He shall come to judgment, but 
with the elders of His people : to whom He hath promised ls.3,i4. 
that they shall sit upon thrones to judge, who even shall ^|^*-^^' 
judge angels. These be the clouds. i Cor.6, 

44. Lastly, lest of any thing else the clouds be understood, 
he hath in continuation added, (ver. 35.) Wonderful is God in 
His saints, the God of Israel. For at that time even most 
truly and most fully there shall be fulfilled the name Israel 
itself, which is one 'seeing God:' for we shall see Him as i John 
He is. He Himself shall give virtue'^ and strength to Iliso^^^.' 
people, blessed be God: to His people now frail and weak, power 
For ive have this treasure in earthen vessels. But then by a 2 Cor.4, 
most glorious changing even of our bodies, He Himself shall 

give virtue and strength to His people. For this body is sown 1 Cor. 
in weakness, shall rise in virtue. He Himself then shall give ' 
the virtue which in His own flesh He hath sent before, whereof 
the Apostle saith, the power of His Resurrection. But Philip, 

3 10 

strength whereby shall be destroyed the enemy death. Now I'cor. 
VOL. III. A a 1^ 26- 



354 Glory of the Church foretold. Use of trials. 

Psalm then of this long and difficultly understood Psalm we have at 
^^^^' length by His own aid made an end. Blessed he God. Amen. 



lat. psalm LXIX. 

i,xviir. 

EXPOSITION. 



Sermon I. on (he first part of the above Psalm. 

i. We have been born into this world, and added to the 
Mat.13, people of God, at that period wherein already the herb from 
Luke^s ^ grain of mustard seed hath spread out its branches; wherein 
13.21. already the leaven, which at first was contemptible, hath 
Gen. 9, leavened three measures, that is, the whole round world 
Matt. 8, repeopled by the three sons of Noe : for from East and West 
and North and South shall come they that shall sit down 
with the Patriarchs, while those shall have been driven 
without, that have been born of their flesh and have not 
imitated their faith. Unto this glory then of Christ's Church 
lBai.54,our eyes we have opened; and that barren one, for whom joy 
Gal. 4 ^^^ proclaimed and foretold, because she was to have more 
27. sons than she that had the husband, her we have found to be 
such an one as hath forgotten the reproaches and infamy of 
her widowhood: and so we may perhaps wonder when we 
chance to read in any j^rophecy the words of Christ's humili- 
ation, or our own. And it may be, that we ai'e less affected 
by them ; because we have not come at that time when these 
things were read with zest, in that tribulation abounded. But 
again if we think of the abundance of tribulations, and observe 
Matt. 7, the way wherein we are walking, (if indeed we do walk in it,) 
''** how narrow it is, and how through straits and tribulations it 
leadeth unto rest everlasting, and how that very thing which 
in human affairs is called felicity, is more to be feared than 
misery ; since indeed misery ofttimcs doth bring out of 
tribulation a good fruit, but felicity doth corrupt the soul 
with a perverse security, and giveth place for the Devil the 
Tempter — when, I say, we shall have judged prudently and 

Job 7,1. rightly, as the salted victim'' did, that huiiian life upon earth 

LXX. 

" ' Salita victiina,' most copies have 'psallit hsEC victima.' Bkn. 



The Psalm shewn to belong to Christ, ivith His Body. 355 

is trial, and that no one is at all secure, nor ought to be Title. 
secure, until he be come to that country, whence no one that 
is a friend goeth forth, into which no one that is an enemy 
is admitted, even now in the very glory of the Church we 
acknowledge the voices of our tribulation : and being 
members of Christ, subject to our Head in the bond of love, 
and mutually supporting one another, we will say from the 
Psalms, that which here we have found the Martyrs said, 
who were before us ; that tribulation is common to all men 
from the beginning even unto the end. Nevertheless, this 
Psalm which we have undertaken to treat of, and whereof we 
have purposed to speak to your Love in the name of the Lord, 
let us acknowledge to be in the grain of mustard seed : for aMat.13, 
little space from the height of the herb and the spreading of the ' 
branches, and from that glory, where the birds of Heaven rest, 
let us withdraw the thoughts; and let us hear how this greatness 
which delighteth us in the herb hath risen from a small thing. 
For Christ here is speaking : (but to men already knowing it 
we are speaking:) Christ not only Head, but also Body. By 
the very words we know it. For that Christ here is speaking 
is not permitted us to doubt at all. For here are the express 
words, which in His passion were fulfilled : Jliey have given''- 21. 
for My food gall, and in My thirst they have given 3Ie vinegar 
to drink : for these words even to the letter were fulfilled, 
and exactly as they were foretold so they were completed. 
For when Christ Himself had said, I thirst, hanging on the Johnl9, 
Cross, and at this word to Him vinegar on a sponge had 
been given, which receiving He said, It is finished, and then 
with bowed head He gave up the Ghost, shewing all those 
things which had been foretold in Him then to have been 
finished, we may not here understand any thing else. The 
Apostles also, speaking of Christ, gave testimonies out of that 
Psalm. But who should go astray from their opinions ? or 
what lamb should not follow the rams ? Therefore Christ 
here speaketh : and we must rather point out where His 
members speak, in order that we may shew that here He is 
speaking whole, than doubt that Christ speaketh. 

2. The Title of the Psalm is: Unto the end, in behalf of 
those that shall be changed, to David himself. Now of the 
change for the better hear thou ; for change either is for the 

A a 2 



356 ' Cliarifje'' wroiujht in men throii/jk Passion of Christ. 

Psalm worse or for the better. Adam and Eve for the worse ; they 

^'that out of Adam and Eve to Christ have adhered, have been 

1 Cor. changed for the better. For, as through one man death, so 
22.' ' also through one Man resurrection of the dead: and, as in 
Adam all die, so also in Christ all shall he made alive. From 
that which God had formed, Adam was changed, but unto 
the worse estate of his iniquity: from that which iniquity hath 
wrought the faithful ai'c changed, but for the better through 
the grace of God. That we should be changed for the 
worse, was our own iniquity: that we should be changed for 
the better, not our own righteousness, but the grace of God 
provideth. That we have been changed then for the worse, 
to ourselves let us ascribe : that for the belter we are changed, 
let us praise God. For those, then, that shall he changed, 
this Psalm is. But whence hath this change been made but 
by the Passion of Christ ? The very word Pascha in Latin 
Pascha IS interpreted passage. For Pascha is not a Greek word but 
a Hebrew. It soundeth indeed in the Greek language like 
Passion, because 'K(k<j')(cw signifielh to suffer : but if the 
Hebrew expression be examined, it pointeth to something 
else. Pascha doth intimate passage. Of which even John the 
Evangelist hath admonished us, who (just before the Passion 
when the Lord was coming to the supper wherein He set 
forth the Sacrament of His Body and Blood) thus speakcth: 
Jobnis, But when there had come the hour, icherein Jesus was to 
pass from this world to the Father. He hath expressed 
then the passage of the Pascha. But unless He passed 
Himself hence to the Father, Who came for our sake, how 
should we have been able to pass hence, who have not come 
down for the sake of taking up any thing, but have fallen ? 
But lie Himself fell not; He but came down, in order that 
He might raise up him that had fallen. The passage there- 
fore both of Him and of us is hence to the Father, from this 
world to the kingdom of Heaven, from life mortal to life 
everlasting-, from life earthly to life heavenly, from life cor- 
ruptible to life incorruptible, from intimacy with tribulations 
to perpetual security. Accordingly, In hehalf of them that 
shall he changed, the Psalm's title is. The cause therefore 
of our change, that is, the very Passion of the Lord and our 
own voice in tribulations in the text of the Psalm let us 



Christ in His Body speaks as ^mwiHinf/li/ suffering. 357 

observe, let us join in knowing, join in groaning, and in Ver. 
hearing, in joint-knowing, joint-groaning, let us be changed, — '- — 
in order that there may be fulfilled in us the Title of the 
Psalm, In behalf uf them thai shall be chaiujed. 

3. Ver. 1. Save me, God, for the wafers have entered 
in even unto my soul. That grain is despised now, that 
seemeth to give forth humble words. In the garden it is 
buried, though the world will admire the greatness of the 
herb, of which herb the seed was despised by the Jews. 
For in very deed observe ye the seed of the mustard, minute, 
dull coloured, altogether despicable, in order that therein 
maybe fulfilled that which hath been said, We have seen Is. 63,2. 
Him, and He had neither form nor comeliness. But He 
saith, that waters have come in even unto His soul ; because 
those multitudes, which under the name of waters He hath 
pointed out, were able so far to prevail as to kill Christ. 
They prevailed unto contemning, unto holding, unto binding, 
ujito reviling, unto buffeting, unto spitting. How much 
further .P Even unto death. Therefore, TJie waters have 
entered in even unto my soul: for this life He called " His 
soul," unto which they were able in their cruelty to reach. 
But could they have done this, unless by Himself they 
had been permitted? Whence then doth He so cry out, as 
though He were suffering something against His will, except, 
because the Head doth prefigure the Members } For He 
suffered because He willed : but the Martyrs even though 
they willed not ; for to Peter thus He foretold his passion : 
When thou shall be old, He saith, another shall gird thee, and3o\m2\, 
lead thee whither thou wilt not. For though we desire to ^^' 
cleave to Christ, yet we are unwilling to die : and therefore 
willingly or rather patiently we suffer, because no other 
passage is given us, through which we may cleave to Christ. 
For if we could in any other way arrive at Christ, that is, at 
life everlasting, who would be willing to die ? For while 
explaining our nature, that is, a sort of association of soul 
and body, and in these two parts a kind of intimacy of 
glueing and fastening together, the Apostle saith, that we 2 Cor. 
have a House not made with hands, ererlasting in the^^ ^' 
Heavens: that is, immortality prepared for us, wherewith wo 
are to be clothed at the end, when we shall have risen from 



358 We must expect painful things, but not fear them. 
Psalm the dead; and he saith, Wherein we are not willing to be 

T \ I X 

•^, • stripped, but to be clothed upon, that the mortal may be 
5,4. swalloued vp of life. If it might so be, we should so will, 
he saith, to become immortal, as that now that same im- 
raortality might come, and now as we are it should change 
us, iu order that this our mortal body by life should be 
swallowed up, and the body should not be laid aside through 
death, so as at the end again to have to be recovered. 
Although then from evil to good things we pass, nevertheless 
Mat.27,the very passage is somewhat bitter, and hath the gall which 
the Jews gave to the Lord in the Passion, hath something 
sharp to be endured, whereby they are shewn that gave Him 
vinegar to drink. Prefiguring then and transforming into 
Himself our own selves. He saith this, Save me, God, for 
the waters have entered in even unto my soul. They that 
persecuted were able even to kill, but they shall have no 
more to do. For the Lord Himself hath sent an exhortation 
Mat.io, before, saying, Fearnot them that kill body and have tto more 
to do; but fear Him that hath power to kill both body and 
soul in the hell of fire. With the greater fear lesser things 
we contemn, and vvith the greater desire of eternity we disdain 
all things temporal. For here both sweet are temporal 
pleasures, and bitter are temporal tribulations : but who 
would not drink the cup of tribulation temporal, fearing the 
fire of hell ; and who would not contemn the sweetness of 
the world, longing for the sweetness of life eternal ? From 
hence that we may be delivered let us cry: lest perchance 
amidst oppressions we consent to iniquity, and truly irre- 
parably we be swallowed up : Save me, O God, for the waters 
have ottered in even nnto my soul. 

4. Ver. 2. Fixed lam in the clay of the dee]}, a)id there is no 

substance. What called He clay ? Is it those very persons 

Gen. 2, that have persecuted ? For out of cla}' man hath been made. 

But these men by (ailing from righteousness have become the 

clay of the deep, and whosoever shall not have consented to 

them persecuting and desiring to draw him to iniquity, out of 

his clay doth make gold. For the clay of the same shall 

Miabitu- merit to be converted into a heavenly form', and to be made 

'"''"'" associate of those of whom saith the Title of the Psalm, in 

behalf (f them that shall be chanqed. But at the time when 



Our Lord in what sense deprived of' substance.'' 359 

these were the clay of the deep. I stuck in them : that is, "Ver. 

they held Me, prevailed against Me, killed Me. Fixed then '— 

I am in the clay of the deep, and there is no substance. What 
is this, there is no substance? Can it be that clay itself is not 
a substance ? What is then, Jixed I am ? Can it be that 
Christ hath thus stuck? Or hath He stuck, and was not, as 
hath been said in the book of Job, the eai-th delivered into Job 9, 
the hands of the ungodly man? Was He fixed in body, 
because it could be held, and suffered even crucifixion ? 
For unless with nails He had been fixed, crucified He had 
not been. Whence then there is no substance ? Is that clay 
not a substance ? But we shall understand, if it be possible, 
what is, and there is no substafice, if first we shall have 
understood what is a substance. For there is substance 
spoken of even of riches, as we say, he hath substance, and, 
he hath lost substance. But shall we suppose this here to 
have been spoken of in, and there is no substance, that is, there 
are no riches, as if now any thing were being done concerning 
riches, or any question were being raised about riches .f* Is 
it perchance that this very clay is poverty, and there shall 
be no riches, except when we shall have been made par- 
takers of eternity ? For then there are true riches, when 
there shall be nothing wanting to us. This sense may also 
be taken, according as we understand this word, so that 
what was said was, Fixed I am in the clay of the deep, and there 
is no substatice, that is, unto poverty I have come. For here 
He saith, poor and sorrowful I am. The Apostle also saith,v. so. 
that for your saJces He became poor though He was rich, that 2 Cot. 8, 
by His poverty ye might be enriched. Therefore the Lord ' 
desiring to set forth to us His poverty, perchance hath said, 
there is no substance. For to extreme poverty He came, 
when the form of a servant He put on. The riches of Him 
are what? Who, when in fonn of God He was, thought it wo^Phil. 2, 
robbery to be equal with God. These are great and incom- ^' 
parable riches. Whence then that poverty ? Because He ib. 7. 8. 
emptied Himself, taking the form of a servant, being made 
after the Vikeness of men, and being found in fashion as a 
man. He humbled Himself, being made obedient even unto 
death, so that He said. The waters have entered in even unto 
my soul. Add to this, death: what more wilt thou add? 



360 ' Substance,'' in God, is ivhat is common to the Three Persons. 

Psalm The infamy of death. Therefore there followeth, even the 
IiH^- death of the Cross. Great poverty ! But hence there will 
be great riches: for as His poverty was fulfilled, so there 
will be fulfilled also our riches from His poverty. How 
great riches hath He, that from His own poverty He should 
make us lich ? What sort of persons will He make us by 
His riches, whom He hath made rich by His poverty? 

5. Fi.ved I am i)i the clay of the deep, and there is 
no substance. Substance is understood in another way, as 
that thing which we arc, whatsoever we are. But it is some- 
what difficult to understand this, although the things be 
of common use: but because the word is uncommon, it 
needetli some little insisting on, and exposition : to which 
however if ye are attentive, perchance we shall not find it too 
hard for ns. Suppose a man spoken of, a beast spoken of, 
earth spoken of. Heaven spoken of, sun spoken of, moon, 
stone, sea, air; all these things are substances, by the very 
fact that they are, the natures themselves are called substances. 
God is a sort of substance : for that which is no substance, 
is nothing at all. To be a substance then is to be something. 
Whence also in the Catholic Faith against the poisons of 
certain heretics thus we are builded up, so that we say. Father 
and Son and Holy Spirit are of one substance. What is, of 
one substance ? For example, if gold is the Father, gold is 
also the Son, gold also the Holy Spirit. Whatever the 
Father is because He is God, the same is the Son, the same 
the Holy Spirit. But when He is the Father, this is not 
what He is. For Father He is called not in reference to 
Himself, but in reference to the Son : but in reference to 
Himself God He is called. Therefore in that He is God, by 
the same He is a substance. And because of the same 
substance the Son is, without doubt the Sou also is God. 
But yet in that He is Father, because it is not the name of 
the substance, but is referred to the Son ; we do not say that 
the Son is Father in the same manner as we say the Son is 
• God. Thou askest what the Father is ; we answer, God. 
Thou askest what is the Father and the Son : we answer, 
God. If questioned of the Father alone, answer thou God : 
if questioned of both, not Gods, but God, answer thou. 
We do not reply as in the case of men, when thou inquires! 



Sin in man is not of his 'substance.^ 361 

what is father Abraham, we answer a man ; the substance Ver. 
of him serveth for answer : thou inquirest what is his son '— 



Isaac, we answer, a man ; of the same substance are Abraham 
and Isaac : thou inquirest what is Abraham and Isaac, we 
answer not man, but men. Not so in things divine. For so 
great in this case is the fellowship of substance, that of equality 
it alloweth, plurality alloweth not. If then it shall have been 
said to tliee, when thoutellest me that the Son is the same as 
the Father, in fact the Son also is the Father; answer thou, 
according to the substance I have told thee that the Son is 
the same as the Father, not according to that term which is 
used in reference to something else. For in reference to 
Flimself He is called God, in reference to the Father is called 
Son. And again, the Father in reference to Himself is called 
God, in reference to the Son He is called Father. The 
Father as He is called in reference to the Son, is not the 
Son : the Son as He is called in reference to the Father, is 
not the Father: what the Father is called in reference to 
Himself and the Son in reference to Himself, the same is 
Father and Son, that is, God. What is then, there is no 
substance? After this interpretation of substance, how shall 
we be able to understand this passage of the Psalm, Fixed 
I am in the clay of the deep, and there is no substance? God Gen. i, 
made man. He made substance; and O that he had con- 
tinued in that which God made him ! If man had continued 
in that which God made him, in him would not have been 
' fixed' He whom God begot. But moreover because through 
iniquity man fell from the substance wherein he was made, Gren. 3, 
(for iniquity itself is no substance ; for iniquity is not a 
nature which God formed, but a perverseness which man 
made;) the Son of God came to the clay of the deep, and 
was fixed; and that was no substance wherein He was fixed, 
because in the iniquity of them He was fixed. Fixed I am 
in the clay of the deep, and there is no substance. " All^ohn i, 
things by Him were made, and without Him there was 7nade 
nothing.'''' All natures by Him were made, iniquity by Him 
was not made, because iniquity was not made'. Those sub- i Oxf. 
stances by Him were made, which praise Him. The whole J^*"' 

. . , was no 

creation praising God is commemorated by the three children sub- 
in the furnace, and from things earthly to things heavenly, orpams, 

Apocr. 



362 Now Our Lord * san/i' in the ' sea'' of tins loorld. 

Psalm from tilings licavenly to tilings earthly reaclieth the hymn of 

^them praising God. Not that all these things have sense to 

praise ; but because all thinos being well meditated upon, 
do beget praise, and the heart by considering creation is 
fulfilled to overflowing with a hymn to the Creator. All 
things do praise God, but only the things which God hath 
made. Do ye observe in that hymn that covctousness 
praiseth God ? There even the serpent praiseth God, covet- 
ousncss praiseth not. For all creeping things are there 
named in the praise of God : there are named all creeping 
things; but there are not there named any vices. For vices 
out of ourselves and out of our own will we have : and vices 
are not a substance. In these was fixed the Lord, when He 
suffered persecution : in the vice of the Jews, not in the 
substance of men which by Him was made. Fixed I am, 
He saith, in the clay of the deep, and there is no substance. 
Fixed I am, and I have not found that which I have made. 

6. Ver. 2. I have come into the depth of the sea, and the 
tempest hath made Me to sink down. Thanks to the mercy 
of Him Who came into the depth of the sea, and vouchsafed 

Mat.l2, to be swallowed by the sea whale, but was vomited forth 
the third day. He came into the depth of the sea, in which 
depth we were thrust down, in which depth we had suffered 
shipwreck : He came thither Himself, and the tempest made 
Him to sink down : for there He suffered waves, those very 

Johni9, iiien ; tempests, the voices of men saying, Crucify, Crucify. 

®' Though Pilate said, I find not any cause in this Man why 

He should be killed : there jjrevailed the voices of them, 
saying, Crucify, Crucify. The tempest increased, until He 
was made to sink down That had come into the depth of the 
sea. And the Lord suffered in the hands of the Jews that 

Mat.14, which He suffered not when upon the waters He was walk- 

^°* ing: the which not only He had not suffered Himself, but 
had not allowed even Peter to suffer it. / have come into 
the depth of the sea, and the tempest hath made Me to sink 
down. 

7. Ver. 3. / have laboured, crying, hoarse have become 
my jaws. Where was this .? When was this.? Let us ques- 
tion the Gospel. For the Passion of our TiOrd in this Psalm 
we perceive. And, indeed, that He suffered we know ; that 



How He might he called * hoarse with crying.'' 363 

there came in waters even unto His Soul, because peoples pre- Ver. 
vailed even unto His death, we read, we believe; in the tempest — '■ — 
that He was sunk down, because tumult prevailed to His 
killing, we acknowledge : but that He laboured in crying, and 
that His jaws were made hoarse, not only we read not, but even 
on the contrary we read, that He answered not to them a word, 
in order that there might be fulfilled that which in another 
Psalm hath been said, I have become as it u-ere a man not Ps. 38, 
hearing, and having not in his mouth reproofs. And that * 
which in Isaiah hath been prophesied, li/ie a sheep to be Is. 53, 
sacrificed He was led, and like a lamb before one shearing 
Him, so He opened not His mouth. If He became like a 
man not hearing, and having not in His mouth reproofs, how 
did He labour crying, and how were His jaws made hoarse? 
Is it that He was even then silent, because He was hoarse 
with having cried so much in vain ? And this indeed we 
know to have been His voice on the Cross out of a certain 
Psalm : O God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me? ButPs. 22, 
how great was that voice, or of how long duration, that in it 
His jaws should have become hoarse ? Long while He cried, 
Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees : long while He cried, Mat.23, 
Woe unto the world because of ojfences. And truly hoarse ^J^ * 
in a maimer He cried, and therefore was not understood, Mat. 18, 
when the Jews said, What is this that He saith? Hard w jobne, 
this saying, who is able to hear it? We know not what He^|?; ^' 
saith. He said all these words: but hoarse were His jaws to 17. 18. 
them that understood not His words. / have laboured 
crying, hoarse have become My jaws. 

8. 3Iine eyes have failed ft om hoping in My God. Far be 
it that this should be taken of the person of the Head : far 
be it that His eyes should have failed from' hoping in His God: ' ab 
in Whom rather there was God reconciling the world to Him- 2 Cor. 5, 
self, and Who was the Word made flesh and dwelled in us, 
so that not only God was in Him, but also He was Himself 
God. Not so then : the eyes of Himself j our Head, failed not 
from hoping in His God : but the eyes of Him have failed in 
His Body, that is, in His members. This voice is of the mem- 
bers, this voice is of the Body, not of the Head. How then 
do we find it in His Body and members? What else 
shall I say ? Of what else shall I make mention ? When 



364 ' liyes'' of Christ ^failed'' only in His Body. 

Psalm He suffered, when He died, all His disciples despaired of 

j^, ~ His being Christ. By a robber the Apostles were excelled, 

41. who believed at the time when they failed- See the members 

of Him despairing : observe those two men whom after the 

Resurrection He found in the way conversing together, 

Luke24, whereof one was Cleopas, when their eyes were holdcn that 

they should not know Him. For how should they with eyes 

know Him concerning Whom in mind they had come to 

waver? Something had been formed in their eyes like to 

their own mind. For they were conversing with one another, 

and when they were accosted by Him as to what they were 

Luke24, Saying, they answered, Dost Thou alone sojourn in Jerusalem,''^ 
and knowest not the thinys which have come to pass, after 
what manner Jesus of Nazareth, mighty in words and in 
deeds, hath been slain by the elders and chief priests ? And 
we tvere hoping that He uas Himself to redeem Israel. They 
had hoped and were not hoping. Their eyes failed from 
hoping in their God. Them therefore into Himself He 
transformed, in saying, Mine eyes have failed from hoping in 
My God. This hope He restored, when He offered the scars 
to be handled, which when Thomas had touched, he returned 

Jobn20, to the hope which he had lost, and cried out, My Lord and 
my God. Thine eyes have failed from hoping in thy God, 
thou hast handled the scars, and hast found thy God : hast 
handled the form of a servant, and hast confessed thy Lord. 

John20, To whom however the Lord Himself saith. Because thou hast 
seen thou hast believed. And foretelling us with the voice of 
His mercy. He saith, " Blessed they that see not and believe.'''' 
Mine eyes have failed from hoping in My God. 

9. Ver. 4. Thus there have been multiplied above the hairs of 
My head they that hate 3Ie gratis. How multiplied? So as 

Mat.26,that they might add to themselves even one out of the twelve. 

^^' There have been multiplied above the hairs of My head they 
that hate Me for nought. With the hairs of His head He 
hath com])ared His enemies. With reason they were shorn 

Mat.27, when in the place of Calvary He was crucified. Let the 

^^- members accept this voice, let them learn to be hated gratis. 



» Ben. Ed. has ill! interrogation liere, the Resurrection, according 
and omits < ow«?,' but Ox f. Mss. have it, Luke.' See Serni. ccxxxii, ( 



and so has St. Auc. in his Sermons ' on ccxxxvi 



to St. 
ccxxxiv, 



If the loorld must hate us, let it he ' gratis.' 365 

For now, O Christian, if it must needs be that the world hate Ver. 
thee, why dost thou not make it hate thee gratis, in order — i: — 
that in the Body of thy Lord and in this Psahn sent before 
concerning Him, thou mayest acknowledge thy own voice? 
How shall it come to pass that the world hate thee gratis ? 
If thou no wise hurtest any one, and art still hated : for this 
is gratis, without cause. It is little for thee without cause to 
be hated, even moi-e than this, cause them to render thee 
evil things for good things. Bline enemies have strengthened 
themselves, that persecute Me unjustly. As He hath said, 
They have been multiplied above the hairs of My head; 
the same afterwards. Mine enemies have strengthened them- 
selves; and as at first. They that hate Me gratis; the same 
afterwards. They that persecute Me unjustly. Unjustly is 
the same as gratis. This is the very voice of Martyrs, not 
in the punishment, but in the cause. Neither to suffer per- 
secution, nor to be held, nor to be scourged, nor to be im- 
prisoned, nor to be proscribed, nor to be killed, is any thing 
praiseworthy: but while having a good cause, to suffer these 
things, this is praiseworthy. For praise is in the goodness 
of the cause, not in the sharpness of the punishment. For 
howsoever great have been the sufferings of the Martyrs, do 
they equal the sufferings of all robbers, of all sacrilegious, of 
all crime-stained men ? But what, doth the world hate even 
these ? It doth hate them evidently. For they go beyond 
the world's mediocrity in excess of naughtiness, and in 
a manner from the very society of worldly men they are 
estranged, molesting even earthly peace, and they suffer 
many evil things, but not gratis. Lastly, hear the voice of 
that robber hanging with the Lord on the Cross, when on 
the other side one of the two robbers was reviling the Lord 
Who was being crucified, and was saying. If Son of God'L-ulie23, 
Thou art, deliver Thyself: the other put him to silence, and 
said. Dost thou not fear God, even for that thou art set in 
the same condemnation ? And v:e indeed rightly for our 
deeds. Behold, not gratis : but by confession he shed out 
of himself ' corruption, and was made meet for the food of' Most 
the Lord. He drave out his iniquity, he accused it, and he i ^^^^^ , 
was freed from it. Behold there two robbers, there also the Ben. 
Lord: they both are crucified, and He is crucified: and 



366 Christ ^ paid,' though He had taken nothing icrongfuUy. 

PsAi.M them the world liated, but not prratis : and Him it hated, but 

LXIX . . 

— — ^ gratis. The things ivhich I robbed not then I was ■paying. 

This is gratis. I robbed not, and I was paying : 1 sinned 

not, and I was being punished. He alone was Himself of 

such sort, He truly robbed nothing. Not only He robbed 

nothing, but even that which He had not of robbery, of this 

He emptied Himself, in order that to us He might come. 

Philip. For, He thought it not robbery to be equal with God: and yet 

' ■ '■ He emptied Himself y taking the form of a servant. He robbed 

not at all. But wlio robbed? Adam. Who robbed at first.? 

Gen. 3, He that led astray Adam. How did the Devil rob ? / %vill 

Isa. 14, set my seat at the North, and I will be like the Most High, 

^^' He assumed to himself that which he had not received: 

behold robbery. The devil usurped to himself what he had 

not received; he lost what he had received; and out of the 

very cup of his pride he gave him to drink whom he was 

Gen. 3, wishing to deceive. Taste ye, he saith, and ye shall be as 

Gods. They willed to rob divinity, and they lost felicity. 

He therefore robbed, and accordingly paid. But /, he saith, 

the things which I robbed not was then paying. The Lord 

Himself", drawing near to His Passion, in the Gospel thus 

Johnl4,speaketli : Behold there cometh the Prince of this ivorld, that 

is the devil, and in Me shall find nothing ; that is, wherefore 

'Oxf. he should kill Me he shall find not: but that all' may know 

' aU na. ^^^^^ -'■ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^y Father, arise, let us go. And He 

tions.' went to the Passion to pay that which He robbed not. For 

what is, in Me he shall find nothing ? No guilt. Hath the 

devil lost any thing from his house ? Let him examine the 

robbers, nothing with Me he shall find. Nevertheless, He 

saith that He had robbed nothing, to sin adverting, that He 

had taken nothing which was not His ; for this belongeth to 

robbery, this to iniquity : for from the devil himself He had 

Mark 3, wrested those whom the same had robbed. No man, He 

cf Mat ^^'^^^^^ cnterelh into the house of a strong man, and spoileth 

12, 29. his vessels, except jirst he shall have bound the strong man. 

He hath bound the strong man, and hath spoiled his vessels: 

truly He hath not robbed ; but He answereth thee, those 

vessels from thy gi*eat house had been lost; 1 have not stolen 

a thing, but have recovered a thing stolen. 

10. Vcr. 5. God, Thou hast known mine improvidence. 



His ' improvidence,'' seeming; ' Transgressions'' not His axon. 367 

Again out of the mouth of the Body. For what improvidence ^er. 
is there in Christ ? Is He not Himself the Virtue of God, and '— 



the Wisdom of God ? Doth He call this His improvidence, 
whereof the Apostle speaketh, the foolishness of God is wiser i Cor. l, 
tha7i men ? Mine improvidence, that very thing which in 
Me they derided that seem to themselves to be wise, Thou 
hast known why it was done : Thoit hast known mine 
improvidence. For what was so much like improvidence, 
as, when He had it in His power with one word to lay low 
the persecutors, to suffer Himself to be held, scourged, 
spit upon, buffeted, with thorns to be crowned, to the tree 
to be nailed ? It is like improvidence, it seemeth a foolish 
thing ; but this foolish thing excelleth all wise men. Foolish 
indeed it is : but even when grain falleth into the earth, if 
no one knoM'cth the custom of husbandmen, it seemeth 
foolish : with great labour it is reaped, is carried to the 
barn, is threshed, is winnowed ; after so great perils of 
weather and of storms, and after the labours of rustics and 
the carefulness of masters, the corn is put in the store 
clean ; there cometh winter, that which hath been cleansed 
is brought forth and cast abroad: improvidence it appeareth; 
but hope maketh it not to be improvidence. He then spared 
not Himself: because even the Father spared Him not, but Rom. 8, 
delivered Him up for us all. And of the Same, Who loved q!^^^ 
me, saith the Apostle, and delivered up Himself for me: for 20. 
except a errain shall have fallen into the land so that it die, J"hni2, 

.... . 24. 

fruit, He saith, it will not yield. This is the improvidence ; 
but Thou hast known it. But " they if they had knoivn the ^ Cor.2, 
Lord of glory, they had never crucified.''^ O God, Thou hast 
known mine improvidence, and my transgressions from Thee 
are not concealed. It is plain, clear, open, that this must 
be perceived to be out of the mouth of the Body. Trans- 
gressions none had Christ: He was the bearer of trans- 
gressions, but not the committer. And my transgressions 
from Thee are not concealed: that is, I have confessed 
to Thee all my transgressions, and before my mouth Thou 
hast seen them in my thought, hast seen the wounds 
which Thou wast to heal. But where ? Even in the Body, 
in the members : in those believers out of whom there w^as 
now cleaving to Him that member, who was confessing his 



368 Prayer that the Faithful may not blush for their hope. 

Psalm sins. And my transgressions, he saitl), from Thee are not 

y^^ concealed. 

1 or/or 1 1. Ver. 6. Let them not hlushin^ Me, that iv ait for Thee, O 
Lord, Lord of virtues. Again, the voice of the Head, Let them 
not blush in Me : let it not be said to them, Where is He 
on Whom ye were relying ? Let it not be said to them, Where 

Jobni4,is He that was saying to you, Believe ye"^ in God, and in Me 

2 bxf. believe ? Let them not blush in Me, thai unit for Thee, O 

Mss.^<r i^f)j.(i £ord of virtues. Let them not be confounded con- 
cerning 3fe, that seek Thee, O God of Israel. I'his also 
may be understood of the Body, but only if thou consider 
the Body of Him not one man : for in truth one man is not 
the Body of Him, but a small member, but the Body is 
made up of members. Therefore the full Body of Him is the 
whole Church. With reason then saith the Church, Lei them 
not blush in Me, that u- ait for Thee, O Lord, L^ord of virtues. 
Let me not so be afflicted by insurgent persecutors, let me 
not so be worn down by envious enemies, by snarling heretics, 

1 John that from Me have gone forth, because they were not of Me : 
for if they had been of Me, with Me perchance thoy had 
remained. Let me not be so weighed down by their scan- 
dals, as that they shall blush in Me that wait for Thee, O 
Lord, Lord of virtues. Let them not be confounded because 
of Me, that seek Thee, O God of Israel. 

12. Ver. 7. For because of Thee L have sustained upbraid- 
ing, shamelessness hath covered my face. No great thing is 
that which is spoken of in I have sustained: but that which 
is spoken of in for Thy sake I have sustained, is. For if 
thou sustainest because ihouhast sinned ; for thine own sake 
thou sustainest, not for the sake of God. For to you what 
1 Pet. 2 S^o^y i-^ there, saith Peter, if sinning yc are punished, and 
^^- ye bear it? But if thou sustainest because thou hast kqpt 
the commandment of God, truly for the sake of God thou 
sustainest ; and thy reward remaineth for everlasting, because 
for the sake of God thou hast sustained revilings. For to 
this end He first sustained, in order that we might learn to 
sustain. And if He, Who had not that which was laid to 
His charge ; how much more we, who even if we have not 
the sin which the enemy layeth to our charge, yet have 
another sin which is deservedly to be chastised in us ? Some 



Christians must be shameless as to Chrisfs reproach. 369 

one or other calleth thee thief", and thou art no thief: thou Ver. 

hearest the reproach ; thou art not however no thief in such '- — 

sort as that thou art not any thing which to God is displeasing. 
Again, if He who had robbed nothing at all, who most truly 
had said, Behold there cometh the prince of this world, andJoVmU, 
in Me he shall find nothing, was called sinner, was called j^^'j^^^ 9 
unrighteous, was called Beelzebub, was called mad; dost 24. 
thou, O servant, disdain to hear according to thy deserts, 25. ' 
that which the Lord heard for no deserts of His ? He came 
to give thee an example. As if He had done this for nought, 
so thou dost not profit. For why did He hear it, but in 
order that thou, when thou shouldest hear, shouldest not 
faint ? Behold, thou hearest and faintest : in vain then He 
hath heard : for not for His own sake, but for thy sake He 
hath heard. For for Thy sake I have sustained upbraiding, 
shamelessness hath covered my face. Shamelessness is 
what? Not to be confused. Lastly, it seemeth to be as it 
were a fault, when we say, the man is shameless. Great is 
the shamelessness of the man, that he doth not blush. 
Therefore shamelessness is a kind of folly. A Christian 
ought to have this shamelessness, when he cometh among 
men to whom Christ is an offence. If he shall have blushed 
because of Christ, he will be blotted out from the book of 
the living. Thou must needs therefore have shamelessness 
when Thou art reviled because of Christ ; when they say, 
Worshipper of the Crucified, adorer of Him that died ill, 
venerator of Him that was slain ! here if thou shall blush 
thou art a dead man. For see the sentence of Him that 
deceiveth no one. He that shall have been ashamed of Me Mat. ]o, 
before men, I also will be ashamed of him before the Angels ^\ 
of Qod. Watch therefore thyself whether there be in thee 26. 
shamelessness; be thou boldfaced', when tliou hearest aifronto- 
reproach concerning Christ; yea be boldfaced. Why fearest^"^ 
thou for -thy forehead which thou hast ai'med with the sign 
of the Cross ? For this is, For Thy sake I have sustained 
upbraiding, shamelessness hath covered my face. For Thy 
sake I have sustained upbraiding: and because I have not 
blushed because of Thee, when I was being reviled for Thy 
sake, shamelessness hath covered my face. 

13. Ver. 8. An alien I have become to My brethren, and 

VOL. HI. B b 



370 Christ held a stranger for His zeal for God's House. 

Psalm a Stranger to the sons of My mother. To the sons of the Syna- 
- — .* gogue He became a stranger. For in His own conntry it was 
22. said, Do we not know Him to be the Son of jNIury and of Joseph ? 
John 9, And whence in another passage, But this Man ice knoio not 
^^' whence He is? Therefore, / have become a stranger to the 
sons of My mother. They knew not whence I am, of whom 
1 Oxf. ^yas My flesh : they knew Me not' to have been born out of 
<did the thigh of Abraham; wherein My flesh was concealed, when 
they not^^jiider tliat same thi<>h the servant puttinc: his hand swore by 

know " I o J 

Me.' the God of Heaven. A stranger I have become to the sons 
Q^^'^^'qfMy mother. Why so.? Why did they not acknowledge? 
Why did they call Him an alien } Why did they dare to say, 
we know not whence He is ? Because the zeal of Thine 
House hath eaten Me up: that is, because I have persecuted 
in them their own iniquities, because I have not patiently 
borne those whom I have rebuked, because I have sought 
Thy glory in Thy House, because I have scourged them that 
John 2, in the Temple dealt unseemly : in which place also there is 
^' quoted, the ^eal of Thine House hath eaten Me up. Hence 
an alien, hence a stranger ; hence, we know not whence He 
is. They would have acknowledged whence I am, if they 
had acknowledged that which Thou hast commanded. For 
if I had found them keeping Thy commandments, the zeal of 
Thine House would not have eaten Me up. And the 
reproaches of men reproaching Thee have fallen upon Me. 
Of this testimony Paul the Apostle hath also made use, (there 
Rom. 16, hath been read but now the very lesson,) and saith. What- 
soever things aforetime have been ivritten, have been loritten 
that we might he instructed, that through comfort of the Scrip- 
tures we may have hope. He hath said then that of Christ 
was that voice, the rej^roaches of men reproaching Thee have 
fallen upon Me. Why Thee? Is the Father reproached, and 
not Christ Himself? Why have the reproaches of men 
J ohnii, reproaching Tliee fallen upon Me? Because, he that hath 
^' known Me, hath known the Father also: because no one hath 

John 5, reviled Christ without revilingGod : because no one honoureth 
2^* the Father, except he that honoureth the Son also. The 
revilings of men reviling Thee have fallen upon Me, because 
they found Me. 

14. Ver. 10. And I have covered in fasting My Soul, and 



Yinegar of the old man offered to Christ thirstinrj. :37l 

it became to Me for a reviling. The fasting of Christ aheady Ver. 
in another Psahn we have spiritually set forth to Your Love. - " ' - 
His fasting was, when there fell away all they that hadserm. 2. 
believed in Him ; because also it was His hunger, that men !,^°;^ ' 
should believe in Him : because also it was His thirst, when 
He said to the woman, I thirst, give Me to drink: 3'ea for John 4, 
her faith He was thirsting. And from the Cross when He ' " 
was saying, I thirst, He was seeking the faith of them forJohni9, 
whom He had said, Father, forgive them, for they know nof^^Ye^s 
what they do. But what did those men give to drink to Him 34- 
thirsty? Vinegar. Vinegar is also called 'old'.' With*'vetus' 
reason of the old man they gave to drink, because they willed 
not to be new. Why willed they not to become new ? Be- 
cause to the title of this Psalm whereon is written. For them 
that shall be changed, they belonged not. Therefore, / have 
covered hi fasting My soul. Lastly, He put from Him even 
the gall which they offered : He chose rather to fast than to 
accept bitterness. For they enter not into His Body that are 
embittered^, whereof in another place a Psalm saith, They^amaTi- 
that are embittered shall not be exalted in themselves, p'^^qq';. 
Therefore, / have covered in fasting 3Iy soul: and it became 
to 31e for a reviling. This very thing became to Me for a 
reviling, that I consented not to them, that is, from them I 
fasted. For he that consenteth not to men seducing to evil, 
fasteth from them ; and through this fasting earneth reviling, 
so that he is upbraided because he consenteth not to the evil 
thing. 

15. Ver. 11. And I have set sackcloth my garment. Already Ps. 35, 
before we have said something of the sackcloth, from whence ggc. 4. 
there is this, But I, when they were troubling Me, teas cover- ^- 1^- 
ing myself with sackcloth, and was humbling My Soul in 
fasting. I have set sackcloth for My garment : that is, have set 
against them My flesh, on which to spend their rage, 1 have 
concealed My divinity. Sackcloth, because mortal the flesh 
was: in order that by sin He might condemn sin in the flesh. Rom. 8, 
And I have set sackcloth my garment: and I have been^' 
made to them for a parable, that is, for a derision. It is 
called a parable, whenever a comparison is made concerning 
some one, when he is evil spoken of. ' So may this man 
perish,' for example, ' as that man did,' is a parable : that is, 

B b 2 



372 lievilhig of men should send us to God in Prayer. 

PsAi.M a coniparison and likeness in cursintr. / have been made to 

L X I X 

-^ — —them, then, /or a parable. 

]6. Vcr. 12. Against 3Ie were reviling they that were 
sitting in the gate. In the gate is nothing else but in public. 
' psaite- ^jicl against 3Ie they were chanting^, they that tverc drinking 
wine. Do ye think, brethren, that this hath befallen Christ 
alone ? Daily to Him in His members it happeneth : when- 
ever perchance it is necessary for the servant of God to 
forbid excess of wine and luxuries in any village or town, 
where there hath not been heard the Word of God, it is not 
enough that ihey sing, nay more even against him they begin 
lo sing, by whom they are forbidden to sing. Compare ye 
now His fasting and their wine. And against Me were 
chanling they that were drinking wine: the wine of error, 
the wine of ungodliness, the wine of pride. 
-iadTe 17. Ver. 13. But I with My prayer tcith Thee^^ O lord. 
But 1 was with Thee. But how ? With Thee by praying. 
For when thou art evil spoken of, and knovvestnot what thou 
mayest do; when at thee are hurled reproaches, and thou 
finde&t not any way of rebuking him by whom they are 
hurled ; nothing remaineth for thee but to pray. But re- 
member even for that very man to pray. But I with my 
prayer with Thee, O Lord. It is the time of Thy good 
pleasure, O God. For behold the grain is being buried, 
there shall spring up fruit. It is the time of Thy good 
pleasure, O God. Of this time even the Prophets have 
2 Cor. 6, spoken, whereof the Apostle maketh mention ; ''Behold now 
the time acceptable, behold now the day of sal rat ion.''"' It is 
the time of Thy good pleasure, God. hi the multitude of 
Thy mercy. This is the time of good pleasure, in the 
multitude of Thy mercy. For if there were not a multitude 
of Thy mercy, what should we do for the multitude of our 
iniquity ? In the mulliiude of Thy mercy; Hearken to me 
in the truth of Thy Salvation. Because He hath said, of 
Ps. 25, Thy mercy, he hath added truth also : for mercy and truth 
are all the ways of the Lord. Why mercy ? In forgiving 
sins. Why truth ? In fulfilling the promises. Hearken to 
Me in the truth of Thy Salvation. 

18. Ver. 14. Save Thou Me from the mire, that I may not 
V. 2. stick. From that whereof above he had spoken. Fixed I am 



Outwardly oppressed^ pray to he delivered in spirit. 373 

in the clay of the deep, and there is no substance. Further- Ver, 

more, since ye have duly received the exposition of that — — 

expression, in this place there is nothing further for you to 
hear particularly. From hence he saith that he must be 
delivered, wherein before he said that he was fixed : Save 
Thou Me from the mire, that I may not stick. And he 
explaineth this himself; Let Me he rescued from them that 
hate Me. They were themselves therefore the clay wherein 
he had stuck. But the following perchance suggesteth itself. 
A little before he had said, Fixed I am ; now he saith, Save 
Thou Me from the mire, that I may not stick: whereas after 
the meaning of what was said before he ought to have said, 
Save Thou Me from the mire where I had stuck, by rescuing 
Me, not by causing that I stick not. Therefore He had stuck 
in flesh, but had not stuck in spirit. He saith this, because 
of the infirmity of His members. Whenever perchance thou 
art seized by one that urgeth thee to iniquity, thy body 
indeed is taken, in regard to the body thou art fixed in the 
clay of the deep : but so long as thou consentest not, thou 
hast not stuck ; but if thou consentest, thou hast stuck. Let 
then thy prayer be in that place, in order that as thy body 
is now held, so thy soul may not be held, so thou mayest be 
free in bonds. Let Me be rescued from them that hate Me: 
and from the deep of icaiers. 

.19. Ver. 15. Let not the tempest of waters drown Me. 
But already he had been drowned. / have come into the^-'i. 
depth of the sea, thou hast said, and the tempest hath drotvned 
Me, thou hast said. It hath drowned after the flesh, let it 
not drown after the Spirit. They to whom was said. If they Mat.io, 
shall have persecuted you in one city, flee ye into another ; ^^* 
had this said to them, that neither in flesh they should stick, 
nor in spirit. For we must not desire to stick even in flesh ; 
but as far as we are able we ought to avoid it. But if we 
shall have stuck, and shall have fallen into the hands of 
sinners : then in body we have stuck, we are fixed in the 
clay of the deep, it remaineth to entreat for the soul that we 
stick not, that is, that we consent not, that the tempest of 
water drown us not, so that we go into the deep of the clay. 
Neither let the deep swallow Me, nor the pit close her 
mouth upon Me. What is this, brethren ? What hath he 



'37 4 Confession open, the pit's mouth is not closed on us. 

PsiLM prayed against ? Great is the pit of the depth of human 
il2L12L* iniquity: every oue, if he shall have fallen into it, will fall 
into the deep. But yet if a man being there placed con- 
fesseth his sins to his God, the pit will not shut her mouth 
Ps. 130, upon him: as is written in another Psalm, Frorn the depths 
■*' / have cried to Thee, O Lord ; Lord, hearken unto my voice. 

But if there is done in him that which another passage of 
Prov.i8, Scripture saith, When a sinner shall have come into the depth 
^' of evil things, he tvill despise, upon him the pit hath shut 

her mouth. Why hath she shut her mouth ? Because 
she hath shut his mouth. He hath lost confession, really 
dead he is, and there is fulfilled in him that which else- 
Ecchis. where is spoken of, Frorn a dead man, as from one that is not, 
17,28. fj^gyg perisheth confession. This state is very greatly to be 
dreaded, brethren. If thou shalt have seen a man do 
iniquity, he is sunk in a pit : but when thoTi shalt have 
told him his own iniquity, and he shall have said. Truly 
I have sinned, I confess it, upon him the pit hath not shut 
her mouth : but when thou shalt have heard him say, But 
what harm have I done? he hath become the advocate of his 
sin : upon him the pit hath shut her mouth, he hath no way 
whereby he may be rescued. Confession lost, there will be 
no place for mercy. Thou hast become thy sin's advocate, 
how shall God be the deliverer from it? Therefore in order 
that He may be a deliverer, do ihou be an accuser. 



SERMON II. 

i,AT. On the latter part of Psalm LXIX. 

LXVIII. 

The latter part of the Psalm whereof yesterday we spake 
to your Love, had remained to be explained by us to-day. 
And 1 see that there is time to pay the debt, if however the 
length thereof shall not have left us debtors even to-day. 
Accordingly this I say beforehand, and beg you not to 
expect a long discourse for those things which are evident. 
For so we can tarry for the need at those things which are 
more obscure, and perchance fulfil what we owe : so as that 
on other days we may owe other things, and pay other things. 



God^s mere?/ especially/ ' sioeeV in trouble. 375 

Let us see then what words follow. After he said, (ver. IG.) Ver. 
Neither let the pit close upon me her mouth : which yester- ^' ' 



day we have recommended to your Love, in order that wilh 
all earnestness of mind and fidelity of godliness we should 
take heed that this curse come not upon us. For then there 
doth close her mouth upon a man the pit, that is, depth of 
iniquity, when not only he lieth sunk in sins, but also loseth 
the opening of confession. But when a man saith, I am a 
sinner: even the depth of the pit is being illumined with 
some light. There followelh then amid His sufferings 
crying out our Lord Jesus Christ, Head and Body, as we 
have set forth : so that in some places yo acknowledge the 
words of the Head ; but the things which have been so 
spoken as that they cannot be appropriate to the Head, to 
the Body ye refer. For thus Christ doth speak, as it were 
One : because also He is truly One, whereof hath been said, 
There shall be two in one flesh. For if in one flesh, why Gen. 2, 
dost thou wonder that He is also in one voice ? There Ephes. 
followeth then, ^' ^^' 

Ver. 17. Hearken unto me, O Lord, for sweet is Thy mercy. 
He hath given this as a reason why He ought to be hearkened 
unto, because sweet is the mercy of God, Was not this 
rather a consequence, so that He should have said, Hearken 
unto me, O Lord, in order that sweet to me may be Thy 
mercy ? Why then. Hearken unto me, Lord, for siveet is 
Thy mercy? The sweetness of the mercy of the Lord 
because of His trouble He set forth in a manner with other 
words, when He said. Hearken to me, Lord, for T am 
being troubled. For in truth, he that saith. Hearken to me, 
O Lord, for I am being troubled, giveth the reason why he 
prayeth to be hearkened unto : but to a man set in trouble 
the mercy of God must needs be sweet. Concerning this 
sweetness of the mercy of God see ye what in another place 
the Scripture saith : Like rain in drought, so beautiful is the Ecclus. 
tnercy of God in trouble. That which there he saith to be "' 
beautiful, the same he saith here to be sweet. Not even 
bread would be sweet, unless hunger had preceded. There- 
fore even when the Lord permitteth or causeth us to be in 
any trouble, even then He is merciful : for He doth not 
withdraw nourishment, but stirreth up longing. Accordingly 



376 The ' cfiild,' humbled hy trouble, ready for relief. 

Psalm what saith he now, Hearken to me, Lord, for sweet is Thy 

—^ — ^-^niercij? Now do not Thou defer hearkening, in so great 

trouble I am, that sweet to nie is Thy mercy. For to this 

end Thou didst defer to succoiu", in order that to me that 

wherewith Thou didst succour might be sweet: but now no 

longer is there cause why Thou must defer ; my trouble hath 

arrived at the appointed measure of distress, let Thy mercy 

come to do the work of goodness. Hearken unto me, O Lord, 

for siceet is Thy mercy. After the multitude of Thy pities 

have regard unto me: not after the multitude of my sins. 

' ^"" 2. Ver. 17. Tur7i not away Thy face from Thy child^. 

E. V. And this is a commending of humility; from Thy child, that 

servant {^^j-ygf^^ Thy Utile one: because now I have been rid of pride 

through the discipline of tribulation, turn not away Thy 

face frout Thy child. This is that beautiful mercy of God, 

whereof he spake above. For in the following verse he 

explaineth that whereof he spake : For Lam troubled, speedily 

hearke?i TJion unto me. What is speedily? Now there is 

no cause why Thou must defer it : I am troubled, my affliction 

hath gone before ; let Thy mercy follow. 

3. Ver. 1 8. Give heed to my soul, and redeem her, doth need 
no exposition : let us see therefore what foUoweth. Because of 
mine enemies deliver me. This petition is evidently wonderful, 
neither briefly to be touched upon, nor hastily to be skipped 
over ; truly wonderful : because of mine enemies deliver me. 
What is, because of mine enemies deliver me ? That they may 
be confounded, that they may be tortured by my deliverance. 
What then, if there were not any persons to be tortured by 
* Osf. my^ deliverance, ought I not to be succoured? And is 
' thy,' deliverance then only welcome to thee, when it shall have 
' thou.' been another's condemnation .f' See, there are not an}- enemies, 
to be confounded or tortured because of thy deliverance : 
wilt thou so continue, wilt thou not be delivered? Or is it 
therefore that it may so operate upon thy enemies, that they 
may themselves be able to be converted by thy deliverance ? 
But even this is marvellous, if it gave any reason for the 
petition. For is the servant of God delivered by the Lord 
his God, in order that others may profit thereby ? What, if 
there were wanting men who should ]irofit, nnist that servant 
of God not be delivered } Whitiiersoever then I turn me. 



Outioard deliverance desired ^because of enemies.'' 377 

whether to the punishment or to the deliverance of enemies, Ver, 
I see no reason for this petition, Because of mine enemies — '—■ 
deliver me: unless we understand it of something else, which 
when I shall have spoken by the help of the Lord, He shall 
judge in you, that dwelleth in you'. There is a kind ofO^f, 
secret deliverance of holy men : this for their own sakes is ' in you 
made. There is one public and evident : this is made ^^^°'' 
because of their enemies, either for their punishment, or for 
their deliverance. For truly God delivered not the brothers ^ Mace, 
in the book of Maccabees from the fires of the persecutor, 
against whom Antiochus being wroth, made use of even their 
mother, by whose persuasions he hoped they would be turned 
to the love of life, and in loving to live unto men, to God 
would die. But that mother, being no longer like Eve, but 
like our mother the Church, saw with joy them dying whom 
with pain she had borne so she might know them alive ; and 
to this exhorted them, to choose rather to die for the sake of 
the paternal laws of the Lord their God, than to live in 
defiance of them. What are we here to suppose, brethren, 
but that they were delivered? But secret was their deliver- 
ance : in a word, Antiochus himself, by whom they were slain, 
thought he had done something which his cruelty dictated, or 
rather invited. But again the Three Children openly were Dan. 3, 
delivered from the furnace of fire ; because their body also 
was rescued, their safety was public. The former were in 
secret crowned, the latter openly delivered : all however 
saved. But what fruit was there of the deliverance of the 
three Children .'' Why was their crown delayed .'' Nabucho- 
donosor himself was converted to their God, and preached 
Him, for that He rescued His servants. Whom he had 
despised, when he had cast them into the furnace. There is 
then a secret deliverance, there is an open deliverance. 
Secret deliverance doth belong to the soul, open deliverance 
to the body as well. For in secret the soul is delivered, 
openly the body. Again, if so it be, in this Psalm the voice 
of the Lord let us acknowledge : to the secret deliverance 
doth belong that whereof he spake above, Give heed to my 
soul, and redeem her. There remaineth the body's deliver- 
ance: for on His arising 'and ascending into the Heavens, Acts i, 
and sending the Holy Ghost from above, there were converted ^ ' ^'^^" 



378 Christ suhject to ' reproach,' not, in Himself ^ to ' confusion.' 

PsAi.M to His faith thev that at His death did ras^e, and out of 

LXIX. " . . 

"enemies they were made friends through His grace, not 

through their righteousness. Therefore he hath continued, 
because of mine enemies deliver me. Give heed to my soul, 
but this in secret: but because of mine enemies deliver even 
my body. For mine enemies it will profit nothing if soul 
alone Thou shall have delivered; that they have done some- 
thing, that they have accomplished something, they will 

Ps. 30, believe. What profit is there in my blood, while I go down 
into corriqjtion ? Therefore give heed to my soul, and redeem 
her, which Thou alone knowest : secondly also, because of 
mine enemies deliver me, that my flesh may not see corruption. 
4. Ver. 19. Thou knowest my reproach, and my confusion, 
and my shame. What is reproach ? What is confusion ? 
What shame ? Reproach is that which the enemy casteth 
in the teeth. Confusion is that which gnaweth the conscience. 
Shame is that which causeth even a noble brow to blush, 
because of the upbraiding with a pretended crime. There 
is no crime; or even if tliere is a crime, it doth not belong to 
him, against whom it is alleged : but yet the infirmity of the 
human mind ofttimes is made ashamed even when a pre- 
tended crime is alleged ; not because it is alleged, but 
because it is believed. All these things are in the Body of 
the Lord. For confusion in Him could not be, in Whom 
guilt was not found. There was alleged as a crime against 
Christians, the very fact that they were Christians. That 
indeed was glory: the brave gladly received it, and so 
received it as that they blushed not at all for the Lord's name. 
For fearlessness had covered the face of them, having the 

Rom. 1, effrontery of Paul, say\ng, for I blush not because of the Gospel: 

^^' for the virtue of God it is for salvation to every one believing. 
O Paul, art not thou a venerator of the Crucified? Little it 
is, he saith, for me not to blush for it : nay, therein alone I 

Gal. 6, glory, wherefore the enemy thinketh me to blush. Ihit from 
me far he it to glory, save in the Cross of Jesus Christ, through 
Whom to me the world is crucified^ and I to the tvorld. At such 
a brow as this then reproach alone could be hurled. For 
neither could there be confusion in a conscience already 
made whole, nor shame in a brow so free. But when it was 
being alleged against certain that they had slain Christ, 



He speaks for His Body, even of sin and shame. 379 

deservedly they were pricked through with evil conscience, Ver. 
and to their health confounded and converted, so that they '— 



could say, Thou hast known my confusion. Thou therefore, 
O Lord, hast known not only my reproach but also ray 
confusion, in certain shame also : who, though in me they 
believe, publicly blush to confess me before ungodly men, 
human tongue having more influence with them than promise 
divine. Behold ye therefore them : even such are com- 
mended to God, not that so He may leave them, but that by 
aiding them He may make them perfect. For a certain man 
believing and wavering hath said, " / believe, Lord, help Mark 9, 
Thou mine urtheliefr (Ver. 20.) In Thy sight are all they ' 
that trouble Me. Why I have reproach, Thou knowest; 
why confusion. Thou knowest; why shame. Thou knowest: 
therefore deliver Thou me because of mine enemies, because 
Thou knowest these things of me, they know not ; and thus, 
because they are themselves in Thy sight, not knowing these 
things, they will not be able to be either confounded or 
corrected, unless openly Thou shalt have delivered me 
because of mine enemies. 

5. Reproach my heart hath expected, and misery. What 
is, Jiatlt, expected? Hath foreseen these things as going to be, 
hath foretold them as going to be. For He came not for 
any other purpose. If He had been unwilling to die, neither 
would He have willed to be born : for the sake of resurrec- 
tion He did both. For there were two particular things 
known to us among mankind, but one thing unknown. For we 
knew that men were born and died: that they rose again and 
lived for everlasting we knew not. That He might shew to 
us that which we knew not, He took upon Him the two 
things which we knew. To this end therefore He came. 
Reproach my heart hath expected and misery. But the 
misery of whom ? For He expected misery, but rather of the 
crucifiers, rather of the persecutors, that in them should be 
misery, in Him mercy. For pitying the misery of them even 
while hanging on the Cross, He saith. Father, forgive them, Luke23, 
for they knoiv not what they do. Reproach my heart hath 
expected, and misery : and 1 waited for one that together 
should be made sorrouful, and there was not. What then 
did it profit, thut I expected ? That is, what did it profit 



380 Christ found none to sorrow with Him spiritually. 

Psalm that I foretold? What did it profit that I said to this end I 

'had come? I came to fulfil that which I said, / loaited for 

one that together should he made sorrowful, and there loas 
not; and men comforting, and I found not: that is, there 
was none. For that which in the former verse He said, / 
toaited for one that together should he made sorrowful, the same 
is in the following verse, and men comforting. But that 
which in the former verse is, awe? there was not', the same in 
the following verse is, and I found not. Therefore another 
sentence is not added, but the former is repeated. Which 
sentence if we reconsider, a question may arise. For were 
His disciples no wise made sorrowful when He was led to the 
Passion, when on the tree hanged, when dead ? So much 
were they made sorrowful, that Mary Magdalene, who first 
John20, saw Him, rejoicing told them as they were mourning what 
Mrkie ^^® ^^^ seen. The Gospel speaketh of these things: it is 
9. not our presumption, not our suspicion : it is evident that 

the disciples grieved, it is evident that they mourned. 
Strange women were weeping, when to the Passion He was 
Luke23, being led, unto whom turning He saith, Weep ye, but for 
^^' yourselves, do not for Me. How then did He wait for one 
that together might be made sorrowful, and there was not ? 
We observe, and we find men soiTowful, and mourning, and 
wailing: whence to us wonderful seemeth this sentence, 
I waited for one that together should he made sorrowful, and 
there was not : and men comforting, and I found not. Let 
us diligently attend, and we shall see that He waited for one 
that together should be made sorrowful, and there was not. 
For they were being made sorrowful carnally because of life 
mortal, which had to be changed by death, and to be restored 
by resurrection: hence was the sorrowfulness. For it should 
have been on account of those that being blind slew the 
Physician, who like persons delirious, fevered to their destruc- 
tion, inflicted injury upon Him by Whom soundness had been 
brought to them. He was willing to heal, they to rage : 
hence sorrowfulness to the Physician. Inquire whether He 
found a comj)anion in this sorrowfulness. For He saith not, 
I waited for one that should be made sorrowful : but, that 
together should be made sorrowful, that is, by the same thing 
as 1 was should be made sorrowful, and I found nut. Peter 



Sf. Peter's sorrow then carnal. The '■Gall' how ^ for food.'' 381 

certainly loved very nmcli, and wiLliout hesitation threw him- Vkk, 
self to walk on the waves, and at the voice of the Lord he -, — ' — 

Mat 14 

was delivered : and though following Him w^hen led to the 29. 
Passion, with the boldness of love, yet being troubled, thrice 
he denied Him. Whence, except because an evil thing it 
seemed to him to die ? For he was shunning that which he 
thought an evil thing. This then even in the Lord he was 
lamenting, which he was himself shunning. On this account 
even before he had said, Far he it from Thee, O Lord.^^t.ie, 

22. 

merciful be Thou to Thyself: there shall not come to pass 
this thing: at which time he merited to hear, Satan; after 
that he had heard. Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jona. 
Therefore in that sorrowfulness which the Lord felt because 
of those for whom He prayed. Father, forgive thetn,for they^^^^'^'^, 
know not what they do: no companion He found. And I 
waited for one that together shoidd he made sorrowful, and 
there was not. There was not at all. And men comforting, 
and I found not. Who are men comforting? Men profiting. 
For they comfort us, they are the comfort of all preachers of 
the Truth. 

6. Ver. 22. And they gave for My food gall, and in My 
thirst they gave Me vinegar to drink. This was done indeed 
to the letter. And the Gospel declareth this to us. But we 
must understand, brethren, that the very fact that I found 
not comforters, that the very fact that I found not one that 
together should be made sorrowful, this was My gall, this to 
Me was bitter, this was vinegar : bitter because of grief, 
vinegar because of their old man. For we read, that to Him Mat.27, 
indeed gall was offered, as the Gospel speaketh ; but for drink, 
not for food. Nevertheless, we must so take and consider 
that when fulfilled, which here had been before predicted. 
They gave for My food gall: and in that very action, not 
only in this saying, we ought to seek for a mystery, at secret 
things to knock, to enter the rent vail of the Temple, to see 
there a Sacrament, both in what there hath been said and in 
what there hath been done. They gave, He ssdth, for My 
food gall: not the thing itself which they gave was food, for 
it was drink : but for food they gave it. Because already 
the Lord had taken food, and into it there had been thrown 
gall. But He had taken Himself pleasant food, when He 



382 Great and ivil/ul sin of despising Chriat noio self-entrapped. 

Psalm ate the Passover with His disciples: therein lie sliewed the 

j^^j^gV Sacrament of His Body. Unto this food so pleasant, so 

19. sweet, of the Unity of Christ, of which the Apostle makelh 

crament mention, saying, For one bread. One Body, being many we 

oftl'e are; nnto this pleasant food who is there that addeth gall, 

Christ, except the gainsayers of the Gospel, like those persecutors 

\o^'\7 °^ Christ? For less the Jews sinned in crucifying Him 

walking on earth, than they that despise Him sitting in 

Heaven. That which then the Jews did, in giving above the 

food which He had already taken that bitter draught to 

drink, the same they do that by evil living bring scandal 

Ps.66,7. upon the Church: the same do cmbittei'ed heretics. But let 

them not be exalted in t/ieir own selves. They give gall 

after so delectable meat. But what doth the Lord? He 

admilteth them not to His Body. In this mystery, when 

Mat.27,they presented gall, the Lord Himself tasted, and would not 

drink. If we did not suffer them, neither at all should we 

taste : but because it is necessary to suffer them, we must 

needs taste. But because in the members of Christ such 

sort cannot be, they can be tasted, received into the Body 

they cannot be. And they gave for My food gall, and in 

My thirst they gave Me vinegar to drink. I was thirsting, 

and vinegar I received: that is, for the faith of them 1 longed, 

and I found oldness, 

7. Ver. 23. Let the table of them be made in their own 
presence for a trap. Like the trap which for Me they set, 
in giving INIe such a draught, let such a trap be for them. 
Why then, in their own presence? Let the table of them be 
made for a trap, would have been sufficient. They are such 
as know their iniquity, and in it most obstinately do per- 
severe: in their own presence there is made a trap for them. 
Ps. 55, These are they that, being too destructive, go down into Hell 
Ps". 124 alive. Lastly, of persecutors what hath been said ? Except 
^- that the Lord were in us, perchance alive they had swallowed 

us up. What is alive ? Consenting to them, and knowing 
that we ought not to consent to them. Therefore in their 
own presence there is made a traj), and Ihey are not amended. 
Even though in their own presence there is a trap, let them 
not fall into it. Behold they know the trap, and thrust out 
foot, and bow their necks to be caught. How much better 



Sin against liyht brings judicial blindness. 383 

were it to turn away from the trap, to acknowledge sin, to Ver. 
condemn error, to be rid of bitterness, to pass over into the — ^^' 
Body of Christ, to seek the Lord's glory ! But so much 
prevaileth presumption of mind, that even in their own 
presence the trap is, and they Hill into it. Let the eyes of v. 24. 
them be darkened, that tlieg see not, followeth here : that 
whereas without benefit they have seen, it may chance to 
them even not to see. Let the table of them, therefore, be 
made in their own presence for a trap. In their own 
presence be made for a trap, is not from one wishing, but 
from one prophesying: not in order that it may come to 
pass, but because it will come to pass. This we have often 
remarked, and ye ought to remember it : lest that which the 
prescient mind saith in the Spirit of God, it should seem 
with ill will to imprecate. May it come to pass therefore; 
nor can it otherwise come to pass than that these things 
to such men must happen. And since we see that through 
the Spirit of God such things are spoken of as to happen to 
evil men ; to this end let us perceive these things in them, 
in order that we may ourselves avoid such things. For this 
is good for us to perceive, and by our enemies to profit. Let 
it then be done to them, (ver. 23.) both for a requital and 
for a stumbling-block. And is this by any means unjust ? 
It is just. Why? For it is for a requital. For not any 
thing would happen to them, which was not owed. For a 
requital it is done, and for a stumbling-block : for they are 
themselves a stumbling-block to themselves. 

8. Let the eyes of them be darkened, that they see not, 
and the back of them alway bow Thou down. This is a 
consequence. For they, whose eyes have been darkened 
that they see not, it followeth, must have their back bowed 
down. How so ? Because when they have ceased to take 
knowledge of things above, they must needs think of things 
below. He that well heareth, " lift up the heart," a bowed 
back hath not. For with stature erect he looketh for the 
hope laid up for him in Heaven ; most especially if he send 
before him his treasure, whither his heart followeth. But, Matt. 6, 
on the other hand, they they perceive not the hope of future ^^" 
life ; already being blinded, they think of things below : and 
this is to have a bowed back : from which disorder the Lord 



384 Some judgments secret, others visible and open. 

PSA1.M delivered that woman. For Satan had bound her eighteen 
?i^^' years, and her that was bowed down ' He raised up : and 
ifi" ' because on the Sabbath Ho did it, the Jews were scandalized ; 
1 curva- suitably were they scandalized at her being raised up, them- 
Ben. selves being bowed. And the back of them alway bow Thou 

Most , 

lyjg^ down. 

Cura- 9. Ver. 24. Pour forth upon them Thine anger, and let 

•cured.' the indignation of Thine anger overtake them, are plain 
words: but nevertheless, in overtake them we perceive them 
as it were fleeing. But whither are they to flee ? Into 

Ps.i39, Heaven ? Thou art there. Into Hell ? Thou art present. 

7—9. -j^i^gjj. wings they will not take to fly straight : Let the iyi- 
dignalion of Thine anger overtake them, let it not permit 
them to escape. 

Acts 1, 10. Ver. 25, Let the habitation of them become forsaken. 
This is now evident. For in the same manner as He hath 
mentioned not only a secret deliverance of His, saying, 

V. 19. Give heed to My sonl, and redeem her ; but also one open 
after the body, adding, because of mine enemies deliver me: 
so also to these men He foretelleth how there are to be certain 
secret misfortunes, whereof a little before He was speaking. 
For is any man equal to perceive the unhappiness of a man 
whose heart is already blinded ? Let there be taken from 
him the eyes of the body, all men call him miserable : let 
him lose the eyes of the mind, while yet he aboundeth with 
all plenteousness of possessions, they call him happy ; but 
only they that in like manner have lost the eyes of the mind. 
Then what now is done openly, that it may appear to all how 
vengeance halh been taken upon them ? For the blindness 
of the Jews was secret vengeance : but the open was what ? 
Let their habitation become forsaken, and in their taberna- 
cles let there be not any one to inhabit. There hath come 
to pass this thing in the very city Jerusalem, wherein they 
thought themselves mighty in crying against the Son of God, 

John 19, Crucify, Crucify ; and in prevailing because they were able 
to kill Him that raised dead men. How mighty to them- 
selves, how great, they seemed ! There followed afterw'ards 
the vengeance of the Lord, stormed was the city, utterly 
conquered the Jews, slain were I know not how many 
thousands of men. No one of the Jews is permitted to come 



Those punished who by ill-doing fulfilled God's Will. 385 

Ihilher now: where they were able to cry against the Lord, Veh. 
there by the Lord they are not permitted to dwell. They have ^^' 
lost the place of their fury : and O that even now they would 
know the place of their rest ! What profit to them was 
Caiaphas in saying", If we shall liave let go this man thus, ^o^nw, 
there trill come the Romans, and take away from us both 
place and kingdont ? Behold, both they did not let Him go 
alive, and He liveth : and there have come the Romans, and 
have taken from them both place and kingdom. But now 
we heard, when the Gosj^el was being read, Jerusale)?i,Mi\t.23, 
Jerusalem, how often would I have gathered together thy ' °' 
sons, as a hen her chickens under her nings, and thou 
woiildest not ? Behold, there is left to you your house for- 
saken. The same here also is said : Let the habitation 
of them become forsaken, and in the tabernacles of them let 
there not be any one to inhabit. " Let there be not any one 
to inhabit^'' but out of the number of those men. For all 
those places ajre both full of men, and are void of Jews. 

n. Why so? (ver. 27.) For Him Whom Thou hast smitten 
they have themselves persecuted, and upon the pain of my 
Kounds they have added. How then have they sinned if 
they have persecuted one by God smitten ? What sin is 
ascribed to their mind ? Malice. For the thing was done 
in Christ which was to be. To suffer indeed He had come, 
and He punished him through whom He suffered. For 
Judas the traitor was punished, and Christ was crucified : 
but us He redeemed by His blood, and He punished him in 
the matter of his price. For he threw down the price of Mat.27, 
silver, for which by him the Lord had been sold; and he"' 
knew not the price, wherewith he had himself by the Lord 
been redeemed''. This thing was done in the case of Judas. 
But when we see that there is a sort of measure of requital 
in all men, and that not any one can be suffered to rage 
more than he hath received power to do : how have they 
added, or what is that smiting of the Lord ? Without doubt 
He is speaking in the person of him from whom He had 
received a body, from whom He had taken upon Him flesh, 

" Or, What did it profit Caiaphas to Ben. ' redimendus,' 'was to be re- 
say ? Mss. deemed.' See note at the end of Hoini- 
'' Redemptus, Oxf. Mss. and 2 in lies on St. John. 

VOL. III. C C 



380' Punisliment <>/ mortdlity increased to persecutor s. 

PsAi.M that is in the person of mankind, of Adam himself who was 
-^ ^' smitten with the first death because of his sin. Mortal 

Gen. 3, .-,.., 

(>. therefore here are men born, as born with their punishment : 

to this punishment they add, whosoever do persecute men. 
For now here man would not have had to die, unless God 
had smitten him. Why then dost thou, O man, rage more 
than this ? Is it little for a man that sometime he is to die .? 
Each one of us therefore beareth his punishment: to this 
punishment they would add that persecute us. This punish- 
ment is the smiting of the Lord. For the Lord smote man 
Gen. 2, with the sentence ; What day ye shall have touched it. He 
Rom. 6 saith, tvith death ye shall die. Out of this death He had 
6' taken upon Him flesh, and our old man hath been crucified 

together with Him. By the voice of that man He hath said 
these words. Him tuhom TTiou hast smitten they have them- 
selves persecuted, and upon the pain of My wounds they have 
added. Upon what pain of wounds ? Upon the pain of sins 
they have themselves added. For sins He hath called His 
wounds. But do not look to the Head, consider the Body ; 
according to the voice whereof hath been said by the Same 
in that Psalm, wherein He shewed there was His voice, 
because in the first verse thereof He cried from the Cross, 
Ps. 22, Godf My God, look upon Me, lohy hast Thou forsaken Me ? 
^' There in continuation He saith, Afar from My safely are 

Luke 10, //te words of Mine offences. These are the very wounds 
30. &c. jj^flic^gti by robbers in the road upon him whom ho 
mounted upon his beast: whom a priest and a Levite 
passing by had found and contemned, by whom He could 
not have been made whole; but a Samaritan passing by 
pitied him, drew near, and upon his own beast he mounted 
him. Samarite in Latin is interpreted keeper : but who is the 
Eom. 6, keeper, save our Lord Jesus Christ? Who, since He hath risen 
Ps. 121 frona the dead, now no longer to die, ' neither sleepeth nor 
4- shall slumber, that keepeth Israel.' And upon the pain of 

My ivounds they have added. 

12. Ver. 27. Lay Thou iniquity upon their iniquity. 
What is this ? Who would not be afraid .'' To God is said, 
Lay Thou iniquity upon their iniquity. Whence shall God 
lay iniquity? For hath Ho iniquity to lay? For we know 
that to be true which hath been spoken through Paul the 



How God may he said to add sin to evil men's sin. 387 

Apostle, What then shall tve say? Is there anywise iniquity Ver. 
with Qod? Far he it. Whence then, Lay Thou iniquity- — '- 
upon iniquity? How must we understand this? May the 14. 
Lord be with us, that we may speak, and because of your 
weariness may be able to speak briefly. Their iniquity was 
that they killed a just Man : there was added another, that 
they crucified the Son of God. Their raging was as though 
against a man : but if they had known, the Lord of Glory i Cor. 2, 
they had never crucified. They with their own iniquity 
willed to kill as it were a man: there was laid iniquity upon 
their own iniquity, so that the Son of God they should 
crucify. Who laid this iniquity upon them ? He that said. 
Perchance they will reverence My Son, Him I will send. Mat.21, 
For they were wont to kill servants sent to them, to demand '" 
rent and profit. He sent the Son Himself, in order that 
Him also they might kill. He laid iniquity upon their own 
iniquity. And these things did God do in wrath, or rather 
in just requital? For, May it be done to them, He saith,v. 22. 
for a requital and for a stumbling-block, 'i'hey had deserved 
to be so blinded as not to know the Son of God. And this 
God did, laying iniquity upon their iniquity; not in wound- 
ing, but in not making whole. For in like manner as thou 
increasest a fever, increasest a disorder, not by adding dis- 
order, but by not relieving : so because they were of such 
sort as that they merited not to be healed, in their very 
naughtiness in a manner they advanced; as it is said, -B^</2Tim. 
evil men and wicked doers advance for the worse: and ' 
iniquity is laid upon their own iniquity. And let them not 
enter in ' Thy righteousness. This is a plain thing. ' Oxf. 

13. Ver. 28. Let them be blotted out from the book of the < /,;^p . 
living. For had they been sometime written therein ? 
Brethren, we must not so take it, as that God writeth any one 
in the book of life, and blotteth him out. If a man said, 

What I have written I have written, concerning the title John 1 9, 

. 22 
where it had been written. King of the Jews: doth God write" 

any one, and blot him out? He foreknoweth, He hath pre- Rom. 8, 

destined all before the foundation of the world that are to 

reign with His Son in life everlasting. These He hath 

written down, these same the Book of Life doth contain. 

Lastly, in the Apocalypse, what saith the Spirit of God, 

c c 2 



388 Not the Elect loit, but those who thoiujht they icere so. 

TsAi.M when the same Scripture was speaking of the oppressions 
i^— that should be from Antichrist? There shall give consent^ to 
13, 8. him all they that have not been written in the book of life. 
Lwi ^^ ^^^^^ without doubt they will not consent that have been 
written. How then are these men blotted out from that book 
wherein they were never written ? This hath been said 
according to their own hope, because they thought of them- 
selves that ihey were written. What is, let them be blotted 
out from the book of life ? Even to themselves let it be 
evident, that they were not there. By this method of speaking 
Ps.9i, hath been said in another Psalm, There shall fall from Thy 
side a thousand^ and tens of thousands from on Thy right 
hand: that is, many men shall be offended, even out of that 
number who thought that they would sit with Thee, even out 
of that number who thought that they would stand at Thy 
Mat.25, right hand, being severed from the left-hand goats: not that 
^'^' when any one hath there stood, he shall afterwards fall, or 
when any one with Him hath sat, he shall be cast away ; 
but that many men were to fall into scandal, who already 
thought themselves to be there, that is, many that thought 
that they would sit with Thee, many that hoped that they 
would stand at the right hand, will themselves fall. So then 
here also they that hoped as though by the merit of their 
own righteousness themselves to have been written in the 
John 5, book of God, they to whom is said. Search the Scriptures, 
^^' wherein ye think yourselves to have life eternal : w hen their 
condenniaiion shall have been brought even to their own 
knowledge, shall be effaced from the book of the living, they 
shall know themselves not to be there. For the verse which 
followeth, explciineth what hath been said : And with Just 
men let thent not be uritten. I have said then. Let them be 
effaced, according to their hope : but according to Thy 
justice I say what ? Let them not be written. 

14. Ver. 29. Poor and sorrouful L am. Why this? Is it 
that we may acknowledge that through bitterness of soul this 
poor One doth speak evil ? For He hath spoken of many 
things to happen to them. And as if we were saying to 
Him, "Why such things? — Nay, not so much !" He answer- 
eth, Poor and sorrouful L am. They have brought Me to 
want, unto this sorrow they have set Me down, therefore 1 



The poor arid sorrowful may still praise Cod. 389 

say these words. It is not, however, the indignation of one v^er. 
cursing, but the prediction of one prophesying. For He — 



was intending to recommend to us certain things which 
hereafter He saith of His poverty and His sorrow, in order 
that we may learn to he poor and sorrowfuL For, Blessed Matt. 6, 
are the poor, for theirs is the kingdom of Heaven. And, 
Blessed are they that mourn ^ for they shall he comforted. 
This therefore He doth Himself before now shew to us : and 
so, poor and sorrowful I am. The whole Body of Him 
saith this. The Body of Christ in this earth is poor and 
sorrowful. But let Christians be rich. Truly if Christians 
they are, they are poor; in comparison with the riches 
celestial for which they hope, all their gold they count for 
sand. Poor and sorroivful I am. 

15. And the health of Thy countenance^ Qod, hath 
taken Me up. Is this poor One anywise forsaken ? When 
dost thou deign to bring near to thy table a poor man in 
rags ? But again, this poor One the health of the countenance 
of God hath taken up : in His countenance He hath hidden 
His need. For of Him hath been said, Thou shall hide Ps.si, 
them in the hiding place of Thy countenance. But in that 
countenance what riches there are would ye know ? Riches 
here give thee this advantage, that thou mayest dine on 
what thou wilt, whenever thou wilt : but those riches, that 
thou mayest never hunger. Poor and sorrowful I am : 
and the health of Thy countenance, O God, hath taken Me 
up. For what purpose ? In order that no longer I may 
be poor, no longer sorrowful ? (Ver. 30.) / ivill praise the 
name of the Lord with a song, I will magnify Him in 
praise. Now it hath been said, this poor One praiseth the 
name of the Lord with a song, he raagnifieth Him in 
praise. When would He have ventured to sing, uidess He 
had been refreshed fiom hunger? / will praise the name 
of the Lord with a song, I will magnify Him with praise. O 
vast riches! What jewels of God's praise hath he brought 
out of his inward treasures ! T will magnify Him in praise. 
These are my riches! The Lord hath given, the Lord hathJdh i, 
taken away. Then miserable he hath remained.? Far be it. ^'' 
See the riches : " As it hath pleased the Lord, so hath been 



390 ' Horns and hoofx'' toss the obstinate^ cast up the earthly. 

Psalm done, be the name of the Lord blessed.'' I will praise the name 
—^ -' of the Lord with a song, I will magnify Him in praise. 

16. Ver. 31. And it shall please God: that I shall praise 
Him, shall please : above a new calf, bearing horns and hoofs. 
More grateful to Him shall be the sacrifice of praise than the 

Ps. 50, sacrifice of a calf. The sacrifice of praise shall glorify Me, 
^^' and there is the ivay tvherein I will shew to him the salvation 
Ps. 50, of God : hnmolate to God the sacrifice of praise, and render 
^^' to the Most High thy voivs. Therefore I will praise God, and 
it shall please Him better than a new calf bearing horns and 
hoofs. So then His praise going forth from my mouth shall 
please God more than a great victim led up to His altar. 
Must any thing be said concerning the horns and hoofs of 
this calf? He that is well furnished and is rich in the praise 
of God, ought to have both horns wherewith he may toss the 
adversary, and hoofs wherewith he may cast up the earth. 
For ye know that calves do this when growing up and 
increasing unto such fierceness as bulls have. For it is new, 
because of the new life. Some heretic then perchance is 
gainsaying, let him be tossed with the horns : another gain- 
sayeth not, but yet meanly raindeth an earthly object, let 
him be cast up with the hoofs. Therefore above this calf 
my praising shall please Thee, such as hereafter will be, after 
poverty and sorrow, in the eternal society of Angels, where 
neither adversary there shall be in battle to be tossed, nor 
sluggard from earth to be stirred up. 

17. Ver. 32. Let the needy see and rejoice. Let them be- 
lieve, and in hope be glad. Let them be more needy, in 
order that they may deserve to be filled : lest while they 
belch out pride's satiety, there be denied them the bread 

Matt. 5, whereon they may healthily live. Seek the Lord, ye needy, 
John 6 hunger ye and thirst ; for He is Himself the living bread 
33. 51. that came down from Heaven. Seek ye the Lord, and your 
Is. 55,3. soul shall live. Ye seek bread, that your flesh may live : the 
Lord seek ye, that your soul may live. 

18. Ver. 33. For the Lord hath hearkened to the poor. 
He hath hearkened to the poor, and He would not have 
hearkened to the poor, unless they were poor. Wilt thou be 
hearkened to I Poor be thou : let sorrow cry out from thee 



Man in ^fetters'' not despised. God's Church restored. 391 

and not fastidiousness. For the Lord hath hearkened to poor Veh. 
men, and His fettered ones He hath not despised. Being - 



offended at His servants, He hath put them in fetters: but 
them crying from the fetters He halh not despised. What 
are these fetters ? Mortality, the corruptibleness of the flesh 
are the fetters wherewith we have been bound. And would 
ye know the weight of these fetters ? Of them is said, The body Wisd. 9, 
which is corrupted weigheth down the soul. Whenever men 
in the world will to be rich, for these fetters they are seeking 
rags. But let the rags of the fetters suffice : seek so much 
as is necessary for keeping off want, but when thou seekest 
superfluities, thou longest to load thy fetters. In such a 
prison then let the fetters abide even alone. Sufficieiitfor the Matt. 6, 
day be the evil thereof. Concerning this evil we cry to God, 
for the Lord hath hearkened to the poor^ and His fettered 
ones He halh not despised. 

19. Ver. 34. Let there praise Him heavens and earth, sea 
and all things creeping in them. The true riches of this 
poor man are these, to consider the creation, and to praise 
the Creator, Let there praise Him heavens and earth, sea 
and all things creeping therein. And doth this ci*eation 
alone praise God, when by considering of it God is praised ? 

20. Hear thou another thing also : (ver. S5.) for God shall 
save Sion. He restoreth His Church, the faithful Gentiles 
He doth incorporate with His Only-Begotten ; He beguileth 
not them that believe in Him of the reward of His promise. 
For God shall save Sion; and there shall be builded the 
cities of Juda. These same are the Churches. Let no one 
say, when shall it come to pass that there be builded the 
cities of Juda? O that thou wouldest acknowledge the Edifice, 
and be a living stone, that thou mightest enter into Her. 
Even now the cities of Juda are being built. For Juda is 
interpreted confession. By confession of humility there are 
being builded the cities of Juda : in order that there may 
remain without the proud, who blush to confess. For God 
shall save Sion. What Sion ? Hear in the following words : 
(ver. 36.) and the seed of His servants shall possess Her, and 
they that love His name shall dwell therein. 

21. The Psalm is ended, but for a little space let us not 
leave these two verses : for they admonish us of something, 



39-2 The true seed of Abraliam. The '■Corn of wheat' multiplied. 

Psalm iggj ^y despairing, into lliat edifice we enter not. TJie 

-~~seed, he saith, of His servants shall possess her. Now then, 

the seed of His servants are wlio? Perchance thou sayest, 

the Jews were born of Abraham; but for us that are not born 

of Abraham, how shall we have that city ? But those Jews 

John 8, ai-e not the seed of Abraham, to whom was said, If sons of 
39 

Abraham ye are, the deeds of Abraham do ye. The seed, 

then, of His servants, the imitators of the faith of His 
servants, shall possess her. In a word, the last verse explaineth 
the former. For in order that thou, being troubled, mightest 
not suppose this to be spoken concerning Jews, And the 
seed of His servants shall j^osssss her, while thou sayest, we 
are the seed of Gentiles, who have worshipped idols, and 
have served devils : what then for us is to be hoped for in 
this city? in order that thou raayest rely and hope, im- 
mediately he hath added, A?id they that love His ?iame shall 
dwell therein. For these are the seed of His servants, they 
that love His name. For because His servants have loved 
His name ; let whosoever love not His name not call them- 
selves the seed of His servants ; and let them that love His 
name, not deny themselves to be the seed of His servants. 



lat. psalm lxx. 

LXIX. 



EXPOSITION. 



Sermon preached at the Celebration of the Martyrs. 

Preface. J. Thanks to the Com of wheat, because He willed to 

24. 'die and to be multiplied: thanks to the only Sou of God, 

our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, who disdained not to 

undergo our death, in order that He might make us worthy 

of His life. Behold Him that was single until He went hence ; 

Ps. I4l,as He said in another Psalm, Single I am until I go hence; 

LXX. foi* K^ w^s ^ single corn of wheat in such sort as that He had 

and hi Himself a great fruitfulness of increase ; in how many 

nearly, corus imitating the Passion of Him do we exult, when we 

celebrate the nativities of the Martyrs ! Many therefore 

members of Him, under one Head our Saviour Himself, being 



The Martyrs encouraged hxj their HeaiVs example. 393 
bound together in the bond of love and peace, (as ye judge Pref. 



it fit that ye know, for ye have often heard,) are one man : 
and of the same, as of one u)an, the voice is ofttimes heard, 
in the Psahns, and thus one crieth as though it were all, 
because all in one are one. Let us hear then how the 
Martyrs laboured, and were in peril themselv es amid mighty 
tempests of hatred in this world, not so much for the body, 
which sometime they were to put off, but for the very Faith ; 
lest they, fainting and perchance yielding to the sharp pains 
of persecutions, or to the love of this life, should lose that 
which God had promised: who not only by word but also by 
example had taken away all fear : by word, saying, Fear not Mat.io, 
them that kill the body, hut the soul are not able to kill ; 
by example, doing that which in word He commanded, so 
that He would shun neither the hands of them scourging, nor 
the buffets of them smiting, nor the spittle of them spitting, 
nor the crown of thorns of them putting it on Him, nor the 
Cross of them slaying: none of these things He would shun. 
Who had no need of them, but for the sake of those to whom 
this was needful, making of Himself medicine for the sick : 
and unless He were alway present. Who saith, Behold I am Mat.28, 

20 

with you^ even unto the end of the world, surely they hadi g^^f 
fainted. Mss. 

' all 

2. There is then in this Psalm the voice of men troubled^ days,^ 
and so indeed of Martyrs amid sufferings in peril, but relying 
on their own Head. Let us hear them, and speak with them 
out of sympathy of heart, though it be not with similarity of 
suffering. For they are already crowned, we are still in 
peril : not that such sort of jDersecutions do vex us as have 
vexed them, but worse perchance in the midst of all kinds of 
so great scandals. For our own times do more abound in 
that woe, which the Lord cried: Woe to the world because M^t. is, 
of scandals. And, Because iniquity hath abounded, the love ^^^^ ^4 
of man shall wax cold. For not even that holy Lot at Sodom ^'^■ 
suffered corporal persecution from any one, or had it been 19. ' 
told him that he should not dwell there : the persecution of 
him were the evil doings of the Sodomites. Now then that 
Christ sitteth in Heaven, now that He is glorified, now that 
necks of kings are made subject to His yoke, and their brows 
})laced beneath His sign, now that not any one remaineth to 



394 Satan, in the loicked, abides to distress us, though chained. 

Psalm dare openly to trample upon Christians, still, however, we 

^ groan amid instruments and singers, still those enemies of 

the Martyrs, because with words and steel they have no 
power, with their own wantonness do persecute them. And 
O that we were sorrowing for Heathens alone: it would be 
some sort of comfort, to wait for those that not yet have been 
signed with the Cross of Christ ; when they should be signed, 
and when, by His authority attached, they should cease to 
be mad. We see besides men wearing on their brow the 
sign of Him, at the same time on that same brow wearing 
the shamelessness of wantonness, and on the days and cele- 
brations of the Martyrs not exulting but insulting. And 
amid these things we groan, and this is our persecution, if 
2 Cor. there is in us the love which saith, Who is weak, and I am 
' ■ not tveak? Who is scandalized, and I hum not? Not any 
servant of God, then, is without persecution : and that is a 
2 Tim. true saying which the Apostle saith, But even all men that 
' ' will to live godly in Christ, shall suffer persecution. See 
whence, see how, that devil is two-formed. A lion he is in 
assault, a snake in lying in wait. If as a lion lie menace, he is 
an enemy ; if as a snake he lie in wait, he is an enemy. When 
are we secure? Behold, though all men be made Christians, 
will the Devil too be a Christian? To tempt therefore he 
ceaseth not, to lie in wait he ceaseth not. Bridled he is and 
bound in the hearts of ungodly men, that he may not rage 
against the Church, and do as much as he would. The teeth 
of ungodly men gnash at the majesty of the Church and tlie 
peace of Christians, and because they have nothing that they 
can do by raging ; by dancing, by blaspheming, by wanton 
living, they vex not the bodies of Christians, but rend the 
souls of Christians. Let us cry then all with one voice these 
words, 

Ver. 1. O God, to my aid make speed. For need we have 
for an everlasting aid in this world. But when have wc not? 
Now however being in tribulation, let us especially say, O 
God, to my aid make speed. 

3. Let them he confounded and fear that seek my soul. 

Christ is speaking : whether Head speak or whether Body 

Acts 9, speak ; He is speaking that hath said, Why persecutest thou 

Mat.25 ^l^«-^ ii^' i'' speaking that hath said, Inasmuch as ye have 

40. 



Two ways of' seeking the soul. ^ Enemies graciously confounded. 395 

done it to one of the least of Mine ^ to Me ye have done it. Ver. 
The voice then of this Man is known to be of the whole — '■ — 
man, of Head and of Body : that need not often be men- 
tioned, because it is known. Be they confounded, he saith, 
and fear that seek my soul. In another Psalm He saith, /ps, 142, 
was looking unto the right and saw, and there was not one that ^• 
would knoio Me : fight hath perished from Me, and there is 
not one to seek out My soul. There of persecutors He saith, 
that there was not one to seek out His soul : but here, let 
them he confounded and fear that seek My soul. He was 
grieving that He was not sought for imitation : was lamenting 
that He was sought for oppression. Thou seekest the soul 
of a just man when thou art thinking how to imitate him; 
thou art seeking the soul of a just man when thou art thinking 
how to kill him. Because in two ways is sought the soul of 
a just man, each is expressed in a different Psalm. In the 
one case He is lamenting that there is not one to seek His 
soul in order to imitate His passions: but here be they con- 
founded and fear that seek My soul. They seek His soul not 
in order that they may have two. For they did not so seek 
His soul as a robber seeketh the coat of a traveller : he 
killeth to the end that he may strip, that he may have. But 
he that persecuteth in order to kill doth drive forth the soul, 
doth not clothe himself. They seek my soul, they will to 
kill me, what then dost thou desire for them ? Let them be 
confounded and fear. And where is that which thou hast 
heard from thy Lord, Love ye your enemies, do good to them Matt. 6, 
that hate you, and pray for them that persecute you? Behold ' 
thou sufferest persecution, and cursest them from whom thou 
sufferest : how dost thou imitate the Passions of thy Lord 
tliat have gone before, hanging on the cross and saying. 
Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. To Luke23, 
persons saying such things the Martyr replieth and saith, thou 
hast set before me the Lord, saying. Father, forgive them, for 
they know not what they do: understand thou my voice also, 
in order that it may be thine too : for what have I said con- 
cerning mine enemies ? Let them be confounded and fear. 
Already such vengeance hath been taken on the enemies of 
the Martyrs. That Saul that persecuted Stephen, he was Acts 7, 
confounded and feared. He was breathing out slaughters, ' ' 



396 Persecution chnnrjed in form, the same in spirit. 

Psalm lie was seeking some to drag and slay : a voice having been 
X^iy heard from above Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou 3Ie, he 
*• was confounded and laid low, and he was raised up to obe- 

dience, that had been inflamed unto persecuting. This then 
the Martyrs desire for their enemies, Let them he confounded 
and fear. For so long as they are not confounded and fear, 
they must needs defend their actions : glorious they think 
themselves, because they hold, because they bind, because 
they scourge, because they kill, because they dance, because 
they insult, and because of all these doi'igs they be some- 
time confounded and fear\ For if they be confounded, 
they will also be converted : because converted they cannot 
be, unless they shall have been confounded and shall have 
feared. Let us then wish these things to our enemies, 
let us wish them without fear. Behold I have said, and 
let me have said it with you, may all that still dance and 
sing and insult the Martyrs be confounded and fear: at 
last within these walls confounded may they beat their 
breasts ! 

4. Ver. 2. Let them be turned away backward and blush 

that think evil things to me. At first there was the assault 

of them persecuting, now there hath remained the malice of 

them thinking. In fact, there are in the Church distinct 

seasons of persecutions following one another"'. There was 

made an assault on the Church when kings were persecuting : 

and because kings had been foretold as to persecute and as 

to believe, when one had been fulfilled the other was to follow. 

There came to pass also that which was consequent ; kings 

believed, peace was given to the Church, the Church began 

to be set in the highest place of dignity, even on this 

earth, even in this life : but there is not wanting the roar of 

persecutors, they have turned their assaults into thoughts. 

V. Rev. In these thoughts, as in a bottomless pit, the devil hath been 

' * bound, he roareth and breakelh not forth. For it hath been 

Ps. 112, said concerning these times of the Church, The sinner shall 

^^' see, and shall be angry. And shall do what .'' That which 

he did at first? Drag, bind, smile.'' He doeth not this. 

'' Oxf. Mss. 'and no more defend in iJwi. is probably a mistake for' seque,' 
rheir doings.' which is found at Oxford. Or it is, 

'^ The reading ' sequere' mentioned ' Follow them in their succession.' 



Men are ' turned back,'' humhly to follow Christ. 397 

What then ? With his teeth he shall gnash^ and shall pine Ver. 

away. And with these men the Martyr is, as it were, angry, '- — 

and yet for these men the Martyr prayeth. For in like manner 
as he hath wished well to those men concerning whom he 
hath said, (ver. 2.) Let them he confounded and fear that 
seek my soul: so also now. Let them be turned backward, 
and blush, that think evil things to me. Wherefore ? In 
order that they may not go before, but follow. For he that 
censureth the Christian religion, and on his own system 
willeth to live, willeth as it were to go before Christ, as 
though He indeed had erred and had been weak and infirm, 
because He either willed to suffer or could suffer in the 
hands of the Jews; but that he is a clever man (or guarding 
against all these things ; in shunning death, even in basely 
lying to escape death, and slaying his soul that he may live 
in bod}', he thiuketh himself a man of singular and prudent 
measures. He goeth before in censuring Christ, in a manner 
he outstrippeth Christ: let him believe in Christ, and follow 
Christ. For that which had been desired but now for 
persecutors thinking evil things, the same the Lord Himself 
said to Peter. Now in a certain place Peter willed to go 
before the Lord. For the Saviour was speaking of His 
Passion, which if He had not undergone, we should not 
have been saved : and Peter that a little before had confessed 
the Son of God, and in that confession had been called the 
Rock, whereon the Church was to be builded, a httle after- 
wards as the Lord is speaking of Llis future Passion, he 
saith. Far be it, Lord, merciful be Thou to Thyself, there j\int.\ 6, 
shall not be done this thing. A little before. Blessed art^^' 
thou, Simon Bar-Jojia, for flesh and blood hath not revealed 
it to Thee, but My Father which is in Heaven: now in a 
moment, Go back behind 3Ie, Satan. What is, Go JacA^Mat. ic, 
behind 31e ? Follow Me. Thou wiliest to go before Me, 
thou wiliest to give Me counsel, it is better that thou follow 
My counsel : this is, ' go back,' go back behind Me. He 
is silencing one outstripping, in order that he may go 
backward; and He is calling him Satan, because he willeth 
to go before the Lord. A little before, blessed, now, Satan. 
Whence a little before, blessed? Because, to thee. He saith, 
flesh and blood hath not revealed it, hut My Father Which 



398 Reproach and flattery hath try a mans soundness. 

PsAr.M is in Heaven. Whence now, Satan? Because thou savourest 
" not. He saith, the things which are of God, hut the things 
which are of men. Let us then that would duly celebrate 
the nativities of the Martyrs, long for the imitation of the 
Martyrs ; let us not wish to go before the Martyrs, and 
think ourselves to be of better understanding than they, 
because we shun sufferings in behalf of righteousness and 
faith which they shunned not. Therefore be they that think 
evil things, and in wantonness feed their hearts, turned hack- 
ward and hlush. Let them hear from the Apostle afterwards 
saying. But what fruit had ye sometime in those things at 
which ye now hlush ? 

5. What followeth ? (Ver. 3.) Let them he turned away 

forthwith h lushing, that say to me, Well, well. Two are the 

kinds of persecutors, revilers and flatterers. The tongue of 

the flatterer doth more persecute than the hand of the slayer: 

for this also the Scripture hath called a furnace. Truly 

"VS'isd.s, when the Scripture was speaking of persecution, it said, Like 

gold in a furnace it hath proved them, (speaking of Martyrs 

being slain,) and as the holocaust's victim it 'hath received 

them. Hear how even the tongue of flatterers is of such sort: 

Prov. ffiQ proving, he saith, of silver and of gold is fire; hut a man 

' ' is proved hy the tongue of men praising him. That is fire, 

this also is fire : out of both thou oughtest to go forth safe. 

The censurer hath broken thee, thou hast been broken in 

the furnace like an earthen vessel. The Word hath moulded 

thee, and there hath come the trial of tribulation: that which 

hath been formed, must needs be seasoned ; if it hath been 

well moulded, there hath come the fire to strengthen. Whence 

Ps. 22, He said in the Passion, Dried up like a potsherd hath heen 

My virtue. For Passion and the furnace of tribulation had 

made Him stronger. Again, if thou be praised by men 

Mat. 26, flattering and paying deference to thee, being like one buying 

^' oil, and not taking it with thee, like the five foolish virgins ; 

the furnace of thy breaking will be the mouth of men praising 

> Oxf. thee. Rut if* without these things we cannot be ; we must 

add 'if.' needs both enter into these things, and go forth from thence: 

enter into the reviling of evil and wicked men, enter also into 

some men's paying deference to us as flatterers, but we must 

go forth from thence. Let us ask it of Him concerning Whom 



Escape from flattery by glorifying God. 399 

hath been said, 77*6 Lord keep thy going in and thy going out: Ver, 
in order that going in whole, so thou raayest go out whole, p — ^oT 
For the Apostle also sailh, Faithful is God, that will nots. 
suffer you to be tried above that ye are able. Behold thou ^q "3^ 
hast a ' going in,' He hath not said, Be not tried. For he 
that is not tried is not proved, and he that is not proved, 
profiteth not. What then hath he wished? Faithful is God,ih'u\. 
That will not suffer you to be tried above that ye are able. 
Thou hast heard the going in, hear also the going out. But 
He shall make with the trial a going out also, so that ye may 
be able to endure it. Therefore, let them be also turned atvay 
forthwith blushing, that say to me. Well, well. For why do 
they praise me ? Let them praise God. For who am I that 
I should be praised in myself? Or what have I done? What 
have 1 which I have not received .f* " If thou hast received," 1 Cor. 4, 
he saith, " why dost thou boast as if thou hast not received?" 
Let them be turned away, then, forthwith blushing, that say to 
me, Well, well. With such oil the head of heretics is made Ps. 141, 
fat when they say. It is I^ it is I : and it is said to them, Itfv^ 
is Thou'^, my Lord ! They have received the. Well, well; they sum. 
have followed the, JVell, well: have become blind leaders of j)Q,'^i[,e. 
blind followers. In the plainest words to Donatus are said Mat. 15, 
these words which have been sung^, "Well, well! goodsai. 
leader! excellent leader !" And he hath not said to them, '''^°"*'^' 

' ' those 

Be they turned away forthwith and blush, that say to me, songs.' 
Well, well: and he hath not wished to correct ihem so that 
they should say to Christ, Good leader, excellent leader ! 
But the Apostle, dreading the * well' of men, in order that he 
might be truly praised in Christ, would not have himself to 
be praised instead of Christ; and when certain said, I am ofi Cor. 1, 
Paul, he replied in the liberty of the Lord, Hath Paul been ' 
crucified for you, or in the name of Paul have ye been 
baptized'^ Therefore let the Maityrs in the persecutions even 
of men flattering, say. Let them be turned away forthwith 
blushing, that say to me. Well, iiell. 

6. And what cometh to pass v/hen they are all turned back 
and blush, whether it be they that seek my soul, or they that 
think evil things to me, or they that with perverse and feigned 
benevolence with tongue would soften the stroke whicli they 
inflict, when ihcy shall have been themselves turned away 



400 Christ's true shrcp, saved hy 1 1 tin, njalce. 

Psalm and coiifoiinderl ; there shall come to ijass what? Let them 

-- exult and bejoi/ous in Thee : not in me, not in this man or 

in that man; bnt in whom they have been made light that 

were darkness. (Ver. 4.) Let them exult and he joi/ous in 

T/iee, all that seek Thee. One thing it is to seek God, 

another thing to seek man. Let them be joyous that seek 

• Ms. Thee. They shall not be joyous then that seek 'themselves, 

'nonte,'whom Thou hast first sought before they sought Thee. Not 

'aught yg^ j|i(j {]^j^^ sheep seek the Shepherd, it had strayed from 

Thee.' the flock, and He went down to it; He sought it, and carried 

4" ^ 'it back upon His shoulders. Will He despise thee, O sheep, 

seeking Him, Who hath first sought thee despising Him and 

not seeking Him ? Now then begin thou to seek Him that 

first hath sought thee, and hath carried thee back on His 

John 10, shoulders. Do thou that which He speaketh of, They that 

are My sheep hear My voice, and follow 3Ic. If then thou 

seekest Him that first hath sought thee, and hast become a 

sheep of His, and thou hearest the voice of thy Shepherd, 

and followest Him ; see what He shewelh to thee of Himself, 

what of His Body, in order that as to Himself thou mayest 

not err, as to the Church thou mayest not err, that no one 

may say to thee, that is Christ which is not Christ, or that 

is the Church which is not the Church. For many men 

have said that Christ had no flesh, and that Christ hath not 

risen in His Body: do not thou follow the voices of them. 

Hear thou the voice of Himself the Shepherd, that was 

clothed with flesh, in order that He might seek lost flesh. 

Luke24, He hath risen again, and He saith, Handle ye and see ; for 

a spirit hath not Jlesh and hones as ye see Me have. He 

sheweth Himself to thee, the voice of Him follow thou. He 

sheweth also the Church, that no one may deceive thee by 

ibid. 46. the name of Church. It behoved. He saith, Christ to suffer, 

aud to rise ayaiii from tJte dead the third day, and that 

there should be preached repentance and remission oj' sins 

throuyh all nations, b'eginuiug uith Jerusalem. Thou hast 

Johnio, the voice of Thy Shepherd, do not thou follow the voice of 

^' strangers : and a thief thou shalt not fear, if thou shalt have 

followed the voice of the Shepherd. But how shalt thou follow ? 

If thou shalt neither have said to any man, as if it were by 

his own merit, Well, well : nor shalt have heard the same with 



God to he magnified at every atep in our salvation. 401 

joy, so that thy head be not made fat with the oil of a sinner. Vek. 
Let all them exult and he joyous in Thee, that seek Thee ; '^' 



Ps. 141 

and let them say — let them say what, that exult? Be the Lord b. 
a\way magnijied ! Let all them say this, that exult and seek 
Thee. What? Be the Lord alway magnijied; yea, they 
that love Thy salvation. Not only, Be the Lord magnijied ; 
but also, alway. Behold, thou wast straying, and wast turned 
away from Him ; He hath called thee. Be the Lord magnijied. 
Behold, He hath inspired thee with confession of sins, thou 
hast confessed, He hath given pardon, he the Lord magnijied. 
Now thou hast begun to live justly : now I think it to be as 
it were a just thing, that thou also be magnified. For when 
He called thee straying, the Lord was to be magnified; when 
to thee confessing He forgave sins, the Lord was to be 
magnified: but now hearing the words of Him; thou hast 
begun to advance, thou hast been justified, thou hast arrived 
at a sort of excellence of virtue ; it is a seemly thing that 
thou also sometime be magnified. Let them say, Be the 
Lord alway inagnijied. A sinner thou art, be He magnified 
in order that He may call ; thou confessest, be He magnified 
in order that He may forgive : now thou livest justly, be He 
magnified in order that He may direct: thou perseverest 
even unto the end, be He magnified in order that He may 
glorify. Be tlie Lord, then, alway magnijied. Let just 
men say this, let them say this that seek Him. Whosoever 
saith not this, doth not seek Him. Behold, Be the Lord 
magnijied. Let them exult and he joyous, all that seek 
Him, and let them say, Be the Lord alway Tnagnijied, yea 
they that love His saving health. For from Him they have 
salvation, not from themselves. The saving health of the 
Lord our God, is the Saviour our Lord Jesus Christ : who- 
soever loveth the Saviour, confesseth himself to have been 
made whole ; whosoever confesseth himself to have been 
made whole, confesseth himself to have been sick. Let them 
say then, Be the Lord alway magnijied ; yea, they that love 
Thy saving health", not their own saving health, as if they 
could save themselves of themselves: not as it were the 
saving health of a man, as though by him they could be 
saved. Do not, he saith, confide iii princes, and iti the sons Ps. 146, 

* Oxf. Mss. repeat, ' Thci/ (hnt love Thy saving health, 
VOL. III. D d 



402 God heljhs the needy, who acknowledge their need. 

Psalm of men, in whom there is no safety. Why so? Of the Lord 
P^ 2 Q ^^ ^"f"^Vi ^^^^ upon Thy people is Thy blessing. Therefore, Be 
the Lord ahvay magnified: who are saying this? They that 
love Thy saving health. 

7. Behohl, Be the Lord magnified : wilt thou never, wilt 

thou no where ? In Him was something, in me nothing: but if 

in Him is whatsoever I am, be He,not 1. But thou then what? 

(V^er. 5 ) But I am needy and poor. He is rich, Ho abounding, 

He needing nothing. Behold ray light, behold whence I am 

P»'. 18, illumined ; for I cry, Tliou shall illumine my candle, O Lord ; 

Vs. 146 ''^^y God, Thou shall illumine my darkness. The Lord doth 

^" loose men fettered, the Lord raiselh np men crushed, the Lord 

maketh wise the blind men, the Lord keepeth the proselytes. 

What then of thee ? But I am needy and poor. I am like an 

orphan, my soul is like a widow destitute and desolate: helj) 

I seek, alway mine infirmity I confess. But T am needy and 

poor. There have been forgiven me my sins, now 1 have 

begun to follow the commandments of God : still, however, 

I am needy and poor. Why still needy and poor ? Because 

Rom. 7, 1 see another law in my members fghting against the law of 

Matt. 5 *"^ mind. Why need}^ and poor? Becanse, blessed are they 

^' that hunger and thirst after righteousness. Still I hunger, 

stili I thirst : my fulness hath been put off, not taken away. 

But L am needy and poor; O God, aid TJiou me. Most 

Lukeie, suitably also Lazarus is said to be interpreted, one aided: 

that needy and poor man, that was transported into the 

bosom of Abraham ; and beareth the type of the Church, 

which ought alway to confess that she hath need of aid. 

Ps. 16, This is true, this is godly. / have said to the L^ord, My God 

Thou art. Why ? For my goods Thou needesL not. He 

needeth not us, we need Him : therefore He is truly Lord. 

For thou art not the very true Lord of thy servant : both are 

men, both needing God. But if thou supposest thy servant 

to need thee, in order that thou mayest give him bread; thou 

also needest thy servant, in order that he may aid thy labours. 

Kach one of you doth need the other. Therefore neither of 

you is truly lord, and neither of 30U truly servant. Hear 

thou the true Lord, of Whom thou art the true servant : / 

have said to the Lord, My God Thou art. Why art Thou 

Lord ? Because my goods Thou needest not? But what of 



Holding our attainments sufficient stays progress. 403 

thee ? But I am needy and poor. Behold the needy and Ver. 
poor: may God feed, may God alleviate, may God aid: O '— 



God, he saith, aid Thou me. 

8. My helper and deliverer art Thou ; O Lord, delay not. 
Thou art the helj3er and deliverer: I need suceour, help 
Thou; entangled I am, deliver Thou. For no one will deliver 
from entanglings except Thee. There stand round about us 
the nooses of divers cares, on this side and on that we are 
torn as it were with thorns and brambles, we walk a narrow 
way, perchance we have stuck fast in the brambles : let us 
say to God, Thou art my deliverer. He that shewed us the 
narrow way, hath taught us to follow it. May this voice Matt. 7, 
continue in us, brethi'en. However we shall have lived here,^'** 
however we shall have profited here, let no one say. It is 
sufficient for me, I am a just man. Pie that shall have so 
said, hath stopped on the way, he knoweth not how to attain 
to the end. Where he hath said. It is sufficient, there hath 
he stuck fast. Observe the Apostle, to whom there was no 
sufficiency; see in what manner he willeth himself to be 
aided, until he may attain. Brethren, he saith, / count wo^ Pliilip.3> 
myself to have apprehended : lest they should think them- 
selves to have apprehended, to whom again he saith, He thati Cor. 
thinketh himself to know any thing, not yet knoweth (zs he^^^' 
ought to know. What saith he then ? Brethren, I count 
not myself to have ajDjjrehetided. Above he had said, A'^o/ Philip.3, 

12 13 

that now I have received, or now have been made perfect: 
and in this place he continueth. Brethren, I count not myself 
to have apprehended. If not yet he hath received, needy 
and poor he is : if not yet he is perfect, needy and poor he 
is. Well, he saith, O God, aid Thou me. But he is per- 
ceiving something, even something more exalted he is per- 
ceiving. See, however, what he saith; But to him that is able 
to do above all things more abundantly than ice ask and 
perceive. See then, because he hath not yet attained, he 
hath not yet apprehended. What then saitli he ? Brethren, PhiHp.S, 
I count not myself to have apprehended: but one thing I do, ^^- '*• 
the things which are behind for getting, unto the things which 
are before reaching forth, with earnestness I follow unto the 
prize of the high calling. He then runneth on, thou hast 
stuck fast. He speaketh of himself as not yet perfected, and 

D d 2 



404 In what sense we pray against delay of CkrisVs coming. 

Psalm dost ihou already boast of perfection ? Be they confounded 
^^^ ' that say to themselves, Well, well. Be thou also confounded 
among them, because thou sayest to thyself, Well, well. For 
he that praiseth himself, saith to himself, Well well : he that 
Mat.25, by others is praised and consenteth, doth not carry oil with 
^" him: the lights go out. He will shut the door. 

9. This truth then this Psalm hath briefly taught us, dearly 

beloved, that, by being reminded of the festival of Martyrs, 

we may perceive how the Martyrs here have suffered corporal 

tribulation ; and we in whatsoever peace we be, must needs 

suffer spiritual tribulation : and the Church and the ' heap' 

must needs groan amid offences, and lares, and chaff, until 

the harvest come, until the fan, until there come the last 

Matt. 3, winnowing, so that the chaff be severed from the grain, until 

'^' it be stored in the garner. Until which come to pass, let us 

cry. But I am needy and poor ; O Qod, aid Thou me : my 

helper art Thou, Lord, delay not. What is, delay not ? 

Because many men say, it is a long time till Christ comes. 

What then : because we say, delay not, will He come before 

He hath determined to come ? ^Vhat meaneth this prayer, 

delay not ? May not Thy coming seem to me to be too long 

delayed. For to thee it seemeth a long time, to God it 

Pp. 90, seemeth not long, to Whom a thousand years are one day, 

*• or the three hours of a watch. But if thou shalt not have 

had endurance, late for thee it will be : and when to thee it 

shall be late, thou wilt be diverted from Him, and wilt be like 

unto those that were wearied in the desert, and hastened to 

ask of God the pleasant things which He was reserving for 

them in the Land ; and when there were not given on their 

Exod. journey the pleasant things, whereby perchance they would 

Acts 7 have been corrupted, they murmured against God, and went 

3^- back in heart unto Egypt : to that place whence in body 

they had been severed, in heart they went back. Do not 

thou, then, so, do not so : fear the word of the Jjord, saying, 

\. y^^(i\7. Rem ember Lol^s wife. She too l^eing on the way, but now 

' "■ delivered from the Sodomites, looked back ; in the place 

where she looked back, there she remained : she became a 

statue of salt, in order to season thee. For to thee she hath 

been given for an example, in order that thou mayest have 

sense, mayest not stop infatuated on the way. Obsen'e her 



God^s great mercy in justifying the ungodly. 405 

stopping and pass on : observe her looking back, and do Ver. 
thou be reaching forth unto the things before, as Paul was. p^^n| 
Whal is it, not to look back. Of the things behind forgetful.'^, 13. 
he saith. Therefore thou foUowest, being called to the 
heavenly reward, whereof hereafter thou wilt glory. For the 
same Apostle saith, There remaineih for me a crown of^ Tim. 
righteousness^ which in that day the Lord, the just Judge, 
shall render to me. 



PSALM LXXI. ^.^^ 



EXPOSITION. 



Sermon I. On the first part of the above Psalm. 

1. In all the holy Scriptures the grace of God that 

delivereth us commendeth itself to us, in order that it may 

have us commended. This is sung of in this Psalm, whereof 

we have undei'taken to speak with your Love. The Lord 

will be with me, in order that I may so apprehend it in heart, 

as is right; and may so draw it forth, as is expedient for 

you. For much do move me the love and fear of God : the 

fear of God, because He is just ; love, because He is merciful. 

For who could say to Him, What hast Thou done ? if He Wisd. 
. . . 12 17. 

should condemn a just man. How great then is His mercy, ' 

in justifying an unjust man ! On this subject we have heard 

the Apostle also read before to us, commending especially 

that same grace : because of the commendation whereof he 

had the Jews for enemies, as it were relying on the letter of 

the law, and as it were loving and boasting of their justice ; 

of which same persons he saith, / bear witness to (hem, that Rom. 

they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge. ' ' 

And as though it were said to him, but what is it to have a 

zeal for God not according to knowledge ? he hath added 

immediately. For being ignorant of the justice of God, and 

willing to establish their own, to the justice of God they are 

■not made subject. Boasting, he saith, as though of works, 

they shut out from them grace ; and as though relying on 

their unreal soundness, they reject the medicine. For against 



406 Free grace forbids despair, but humbles pride. 

PsAiM such men even the Lord had said, / have not come to call 

LXXl. 

-—^—^ — just men, hut sinners to repenUmce: the whole need not a